• Exploring a multidimensional representation of documents and queries

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (LE CENTRE DE HAUTES ETUDES INTERNATIONALES D'INFORMATIQUE DOCUMENTAIRE, 2010)
      n Information Retrieval (IR), whether implicitly or explicitly, queries and documents are often represented as vectors. However, it may be more beneficial to consider documents and/or queries as multidimensional objects. Our belief is this would allow building "truly" interactive IR systems, i.e., where interaction is fully incorporated in the IR framework. The probabilistic formalism of quantum physics represents events and densities as multidimensional objects. This paper presents our first step towards building an interactive IR framework upon this formalism, by stating how the first interaction of the retrieval process, when the user types a query, can be formalised.
    • Filtering documents with subspaces

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Frommholz, Ingo; Moshfeghi, Yashar; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (Springer, 2010)
      We propose an approach to build a subspace representation for documents. This more powerful representation is a first step towards the development of a quantum-based model for Information Retrieval (IR). To validate our methodology, we apply it to the adaptive document filtering task.
    • How quantum theory is developing the field of information retrieval

      Song, Dawei; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Peng; Zuccon, Guido; Bruza, Peter; Arafat, Sachi; et al. (AAAI - Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2010)
      This position paper provides an overview of work conducted and an outlook of future directions within the field of Information Retrieval (IR) that aims to develop novel models, methods and frameworks inspired by Quantum Theory (QT).
    • Knowledge modeling in prior art search

      Graf, Erik; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith (Springer, 2010)
      This study explores the benefits of integrating knowledge representations in prior art patent retrieval. Key to the introduced approach is the utilization of human judgment available in the form of classifications assigned to patent documents. The paper first outlines in detail how a methodology for the extraction of knowledge from such an hierarchical classification system can be established. Further potential ways of integrating this knowledge with existing Information Retrieval paradigms in a scalable and flexible manner are investigated. Finally based on these integration strategies the effectiveness in terms of recall and precision is evaluated in the context of a prior art search task for European patents. As a result of this evaluation it can be established that in general the proposed knowledge expansion techniques are particularly beneficial to recall and, with respect to optimizing field retrieval settings, further result in significant precision gains.
    • Processing queries in session in a quantum-inspired IR framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Yahoo! Research Barcelona (Springer, 2011)
    • Research and advanced technology for digital libraries

      Lalmas, Mounia; Jose, Joemon; Rauber, Andreas; Sebastiani, Fabrizio; Frommholz, Ingo (Springer, 2010)
      This book constitutes the proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, ECDL 2010, held in Glasgow, UK, in September 2010. The 22 long papers, 14 short papers, 19 posters and 9 demos presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 102 full paper submissions, 40 poster submissions, and 13 demo submissions. In addition the book contains the abstract of a keynote speech and an appendix stating information on the doctoral consortium, the workshops, and tutorials, as well as the panel, which were held at the conference. The papers are grouped in topical sections on system architectures, metadata, multimedia IR, interaction and interoperability, digital preservation, social Web/Web 2.0, search in digital libraries, (meta) analysis of digital libraries, query log analysis, cooperative work in DLs, ontologies, and domain-specific DLs, posters and demos.
    • Supporting polyrepresentation in a quantum-inspired geometrical retrieval framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark (ACM, 2010)
      The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.
    • Towards a geometrical cognitive framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Crestani, Fabio; Lalmas, Mounia; University of Glasgow; University of Lugano (Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, 2010)
      Ingwersens cognitive framework is regarded as the begin- ning of a turn which eventually should bring together classical system- oriented and user-oriented IR communities. One of the consequences of this framework is the polyrepresentation principle. The Logical Uncertainty Principle (LUP) is regarded as a compatible model with the cognitive framework. Recently it was shown how LUP can be expressed using the mathematics of Hilbert spaces. This formalism, which is applied in quantum mechanics, harmonises geometry, probability theory and logics. Apart from being a way to express LUP, a further potential arises from a quantum perspective of IR. We present an interactive framework as an example of a quantum-inspired approach which also supports polyrepresentation
    • Towards quantum-based DB+IR processing based on the principle of polyrepresentation

      Zellhöfer, David; Frommholz, Ingo; Schmitt, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany; University of Glasgow; Yahoo! Research, Spain (Springer, 2011)
      The cognitively motivated principle of polyrepresentation still lacks a theoretical foundation in IR. In this work, we discuss two competing polyrepresentation frameworks that are based on quantum theory. Both approaches support different aspects of polyrepresentation, where one is focused on the geometric properties of quantum theory while the other has a strong logical basis. We compare both approaches and outline how they can be combined to express further aspects of polyrepresentation.
    • What can quantum theory bring to information retrieval

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith (ACM, 2010)
      The probabilistic formalism of quantum physics is said to provide a sound basis for building a principled information retrieval framework. Such a framework can be based on the notion of information need vector spaces where events, such as document relevance or observed user interactions, correspond to subspaces. As in quantum theory, a probability distribution over these subspaces is defined through weighted sets of state vectors (density operators), and used to represent the current view of the retrieval system on the user information need. Tensor spaces can be used to capture different aspects of information needs. Our evaluation shows that the framework can lead to acceptable performance in an ad-hoc retrieval task. Going beyond this, we discuss the potential of the framework for three active challenges in information retrieval, namely, interaction, novelty and diversity.