• Democracy, culture and information security: a case study in Zanzibar

      Shaaban, Hussein Khamis; Conrad, Marc; University of Bedfordshire (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of culture on information security in a developing country's view. Design/methodology/approach – Two questionnaires adopted from the GLOBE project and OCAI were used to collect quantitative data on national and organisational culture. Also, a face to face semi‐structured interview was used to get insight into deep‐rooted issues concerning information security in the study environment. In addition, a previous study was used to find correlation of the data in this study. Findings – The findings show that national culture has more influence than organisation culture on information security. We find that the dimensions that influence information security are Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, In‐Group Collectivism, and Future Orientation. Research limitations/implications – This research was conducted in a public sector environment with employees thereby limiting external validity. Also, the population of the survey was small to make a generalisation of the findings. Also, the length of the questionnaire and complexity of questions put off many potential respondents. Practical implications – Culture has impact on information security implementation and therefore the results imply that some consideration should be given when implementing information security models. Originality/value – This study is important because it empirically correlates information security with cultural dimensions in a developing country's environment.
    • Localized trust - the semiotics in culture and e-culture

      French, Tim; Conrad, Marc; Shaaban, Hussein Khamis; University of Bedfordshire (Infonomics Society, 2013)
      Intangible trust perceptions have been shown to form an important part of the User Experience (UX) in relation to various B2C (Business- to -Customer) contexts of use. The extant literature appears somewhat immature in relation to intangible trust and UX models from a "non-Western" perspective. Indeed it appears from our recent e-Banking audit using a novel cross-cultural expert evaluation instrument that too often "Western" Banks (such as Deutsche Bank) rely on perceptions of "Eastern" cultures viewed through a lens that relies on stereotypical images, signs and Western style templates. After identifying how trust and semiotics work considering the case of Zanzibar we compare two contrasting e-Bank site localization design paradigms: namely that of Deutsche Bank and HSBC with respect to two target audiences: namely China and Taiwan. The findings of the e-Culture audit are aligned to the ubiquitous set of cultural dimensions first defined by Geert Hofstede. This alignment appears to show that the "Western" stereotypical paradigm is not in alignment with either Hofstede's Individualism/Collectivism metric nor with normative semiotic signs that reflect vibrant local urban street cultures. We go on to suggest that the use of card-sorting may speculatively be used to better engender localized sites that are aligned to local target.