• The big picture, from grids and clouds to crowds: a data collective computational intelligence case proposal for managing disasters

      Bessis, Nik; Asimakopoulou, Eleana; French, Tim; Norrington, Peter; Xhafa, Fatos (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Much work is underway within the broad next generation technologies community on issues associated with the development of services to foster collaboration via the integration of distributed and heterogeneous data systems and technologies. Various technology-driven paradigms have emerged, including Web Services, Web 2.0, Pervasive, Grids and Cloud Computing. Recently, some new paradigms have emerged, including Situated Computing and Crowd Sourcing. In this exploratory paper, we aim to be visionary, thus, we offer an overview highlighting relationships between these paradigms, the goal is to present how these fit into the broader picture of IT. More specifically, to discuss how these could help coin and prompt future direction of their usage (integration) in various real-world scenarios. A disaster management scenario is presented to illustrate the big picture's model architecture, as well as briefly discuss the potential impact resulting from the collective computational intelligence approach.
    • Extending e-government to e-society: usability lessons from the UK ID Card Trial

      Norrington, Peter; Maple, Carsten (IADIS, 2006)
      The United Kingdom’s Government is embarking on an ambitious project to issue 60 million citizens with a biometric identity card. The card is intended not only to provide identity checking for access to public sector services but also for private sector ones, creating a gold standard identity document for both physical and online authentication. Whilst the many technological, legal and social issues of biometric systems are widely covered, little direct evaluation of usability issues appears in academic literature. We present unique first-hand evidence concerning the usability difficulties of biometric systems, evaluating this and making recommendations on the impact usability should have on the design, implementation and accreditation of biometric identity systems which employ the Identity Card Scheme in the private sector.
    • Managing inconsistencies in data grid environments

      Ahmed, Ejaz; Bessis, Nik; Norrington, Peter; Yue, Yong (IGI Global, 2010)
      Much work has been done in the area of data access and integration using various data mapping, matching, and loading techniques. One of the main concerns when integrating data from heterogeneous data sources is data redundancy. The concern is mainly due to the different business contexts and purposes from which the data systems were originally built. A common process for accessing data from integrated databases involves the use of each data source’s own catalogue or metadata schema. In this article, the authors take the view that there is a greater chance of data inconsistencies, such as data redundancies when integrating them within a grid environment as compared to traditional distributed paradigms. The importance of improving the data search and matching process is briefly discussed, and a partial service oriented generic strategy is adopted to consolidate distinct catalogue schemas of federated databases to access information seamlessly. To this end, a proposed matching strategy between structure objects and data values across federated databases in a grid environment is presented.
    • Modelling of a self-led critical friend topology in inter-cooperative grid communities

      Bessis, Nik; Huang, Ye; Norrington, Peter; Brown, Antony; Kuonen, Pierre; Hirsbrunner, Beat (Elsevier, 2011-01)
      For decades, much work has been done to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of job sharing amongst available computational resources. Resources can be organized into a variety of topologies, and recent work has shown that a decentralized distributed resource topology is a crucial but complicated scenario. This is because decentralized resources are normally grouped into independent virtual organizations (VOs) and isolated from each other by VO boundaries. To convey jobs across gaps between various virtual organizations, a novel resource topology called the self-led critical friend model (CFM) is proposed in this work. The CFM deals with trust credits between resources according to their historical collaboration records. This trust reveals a feasible, realistic, and transferable correlation to facilitate the resource selection process for job delegation between arbitrarily connected physical resources. Consequently, the CFM is able to overcome the constraints caused by virtual organization boundaries.
    • Towards context-aware real-world environments: the case of a remote autonomous energy aware monitoring system

      Bessis, Nik; McLauchnan, Nicholas; Asimakopoulou, Eleana; Brown, Antony; Norrington, Peter (World Scientific Publishing, 2011)
      Work is underway on issues associated with the development of tools and services to reduce energy consumption. Current trends suggest that energy consumption is increasing and carbon reserves are decreasing whilst green technologies for energy generation are yet to prove themselves. In industry, there are many legacy installations of equipment capable of transmitting their energy usage via the MODBUS protocol. Here we introduce a means of logging energy usage data and transmitting it to a database. The motivation is that making energy users aware of their consumption can help assist them in taking informed action towards the reduction of wasted energy. Thus, we offer a state-of-the-art of possible networking technologies, which have led to a real-world implementation. We present requirements whilst we mathematically model the compression technique. On the development side, we use GSM/GPRS technology, embedded KJava runtime and a bespoke Java application as the framework to email the usage data to the database.
    • The usability and practicality of biometric authentication in the workplace

      Maple, Carsten; Norrington, Peter (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2006)
      This paper discusses usability and practicality issues for authentication systems based on biometrics. The effectiveness of a system incorporating an authentication method depends not only on theoretical and technological issues, but also on user interaction with and practical implementation of the system by an organisation. It is becoming increasingly common that IT and physical security are converging, especially in the workplace. This has significant ramifications for the workforce and operational matters. In this paper we pay particular attention to the potential issues that arise when companies introduce biometrics for IT or physical security and provide recommendations that help ensure a usable and practical implementation of the technology.