• Accessible and secure? design constraints on image and sound based passwords

      Gibson, Marcia; Conrad, Marc; Maple, Carsten; Renaud, Karen; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      When members of society cannot access the World Wide Web, or the information and services it contains in a meaningful or useful way, they can become digitally excluded. Many factors have been highlighted as having an effect on the likelihood of exclusion, including psychological, material and skills related barriers. In this paper, we consider the role played by authentication systems in the divide. In light of the widely researched tension between aspects of usability and security in authentication, we identify a number of conflicting accessibility and security goals as manifested in image and sound based schemes.
    • Active robot learning for building up high-order beliefs

      Li, Dayou; Liu, Beisheng; Maple, Carsten; Jiang, Daming; Yue, Yong (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2008)
      High-order beliefs of service robots regard the robots' thought about their users' intention and preference. The existing approaches to the development of such beliefs through machine learning rely on particular social cues or specifically defined award functions. Their applications can, therefore, be limited. This paper presents an active robot learning approach to facilitate the robots to develop the beliefs by actively collecting/discovering evidence they need. The emphasis is on active learning. Hence social cues and award functions are not necessary. Simulations show that the presented approach successfully enabled a robot to discover evidences it needs.
    • Affects of queuing mechanisms on RTP traffic: comparative analysis of jitter, end-to-end delay and packet loss

      Epiphaniou, Gregory; Maple, Carsten; Sant, Paul; Reeve, Matthew (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      The idea of converging voice and data into a best-effort service network, such as the Internet, has rapidly developed the need to effectively define the mechanisms for achieving preferential handling of traffic. This sense of QoS assurance has increased due to the enormous growth of users accessing networks, different types of traffic competing for available bandwidth and multiple services running on the core network, defined by different protocols and vendors. VoIP traffic behaviour has become a crucial element of the intrinsic QoS mainly affected by jitter, latency and packet loss rates. This paper focuses on three different mechanisms, DropTail (FIFO), RED and DiffServ, and their effects on real-time voice traffic. Measurements of jitter, end-to-end delay and packet loss, based on simulation scenarios using the NS-2 network simulator are also presented and analyzed.
    • Alignment method with application to gas chromatography / mass spectrometry screening

      Hitchcock, Jonathan James; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Keech, Malcolm (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012-09-08)
      The paper presents a new spectrum-based alignment method that is able to precisely adjust the retention times of Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry data so that corresponding scans of two samples can be chosen for comparison purposes. It includes the ability to do precise alignment within fractions of a scan; this is equivalent to doing sub-pixel registration of images.
    • An analysis on decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for Cognitive Radio networks

      Shah, Munam Ali; Zhang, Sijing; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      The scarcity of bandwidth in the radio spectrum has become more vital since the demand for more and more wireless applications has increased. Most of the spectrum bands have been allocated although many studies have shown that these bands are significantly underutilized most of the time. The problem of unavailability of spectrum and inefficiency in its utilization has been smartly addressed by the Cognitive Radio (CR) Technology which is an opportunistic network that senses the environment, observes the network changes, and then using knowledge gained from the prior interaction with the network, makes intelligent decisions by dynamically adapting their transmission characteristics. In this paper some of the decentralized adaptive MAC protocols for CR networks have been critically analyzed and a novel adaptive MAC protocol for CR networks, DNG-MAC which is decentralized and non-global in nature, has been proposed. The results show the DNG-MAC out performs other CR MAC protocols in terms of time and energy efficiency.
    • An analytical evaluation of network security modelling techniques applied to manage threats

      Viduto, Valentina; Maple, Carsten; Huang, Wei (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      The current ubiquity of information coupled with the reliance on such data by businesses has led to a great deal of resources being deployed to ensure the security of this information. Threats can come from a number of sources and the dangers from those insiders closest to the source have increased significantly recently. This paper focuses on techniques used to identify and manage threats as well as the measures that every organisation should consider to put into action. A novel game-based onion skin model has been proposed, combining techniques used in theory-based and hardware-based hardening strategies.
    • Anti-reflection structures fabricated by direct laser interference technology under different ambiances

      Wang, Dapeng; Yue, Yong; Zhang, Ziang; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten; Wang, Zuobin; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-08)
      In this paper, we take the strategy of direct laser interference technology to modify the silicon surface under air and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas ambiance conditions. With the investigation of optical properties, the silicon spike structures (known as black silicon) which were fabricated in the SF6 ambiance showed the excellent ability of reducing light reflection with a broadband spectrum. For comparison, well-defined microcone structures were fabricated in the air ambiance. After hydrofluoric (HF) acid wiping off the oxides on the surface, micro cone structures have shown the anti-reflection function as well and its reflective behaviour was dependent on the structural depth relatively. Due to a high impurities concentration of spike structures obtained in the SF6 ambiance, applications of sulphur-doped black silicon would be limited. To obtain large-scale uniform structures, direct laser interference technology in the air ambiance could be an alternative.
    • Awareness of wireless security by home and business users

      Maple, Carsten; Jacobs, Helen; Reeve, Matthew (IADIS, 2006)
      There has been rapid increase in the popularity of wireless networks in both the home and the small office environment. However, with the convenience wireless networking brings there is also an added risk in terms of security. From surveys conducted in a number of countries, it appears there is still lack of awareness of the need for securing wireless networks and the level of security provided by the different wire less encryption protocols. With increasing quantities of e-Government services being available online, such as income tax returns, car registration and health-related services, it is important that the public are aware of the risks of submitting personal information on unsecured or weakly secured networks. This paper highlights the types of wireless encryption protocols available,the cost of using these protocols and provides recommendation for home and business users when us ing e-Government services.
    • Bayesian assessment of newborn brain maturity from two-channel sleep electroencephalograms

      Jakaite, Livija; Schetinin, Vitaly; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (2012)
      Newborn brain maturity can be assessed by expert analysis of maturity-related patterns recognizable in polysomnograms. Since 36 weeks most of these patterns become recognizable in EEG exclusively, particularly, in EEG recorded via the two central-temporal channels. The use of such EEG recordings enables experts to minimize the disturbance of sleep, preparation time as well as the movement artifacts. We assume that the brain maturity of newborns aged 36 weeks and older can be automatically assessed from the 2-channel sleep EEG as accurately as by expert analysis of the full polysomnographic information. We use Bayesian inference to test this assumption and assist experts to obtain the full probabilistic information on the EEG assessments. The Bayesian methodology is feasibly implemented with Monte Carlo integration over areas of high posterior probability density, however the existing techniques tend to provide biased assessments in the absence of prior information required to explore a model space in detail within a reasonable time. In this paper we aim to use the posterior information about EEG features to reduce possible bias in the assessments. The performance of the proposed method is tested on a set of EEG recordings.
    • The Bayesian decision tree technique using an adaptive sampling scheme

      Schetinin, Vitaly; Krzanowski, Wojtek; Maple, Carsten (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2007)
      Decision trees (DTs) provide an attractive classification scheme because clinicians responsible for making reliable decisions can easily interpret them. Bayesian averaging over DTs allows clinicians to evaluate the class posterior distribution and therefore to estimate the risk of making misleading decisions. The use of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methodology of stochastic sampling makes the Bayesian DT technique feasible to perform. The Reversible Jump (RJ) extension of MCMC allows sampling from DTs of different sizes. However, the RJ MCMC process may become stuck in a particular DT far away from the region with maximal posterior. This negative effect can be mitigated by averaging the DTs obtained in different starts. In this paper we describe a new approach based on an adaptive sampling scheme. The performances of Bayesian DT techniques with the restarting and adaptive strategies are compared on a synthetic dataset as well as on some medical datasets. By quantitatively evaluating the classification uncertainty, we found that the adaptive strategy is superior to the restarting strategy.
    • A Bayesian model averaging methodology for detecting EEG artifacts

      Schetinin, Vitaly; Maple, Carsten (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2007)
      In this paper we describe a Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) methodology developed for detecting artifacts in electroencephalograms (EEGs). The EEGs can be heavily corrupted by cardiac, eye movement, muscle and noise artifacts, so that EEG experts need to automatically detect them with a given level of confidence. In theory, the BMA methodology allows experts to evaluate the confidence in decision making most accurately. However, the non- stationary nature of EEGs makes the use of this methodology difficult. In our experiments with the sleep EEGs, the proposed BMA technique is shown to provide a better performance in terms of predictive accuracy.
    • Both antireflection and superhydrophobicity structures achieved by direct laser interference nanomanufacturing

      Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Qiu, Renxi; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology; Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014)
      Inspired by nature, a number of techniques have been developed to fabricate the bionic structures of lotus leaves and moth eyes in order to realize the extraordinary functions of self-cleaning and antireflection. Compared with the existing technologies, we present a straightforward method to fabricate well-defined micro and nano artificial bio-structures in this work. The proposed method of direct laser interference nanomanufacturing (DLIN) takes a significant advantage of high efficiency as only a single technological procedure is needed without pretreatment, mask, and pattern transfer processes. Meanwhile, the corresponding structures show both antireflection and superhydrophobicity properties simultaneously. The developed four-beam nanosecond laser interference system configuring the TE-TE-TE-TE and TE-TE-TE-TM polarization modes was set up to generate periodic micro cone and hole structures with a huge number of nano features on the surface. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the periodic microcone structure exhibits excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA = 156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9–15.4%). Thus, DLIN is a novel and promising method suitable for mass production of self-cleaning and antireflection surface structures.
    • Can intelligent optimisation techniques improve computing job scheduling in a Grid environment? review, problem and proposal

      Huang, Wei; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten; Bessis, Nik (NeSC, 2006)
      In the existing Grid scheduling literature, the reported methods and strategies are mostly related to high-level schedulers such as global schedulers, external schedulers, data schedulers, and cluster schedulers. Although a number of these have previously considered job scheduling, thus far only relatively simple queue-based policies such as First In First Out (FIFO) have been considered for local job scheduling within Grid contexts. Our initial research shows that it is worth investigating the potential impact on the performance of the Grid when intelligent optimisation techniques are applied to local scheduling policies. The research problem is defined, and a basic research methodology with a detailed roadmap is presented. This paper forms a proposal with the intention of exchanging ideas and seeking potential collaborators.
    • Case study: multi-role shadow robotic system for independent living

      Maple, Carsten; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Bochenkov, Alexey; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      The project is focused on development and prototyping of remotely-controlled, semi-autonomous robotic solutions in domestic environments to support elderly people. In particular, the SRS project is demonstrating an innovative, practical and efficient system called "SRS robot" for personalised home care and assisted living.
    • CCBS – a method to maintain memorability, accuracy of password submission and the effective password space in click-based visual passwords

      al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (IADIS, 2011-07)
      Text passwords are vulnerable to many security attacks due to a number of reasons such as the insecure practices of end users who select weak passwords to maintain their long term memory. As such, visual password (VP) solutions were developed to maintain the security and usability of user authentication in collaborative systems. This paper focuses on the challenges facing click-based visual password systems and proposes a novel method in response to them. For instance, Hotspots reveal a serious vulnerability. They occur because users are attracted to specific parts of an image and neglect other areas. Undertaking image analysis to identify these high probability areas can assist dictionary attacks. Another concern is that click-based systems do not guide users towards the correct click-point they are aiming to select. For instance, users might recall the correct spot or area but still fail to include their click within the tolerance distance around the original click-point which results in more incorrect password submissions. Nevertheless, the Passpoints study by Wiedenbeck et al., 2005 inspected the retention of their VP in comparison with text passwords over the long term. Despite being cued-recall the successful rate of their VP submission was not superior to text passwords as it decreased from 85% (the instant retention on the day of registration) to 55% after 2 weeks. This result was identical to that of the text password in the same experiment. The successful submission rates after 6 weeks were also 55% for both VP and text passwords. This paper addresses these issues, and then presents a novel method (CCBS) as a usable solution supported by an empirical proof. A user study is conducted and the results are evaluated against a comparative study.
    • Choosing the right wireless LAN security protocol for the home and business user

      Maple, Carsten; Jacobs, Helen; Reeve, Matthew (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2006)
      The introduction and evolution of security standards for wireless networking has been a problematic process. Flaws in the initial security standard resulted in quick-fix solutions and interoperability issues. As wireless networks are not confined to a building, there is an added security risk that radio signals can be detected externally. Wireless networking has rapidly increased in popularity over the last few years due to the flexibility it provides. Given the simultaneous growth of e-government services there is particular risk to the citizen of identity theft. This article discusses the progression of wireless security protocols since their introduction and the effect this has had on home and business users. The risks of using wireless networks are outlined in the paper and recommendations for securing wireless networks are reviewed.
    • Classification of multi-channels SEMG signals using wavelet and neural networks on assistive robot

      Gu, Shuang; Yue, Yong; Wu, Chengdong; Maple, Carsten; Liu, Beisheng; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Recently, the robot technology research is changing from manufacturing industry to non-manufacturing industry, especially the service industry related to the human life. Assistive robot is a kind of novel service robot. It can not only help the elder and disabled people to rehabilitate their impaired musculoskeletal functions, but also help healthy people to perform tasks requiring large forces. This kind of robot has a broad application prospect in many areas, such as medical rehabilitation, special military operations, special/high intensity physical labour, space, sports, and entertainment. SEMG (Surface Electromyography) of Palmaris longus, brachioradialis, flexor carpiulnaris and biceps brachii are analysed with a wavelet transform method. The absolute variance of 3-layer wavelet coefficients is distilled and regarded as signal characteristics to compose eigenvectors. The eigenvectors are input data of a neural network classifier used to identify 5 different kinds of movement patterns including wrist flexor, wrist extensor, elbow flexion, forearm pronation and forearm rotation. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    • Comparing robustness of pairwise and multiclass neural-network systems for face recognition

      Uglov, J.; Jakaite, Livija; Schetinin, Vitaly; Maple, Carsten (2008)
      Noise, corruptions, and variations in face images can seriously hurt the performance of face-recognition systems. To make these systems robust to noise and corruptions in image data, multiclass neural networks capable of learning from noisy data have been suggested. However on large face datasets such systems cannot provide the robustness at a high level. In this paper, we explore a pairwise neural-network system as an alternative approach to improve the robustness of face recognition. In our experiments, the pairwise recognition system is shown to outperform the multiclass-recognition system in terms of the predictive accuracy on the test face images.
    • Cyberstalking in the UK: analysis and recommendations.

      Maple, Carsten; Short, Emma; Brown, Antony; Bryden, Chris; Salter, Michael (IGI Global, 2012)
      The growth in the use of interconnected devices in the UK is well-documented. Society has embraced new technology allowing access to information, systems, and people; children are being described as digital natives and social networking, internet telephony, and accessing digital entertainment are a major part of their lives. However, whilst the ubiquitous nature of modern communication systems has brought many benefits, there exist a minority that uses the technology to harass others. This paper considers the phenomenon of Cyberstalking and presents an analysis of the problem and the responses provided on the first survey that addresses issue specifically. The paper discusses the nature of attacks, the victim-attacker relationship, the impact of the attacks and the actions taken to resolve the issue. The paper also considers both the legal and technological aspects and presents recommendations to help reduce the occurrence of Cyberstalking.
    • Cyberstalking in the United Kingdom: an analysis of the ECHO Pilot Survey

      Maple, Carsten; Short, Emma; Brown, Antony; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2011)
      Network for Surviving Stalking is internationally recognised as the leading Registered Charity in the United Kingdom dedicated to supporting victims of stalking, free of cost or commercial gain. It aims to provide support to victims, potential victims and others affected by stalking or harassment throughout the UK, to raise awareness of the subject and to provide information about stalking and harassment to professionals, relevant agencies and the public. As we have moved into an age of electronic information and communication, stalkers have found new, more effective and efficient means to perpetrate their malicious acts; stalkers have become Cyberstalkers. Cyberstalking has become somewhat of an epidemic stretching across the globe. Network for Surviving Stalking began to notice that an increasing number of people searching for support were being stalked or harassed online, making the charity concerned as to the prevalence, nature and impact of cyberstalking. The charity commissioned a team of researchers and together developed an online questionnaire to establish answers to these questions. This report provides an analysis of the responses to the questionnaire.