• Cluster-based polyrepresentation as science modelling approach for information retrieval

      Abbasi, Muhammad Kamran; Frommholz, Ingo (Springer Verlag, 2015)
      The increasing number of publications make searching and accessing the produced literature a challenging task. A recent development in bibliographic databases is to use advanced information retrieval techniques in combination with bibliographic means like citations. In this work we will present an approach that combines a cognitive information retrieval framework based on the principle of polyrepresentation with document clustering to enable the user to explore a collection more interactively than by just examining a ranked result list. Our approach uses information need representations as well as different document representations including citations. To evaluate our ideas we employ a simulated user strategy utilising a cluster ranking approach. We report on the possible effectiveness of our approach and on several strategies how users can achieve a higher search effectiveness through cluster browsing. Our results confirm that our proposed polyrepresentative cluster browsing strategy can in principle significantly improve the search effectiveness. However, further evaluations including a more refined user simulation are needed.
    • Combining cognitive and system-oriented approaches for designing IR user interfaces

      Fuhr, Norbert; Jordan, Matthias; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany (Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V., 2008)
    • Determining the polarity of postings for discussion search

      Frommholz, Ingo; Lechtenfeld, Marc; University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany (Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V., 2008)
      When performing discussion search it might be desirable to consider non-topical measures like the number of positive and negative replies to a posting, for instance as one possible indicator for the trustworthiness of a comment. Systems like POLAR are able to integrate such values into the retrieval function. To automatically detect the polarity of postings, they need to be classified into positive and negative ones w.r.t.\ the comment or document they are annotating. We present a machine learning approach for polarity detection which is based on Support Vector Machines. We discuss and identify appropriate term and context features. Experiments with ZDNet News show that an accuracy of around 79\%-80\% can be achieved for automatically classifying comments according to their polarity.
    • Exploiting information needs and bibliographics for polyrepresentative document clustering

      Abbasi, Muhammad Kamran; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (CEUR-WS, 2014-04)
      In this paper we explore the potential of combining the principle of polyrepresentation with document clustering. Our idea is discussed and evaluated for polyrepresentation of information needs as wells as for document-based polyrepresentation where bibliographic information is used as representation. The main idea is to present the user with the highly ranked polyrepresentative clusters to support the search process. Our evaluation suggests that our approach is capable of increasing retrieval performance, but performance varies for queries with a high or low number of relevant documents.
    • Exploring a multidimensional representation of documents and queries

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (LE CENTRE DE HAUTES ETUDES INTERNATIONALES D'INFORMATIQUE DOCUMENTAIRE, 2010)
      n Information Retrieval (IR), whether implicitly or explicitly, queries and documents are often represented as vectors. However, it may be more beneficial to consider documents and/or queries as multidimensional objects. Our belief is this would allow building "truly" interactive IR systems, i.e., where interaction is fully incorporated in the IR framework. The probabilistic formalism of quantum physics represents events and densities as multidimensional objects. This paper presents our first step towards building an interactive IR framework upon this formalism, by stating how the first interaction of the retrieval process, when the user types a query, can be formalised.
    • Filtering documents with subspaces

      Piwowarski, Benjamin; Frommholz, Ingo; Moshfeghi, Yashar; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (Springer, 2010)
      We propose an approach to build a subspace representation for documents. This more powerful representation is a first step towards the development of a quantum-based model for Information Retrieval (IR). To validate our methodology, we apply it to the adaptive document filtering task.
    • Great war stories told by the people – crowdsourced cultural heritage in digital museums

      Frommholz, Ingo; Graves, David; Liu, Haiming; Kumar, Ashwin; Brady, Gordon; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2014)
      The increasing interest in the centenary of the Great War 1914–1918 motivates the development of a digital library to capture and access valuable cultural heritage artefacts that would otherwise be lost. We will present a prototype to make available the story of the First World War in the local context of a British town, as told by the people today. The core of our prototype is crowdsourced ingest. To this end we apply latest insights from information interaction and access to foster user engagement. Open standards like CIDOC/CRM facilitate the external provision of our data and the integration of external resources. In the demo we will present our current Great War Stories prototype and how researchers from the humanities as well as digital libraries researchers will be able to benefit from and contribute to the project.
    • How quantum theory is developing the field of information retrieval

      Song, Dawei; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Peng; Zuccon, Guido; Bruza, Peter; Arafat, Sachi; et al. (AAAI - Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2010)
      This position paper provides an overview of work conducted and an outlook of future directions within the field of Information Retrieval (IR) that aims to develop novel models, methods and frameworks inspired by Quantum Theory (QT).
    • Knowledge modeling in prior art search

      Graf, Erik; Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith (Springer, 2010)
      This study explores the benefits of integrating knowledge representations in prior art patent retrieval. Key to the introduced approach is the utilization of human judgment available in the form of classifications assigned to patent documents. The paper first outlines in detail how a methodology for the extraction of knowledge from such an hierarchical classification system can be established. Further potential ways of integrating this knowledge with existing Information Retrieval paradigms in a scalable and flexible manner are investigated. Finally based on these integration strategies the effectiveness in terms of recall and precision is evaluated in the context of a prior art search task for European patents. As a result of this evaluation it can be established that in general the proposed knowledge expansion techniques are particularly beneficial to recall and, with respect to optimizing field retrieval settings, further result in significant precision gains.
    • Multi-facet classification of e-mails in a helpdesk scenario

      Beckers, Thomas; Frommholz, Ingo; Bonning, Ralf; University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; University of Glasgow; d.velop AG (Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V., 2009)
      Helpdesks have to manage a huge amount of support requests which are usually submitted via e-mail. In order to be assigned to experts e ciently, incoming e-mails have to be classi- ed w. r. t. several facets, in particular topic, support type and priority. It is desirable to perform these classi cations automatically. We report on experiments using Support Vector Machines and k-Nearest-Neighbours, respectively, for the given multi-facet classi - cation task. The challenge is to de ne suitable features for each facet. Our results suggest that improvements can be gained for all facets, and they also reveal which features are promising for a particular facet.
    • On clustering and polyrepresentation

      Frommholz, Ingo; Abbasi, Muhammad Kamran; University of Bedfordshire (Springer Verlag, 2014-04)
      Polyrepresentation is one of the most prominent principles in a cognitive approach to interactive information seeking and retrieval. When it comes to interactive retrieval, clustering is another method for accessing information. While polyrepresentation has been explored and validated in a scenario where a system returns a ranking of documents, so far there are no insights if and how polyrepresentation and clustering can be combined. In this paper we discuss how both are related and present an approach to integrate polyrepresentation into clustering. We further report some initial evaluation results.
    • On the probabilistic logical modelling of quantum and geometrically-inspired IR

      Smeraldi, Fabrizio; Martinez-Alvarez, Miguel; Frommholz, Ingo; Roelleke, Thomas; Queen Mary University, London; University of Glasgow (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011)
      Information Retrieval approaches can mostly be classed into probabilistic, geometric or logic-based. Recently, a new unifying framework for IR has emerged that integrates a probabilistic description within a geometric framework, namely vectors in Hilbert spaces. The geometric model leads naturally to a predicate logic over linear subspaces, also known as quantum logic. In this paper we show the relation between this model and classic concepts such as the Generalised Vector Space Model, highlighting similarities and differences. We also show how some fundamental components of quantum-based IR can be modelled in a descriptive way using a well-established tool, i.e. Probabilistic Datalog.
    • Preliminary study of technical terminology for the retrieval of scientific book metadata records

      Larsen, Birger; Lioma, Christina; Frommholz, Ingo; Schütze, Hinrich (Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012-08)
      Books only represented by brief metadata (book records) are particularly hard to retrieve. One way of improving their retrieval is by extracting retrieval enhancing features from them. This work focusses on scientific (physics) book records. We ask if their technical terminology can be used as a retrieval enhancing feature. A study of 18,443 book records shows a strong correlation between their technical terminology and their likelihood of relevance. Using this finding for retrieval yields >+5% precision and recall gains.
    • Processing queries in session in a quantum-inspired IR framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Yahoo! Research Barcelona (Springer, 2011)
    • Quantum interaction: 5th International Symposium, QI 2011, Aberdeen, UK, June 26-29, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Lecture Notes in Computer Science / Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues)

      Song, Dawei; Melucci, Massimo; Frommholz, Ingo; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi (Springer, 2011)
      This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval.
    • Research and advanced technology for digital libraries

      Lalmas, Mounia; Jose, Joemon; Rauber, Andreas; Sebastiani, Fabrizio; Frommholz, Ingo (Springer, 2010)
      This book constitutes the proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, ECDL 2010, held in Glasgow, UK, in September 2010. The 22 long papers, 14 short papers, 19 posters and 9 demos presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 102 full paper submissions, 40 poster submissions, and 13 demo submissions. In addition the book contains the abstract of a keynote speech and an appendix stating information on the doctoral consortium, the workshops, and tutorials, as well as the panel, which were held at the conference. The papers are grouped in topical sections on system architectures, metadata, multimedia IR, interaction and interoperability, digital preservation, social Web/Web 2.0, search in digital libraries, (meta) analysis of digital libraries, query log analysis, cooperative work in DLs, ontologies, and domain-specific DLs, posters and demos.
    • Supporting polyrepresentation in a quantum-inspired geometrical retrieval framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter; Piwowarski, Benjamin; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow; Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark (ACM, 2010)
      The relevance of a document has many facets, going beyond the usual topical one, which have to be considered to satisfy a user's information need. Multiple representations of documents, like user-given reviews or the actual document content, can give evidence towards certain facets of relevance. In this respect polyrepresentation of documents, where such evidence is combined, is a crucial concept to estimate the relevance of a document. In this paper, we discuss how a geometrical retrieval framework inspired by quantum mechanics can be extended to support polyrepresentation. We show by example how different representations of a document can be modelled in a Hilbert space, similar to physical systems known from quantum mechanics. We further illustrate how these representations are combined by means of the tensor product to support polyrepresentation, and discuss the case that representations of documents are not independent from a user point of view. Besides giving a principled framework for polyrepresentation, the potential of this approach is to capture and formalise the complex interdependent relationships that the different representations can have between each other.
    • Towards a geometrical cognitive framework

      Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Crestani, Fabio; Lalmas, Mounia; University of Glasgow; University of Lugano (Royal School of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, 2010)
      Ingwersens cognitive framework is regarded as the begin- ning of a turn which eventually should bring together classical system- oriented and user-oriented IR communities. One of the consequences of this framework is the polyrepresentation principle. The Logical Uncertainty Principle (LUP) is regarded as a compatible model with the cognitive framework. Recently it was shown how LUP can be expressed using the mathematics of Hilbert spaces. This formalism, which is applied in quantum mechanics, harmonises geometry, probability theory and logics. Apart from being a way to express LUP, a further potential arises from a quantum perspective of IR. We present an interactive framework as an example of a quantum-inspired approach which also supports polyrepresentation
    • Towards a geometrical model for polyrepresentation of information objects

      Frommholz, Ingo; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; University of Glasgow (Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V., 2009)
      The principle of polyrepresentation is one of the fundamental recent developments in the field of interactive retrieval. An open problem is how to define a framework which unifies different as- pects of polyrepresentation and allows for their application in several ways. Such a framework can be of geometrical nature and it may embrace concepts known from quantum theory. In this short paper, we discuss by giving examples how this framework can look like, with a focus on in- formation objects. We further show how it can be exploited to find a cognitive overlap of different representations on the one hand, and to combine different representations by means of knowledge augmentation on the other hand. We discuss the potential that lies within a geometrical frame- work and motivate its further development
    • Towards quantum-based DB+IR processing based on the principle of polyrepresentation

      Zellhöfer, David; Frommholz, Ingo; Schmitt, Ingo; Lalmas, Mounia; Van Rijsbergen, Keith; Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany; University of Glasgow; Yahoo! Research, Spain (Springer, 2011)
      The cognitively motivated principle of polyrepresentation still lacks a theoretical foundation in IR. In this work, we discuss two competing polyrepresentation frameworks that are based on quantum theory. Both approaches support different aspects of polyrepresentation, where one is focused on the geometric properties of quantum theory while the other has a strong logical basis. We compare both approaches and outline how they can be combined to express further aspects of polyrepresentation.