• The big picture, from grids and clouds to crowds: a data collective computational intelligence case proposal for managing disasters

      Bessis, Nik; Asimakopoulou, Eleana; French, Tim; Norrington, Peter; Xhafa, Fatos (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Much work is underway within the broad next generation technologies community on issues associated with the development of services to foster collaboration via the integration of distributed and heterogeneous data systems and technologies. Various technology-driven paradigms have emerged, including Web Services, Web 2.0, Pervasive, Grids and Cloud Computing. Recently, some new paradigms have emerged, including Situated Computing and Crowd Sourcing. In this exploratory paper, we aim to be visionary, thus, we offer an overview highlighting relationships between these paradigms, the goal is to present how these fit into the broader picture of IT. More specifically, to discuss how these could help coin and prompt future direction of their usage (integration) in various real-world scenarios. A disaster management scenario is presented to illustrate the big picture's model architecture, as well as briefly discuss the potential impact resulting from the collective computational intelligence approach.
    • Can intelligent optimisation techniques improve computing job scheduling in a Grid environment? review, problem and proposal

      Huang, Wei; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten; Bessis, Nik (NeSC, 2006)
      In the existing Grid scheduling literature, the reported methods and strategies are mostly related to high-level schedulers such as global schedulers, external schedulers, data schedulers, and cluster schedulers. Although a number of these have previously considered job scheduling, thus far only relatively simple queue-based policies such as First In First Out (FIFO) have been considered for local job scheduling within Grid contexts. Our initial research shows that it is worth investigating the potential impact on the performance of the Grid when intelligent optimisation techniques are applied to local scheduling policies. The research problem is defined, and a basic research methodology with a detailed roadmap is presented. This paper forms a proposal with the intention of exchanging ideas and seeking potential collaborators.
    • Collaborative virtual organisation trust measurement: leveraging corporate governance metrics

      French, Tim (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Previous research has suggested that there is a trust `gap'. Whilst tangible security aspects of such services are relatively well understood, intangible aspects of trust, particularly with respect to trust formation and validation amongst e-partners is a much less well developed area. The contribution offered is largely conceptual at present. The semiotic ladder is used to support the VO service lifecycle (analysis and design) whilst run-time execution is supported via the articulation of a supportive trust agent. The intention is to offer all parties better support for trust (as reputation) management including the reduction of risk and improved reliability of VO e-services. A novel trust agent is proposed that seeks to provide an e-service consumer with an objective measure of the trustworthiness of the e-service at run-time, just prior to its actual consumption. Specifically, VO e-service consumer confidence level is informed, by leveraging third party objective evidence. This comprises a set of Corporate Governance (CG) scores. CG scores are used as a trust proxy for the "real" owner of the VO. The scores have inherent limitations, and these are duly acknowledged.
    • Culture and e-culture through a semiotic lens: e-banking localization

      French, Tim; Conrad, Marc (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Intangible trust perceptions have been shown to form an important part of the User Experience (UX) in relation to various B2C (Business-to-Customer) contexts of use. The extant literature appears somewhat immature in relation to intangible trust and UX models from a “non-Western” perspective. Indeed it appears from our recent e-Banking audit using a novel cross-cultural Expert evaluation instrument that too often “Western” Banks (such as Deutsche Bank) rely on perceptions of “Eastern” cultures viewed through a lens that relies on stereotypical images, signs and Western style templates. We compare two contrasting e-Bank site localization design paradigms: namely that of Deutsche Bank and HSBC with respect to two target audiences: namely China and Taiwan. The findings of the e-Culture audit are aligned to the ubiquitous set of cultural dimensions first defined by Geert Hofstede. This alignment appears to show that the “Western” stereotypical paradigm is not in alignment with either Hofstede's Individualism/Collectivism metric nor with normative semiotic signs that reflect vibrant local urban street cultures. We go on to suggest that the use of card-sorting may speculatively be used to better engender localized sites that are aligned to local target.
    • Enriching the object-oriented paradigm via shadows in the context of mathematics

      Conrad, Marc; French, Tim; Huchard, Marianne; Maple, Carsten; Pott, Sandra (ETH Zurich, Chair of Software Engineering, 2006)
      It is well-known that few object-oriented programming languages allow objects to change their nature at run-time. In this paper we discuss the need for object-oriented programming languages to reflect the dynamic nature of problems, particularly those arising in a mathematical context. It is from this context that we present a framework, together with a Java-like implementation of that framework, that realistically represents the dynamic and evolving characteristic of problems and algorithms.
    • Exploring the synergies between the object oriented paradigm and mathematics: a Java led approach

      Conrad, Marc; French, Tim (Taylor and Francis, 2004)
      While the object oriented paradigm and its instantiation within programming languages such as Java has become a ubiquitous part of both the commercial and educational landscapes, its usage as a visualization technique within mathematics undergraduate programmes of study has perhaps been somewhat underestimated. By regarding the object oriented paradigm as a medium for conceptual exploration (rather than merely as a tool) the aim is to show how the close conceptual links between object orientation and certain mathematical structures such as rings and groups can be more fully realized, using a ready-made public-domain Java package.
    • A gentle transition from Java programming to Web Services using XML-RPC

      Conrad, Marc; French, Tim (London Metropolitan University Press, 2004)
      Exposing students to leading edge vocational areas of relevance such as Web Services can be difficult. We show a lightweight approach by embedding a key component of Web Services within a Level 3 BSc module in Distributed Computing. We present a ready to use collection of lecture slides and student activities based on XML-RPC. In addition we show that this material addresses the central topics in the context of web services as identified by Draganova (2003).
    • Hidden semiotics: trusted security mediators

      French, Tim; Liu, Keling (ORGSEM, 2009)
    • How far can automatic translation engines be used as a tool for stylistic analysis?

      Crosbie, Tess; French, Tim; Conrad, Marc (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      This pilot study investigates the potential of automatic translation engines to be used as a tool for literary stylistic analysis. By translating from English into one of 62 languages and then re-translating back into English, the resulting texts were compared with a stylistic analysis of the original. Although the similarity index varied widely between languages - between 90% and 32.9% - many stylistic features were retained. However, more subtle features of the texts were lost in the translation process. The similarity index gives a good indication of the literary subtlety / quality of the text, suggesting that this process may be useful as a preliminary “filtering” technique in deeper stylistic studies.
    • Identity in virtual worlds

      Koshy, Lyzgeo; Getchell, K.; Conrad, Marc; French, Tim; University of Bedfordshire ([transcript] Verlag, 2014)
    • Intangible trust requirements - how to fill the requirements trust "gap"?

      French, Tim; Huang, Wei; University of Bedfordshire (Audio Visual Services (A VS), University of Leicester, UK, 2010)
      Previous research efforts have been expended in terms of the capture and subsequent instantiation of "soft" trust requirements that relate to HCI usability concerns or in relation to "hard" tangible security requirements that primarily relate to security a ssurance and security protocols. Little direct focus has been paid to managing intangible trust related requirements per se. This 'gap' is perhaps most evident in the public B2C (Business to Consumer) E- Systems we all use on a daily basis. Some speculative suggestions are made as to how to fill the 'gap'. Visual card sorting is suggested as a suitable evaluative tool; whilst deontic logic trust norms and UML extended notation are the suggested (methodologically invariant) means by which software development teams can perhaps more fully capture hence visualize intangible trust requirements.
    • Integrating the semiotic into UML via enhancing and cross-validating use case with an enriched domain model

      Oussena, Samia; French, Tim (IGI Global, 2011)
      Use case models are a representation of the way in which users of the system interact with it. The UML specification driven approach to system development enable the use case model to be continuously refined and cross-validated from a number of system viewpoints. However, little has been done for validating the model against the organisational and workgroup setting in which the system will reside. This article aims to address this gap by the use of techniques derived from organisational semiotics for validating use case models against a wider aspect of organisational culture and meaning making at the organisational, workgroup and actor level of abstraction. Such approach will enhance the system development by providing “goodness of fit” between system model and organisational values and beliefs.
    • A lightweight model of trust propagation in a multi-client network environment: to what extent does experience matter?

      Conrad, Marc; French, Tim; Huang, Wei; Maple, Carsten (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2006)
      The increasing growth in the application of global computing and pervasive systems has necessitated careful consideration of security issues. In particular, there has been a growth in the use of electronic communities, in which there exist many relationships between different entities. Such relationships require establishing trust between entities and a great deal of effort has been expended in developing accurate and reliable models of trust in such multi-client environments. Many of these models are complex and not necessarily guaranteed to give accurate trust predictions. In this paper we present a review of some of these models before proposing a simple, lightweight model for trust. The proposed model does not require the estimation of a large parameter set, nor make great assumptions about the parameters that affect trust.
    • Localized trust - the semiotics in culture and e-culture

      French, Tim; Conrad, Marc; Shaaban, Hussein Khamis; University of Bedfordshire (Infonomics Society, 2013)
      Intangible trust perceptions have been shown to form an important part of the User Experience (UX) in relation to various B2C (Business- to -Customer) contexts of use. The extant literature appears somewhat immature in relation to intangible trust and UX models from a "non-Western" perspective. Indeed it appears from our recent e-Banking audit using a novel cross-cultural expert evaluation instrument that too often "Western" Banks (such as Deutsche Bank) rely on perceptions of "Eastern" cultures viewed through a lens that relies on stereotypical images, signs and Western style templates. After identifying how trust and semiotics work considering the case of Zanzibar we compare two contrasting e-Bank site localization design paradigms: namely that of Deutsche Bank and HSBC with respect to two target audiences: namely China and Taiwan. The findings of the e-Culture audit are aligned to the ubiquitous set of cultural dimensions first defined by Geert Hofstede. This alignment appears to show that the "Western" stereotypical paradigm is not in alignment with either Hofstede's Individualism/Collectivism metric nor with normative semiotic signs that reflect vibrant local urban street cultures. We go on to suggest that the use of card-sorting may speculatively be used to better engender localized sites that are aligned to local target.
    • Mathematical use cases lead naturally to Non-Standard Inheritance Relationships

      Conrad, Marc; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten; Pott, Sandra (Springer, 2004)
    • Modelling self-led trust value management in grid and service oriented infrastructures

      Brown, Antony; Sant, Paul; Bessis, Nik; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten (IGI Global, 2010)
      Current developments in grid and service oriented technologies involve fluid and dynamic, ad hoc based interactions between delegates, which in turn, serves to challenge conventional centralised structured trust and security assurance approaches. Delegates ranging from individuals to large-scale VO (Virtual Organisations) require the establishment of trust across all parties as a prerequisite for trusted and meaningful e-collaboration. In this paper, a notable obstacle, namely how such delegates (modelled as nodes) operating within complex collaborative environment spaces can best evaluate in context to optimally and dynamically select the most trustworthy ad hoc based resource/service for e-consumption. A number of aggregated service case scenarios are herein employed in order to consider the manner in which virtual consumers and provider ad hoc based communities converge. In this paper, the authors take the view that the use of graph-theoretic modelling naturally leads to a self-led trust management decision based approach in which delegates are continuously informed of relevant up-to-date trust levels. This will lead to an increased confidence level, which trustful service delegation can occur. The key notion is of a self-led trust model that is suited to an inherently low latency, decentralised trust security paradigm.
    • Object shadowing – a key concept for a modern programming language

      Conrad, Marc; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten (Springer, 2004)
    • A pilot investigation of e-banking trust perceptions amongst the Yoruba and Igbo of Nigeria

      French, Tim; Opatola, Kayode (Product & Systems Internationalisation, Inc., 2010)
      This paper reports a pilot study designed to probe B2C (Business to Consumer) consumer trust perceptions across sub-cultural boundaries. More specifically, two low fidelity B2C (Business to Consumer) web-sites have been designed to "probe" (i.e. reveal intangible trust requirements) as they specifically relate to membership of two sub-cultural groups within Nigeria in the context of E-banking. The results of the study reveal that the two groups (Yoruba and Igbo) differentially de-coded visual cues embedded within seven exemplar E-Banking sites. Further, this decoding reflected local cultural norms. We have consciously avoided any post-hoc mapping of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Rather, our experimental method relies on a comparison of self-generated personal constructs, elicited from subjects in response to the stimuli materials (home-page "cards") presented to the subjects.