• An analysis on decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for Cognitive Radio networks

      Shah, Munam Ali; Zhang, Sijing; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      The scarcity of bandwidth in the radio spectrum has become more vital since the demand for more and more wireless applications has increased. Most of the spectrum bands have been allocated although many studies have shown that these bands are significantly underutilized most of the time. The problem of unavailability of spectrum and inefficiency in its utilization has been smartly addressed by the Cognitive Radio (CR) Technology which is an opportunistic network that senses the environment, observes the network changes, and then using knowledge gained from the prior interaction with the network, makes intelligent decisions by dynamically adapting their transmission characteristics. In this paper some of the decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for CR networks have been critically analyzed and a novel adaptive MAC protocol for CR networks, DNG-MAC which is decentralized and non-global in nature, has been proposed. The results show the DNG-MAC out performs other CR MAC protocols in terms of time and energy efficiency.
    • DDH-MAC: a novel dynamic de-centralized hybrid MAC protocol for cognitive radio networks

      Shah, Munam Ali; Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali; Maple, Carsten (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011)
      The radio spectrum (3kHz - 300GHz) has become saturated and proven to be insufficient to address the proliferation of new wireless applications. Cognitive Radio Technology which is an opportunistic network and is equipped with fully programmable wireless devices that empowers the network by OODA cycle and then make intelligent decisions by adapting their MAC and physical layer characteristics such as waveform, has appeared to be the only solution for current low spectrum availability and under utilization problem. In this paper a novel Dynamic De-Centralized Hybrid “DDH-MAC” protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks has been presented which lies between Global Common Control Channel (GCCC) and non-GCCC categories of cognitive radio MAC protocols. DDH-MAC is equipped with the best features of GCCC MAC protocols but also overcomes the saturation and security issues in GCCC. To the best of authors' knowledge, DDH-MAC is the first protocol which is hybrid between GCCC and non-GCCC family of protocols. DDH-MAC provides multiple levels of security and partially use GCCC to transmit beacon which sets and announces local control channel for exchange of free channel list (FCL) sensed by the co-operatively communicating cognitive radio nodes, subsequently providing secure transactions among participating nodes over the decided local control channel. This paper describes the framework of the DDH-MAC protocol in addition to its pseudo code for implementation; it is shown that the pre-transmission time for DDH-MAC is on average 20% better while compared to other cognitive radio MAC protocols.
    • A novel multi-fold security framework for cognitive radio wireless ad-hoc networks

      Shah, Munam Ali; Zhang, Sijing; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Cognitive Radio (CR) Technology has emerged as a smart and intelligent technology to address the problem of spectrum scarcity and its under-utilization. CR nodes sense the environment for vacant channels, exchange control information, and agree upon free channels list (FCL) to use for data transmission and conclusion. CR technology is heavily dependent on the control channel to dialogue on the exchanged control information which is usually in the Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) band. As the ISM band is publically available this makes the CR network more prone to security vulnerabilities and flaws. In this paper a novel multi-fold security framework for cognitive radio wireless ad-hoc networks has been proposed. Multiple security levels, such as, encryption of beacon frame and privately exchanging the FCL, and the dynamic and adaptive behaviour of the framework makes the proposed protocol more resilient and secure against the traditional security attacks when compared with existing protocols.