• Exploring a multidimensional representation of documents and queries

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (LE CENTRE DE HAUTES ETUDES INTERNATIONALES D'INFORMATIQUE DOCUMENTAIRE, 2010)
      n Information Retrieval (IR), whether implicitly or explicitly, queries and documents are often represented as vectors. However, it may be more beneficial to consider documents and/or queries as multidimensional objects. Our belief is this would allow building "truly" interactive IR systems, i.e., where interaction is fully incorporated in the IR framework. The probabilistic formalism of quantum physics represents events and densities as multidimensional objects. This paper presents our first step towards building an interactive IR framework upon this formalism, by stating how the first interaction of the retrieval process, when the user types a query, can be formalised.
    • Filtering documents with subspaces

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Frommholz, Ingo; Moshfeghi, Yashar; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (Springer, 2010)
      We propose an approach to build a subspace representation for documents. This more powerful representation is a first step towards the development of a quantum-based model for Information Retrieval (IR). To validate our methodology, we apply it to the adaptive document filtering task.
    • How quantum theory is developing the field of information retrieval

      Song, Dawei; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Peng; Zuccon, Guido; Bruza, Peter; Arafat, Sachi; et al. (AAAI - Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2010)
      This position paper provides an overview of work conducted and an outlook of future directions within the field of Information Retrieval (IR) that aims to develop novel models, methods and frameworks inspired by Quantum Theory (QT).
    • Processing queries in session in a quantum-inspired IR framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Yahoo! Research Barcelona (Springer, 2011)
    • Supporting polyrepresentation in a quantum-inspired geometrical retrieval framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark (ACM, 2010)
      The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.
    • What can quantum theory bring to information retrieval

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith (ACM, 2010)
      The probabilistic formalism of quantum physics is said to provide a sound basis for building a principled information retrieval framework. Such a framework can be based on the notion of information need vector spaces where events, such as document relevance or observed user interactions, correspond to subspaces. As in quantum theory, a probability distribution over these subspaces is defined through weighted sets of state vectors (density operators), and used to represent the current view of the retrieval system on the user information need. Tensor spaces can be used to capture different aspects of information needs. Our evaluation shows that the framework can lead to acceptable performance in an ad-hoc retrieval task. Going beyond this, we discuss the potential of the framework for three active challenges in information retrieval, namely, interaction, novelty and diversity.