• The big picture, from grids and clouds to crowds: a data collective computational intelligence case proposal for managing disasters

      Bessis, Nik; Asimakopoulou, Eleana; French, Tim; Norrington, Peter; Xhafa, Fatos (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Much work is underway within the broad next generation technologies community on issues associated with the development of services to foster collaboration via the integration of distributed and heterogeneous data systems and technologies. Various technology-driven paradigms have emerged, including Web Services, Web 2.0, Pervasive, Grids and Cloud Computing. Recently, some new paradigms have emerged, including Situated Computing and Crowd Sourcing. In this exploratory paper, we aim to be visionary, thus, we offer an overview highlighting relationships between these paradigms, the goal is to present how these fit into the broader picture of IT. More specifically, to discuss how these could help coin and prompt future direction of their usage (integration) in various real-world scenarios. A disaster management scenario is presented to illustrate the big picture's model architecture, as well as briefly discuss the potential impact resulting from the collective computational intelligence approach.
    • Can intelligent optimisation techniques improve computing job scheduling in a Grid environment? review, problem and proposal

      Huang, Wei; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten; Bessis, Nik (NeSC, 2006)
      In the existing Grid scheduling literature, the reported methods and strategies are mostly related to high-level schedulers such as global schedulers, external schedulers, data schedulers, and cluster schedulers. Although a number of these have previously considered job scheduling, thus far only relatively simple queue-based policies such as First In First Out (FIFO) have been considered for local job scheduling within Grid contexts. Our initial research shows that it is worth investigating the potential impact on the performance of the Grid when intelligent optimisation techniques are applied to local scheduling policies. The research problem is defined, and a basic research methodology with a detailed roadmap is presented. This paper forms a proposal with the intention of exchanging ideas and seeking potential collaborators.
    • Defining minimum requirements of inter-collaborated nodes by measuring the weight of node interactions

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Huang, Ye; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten (IGI Global, 2011)
      This paper focuses on defining the minimum requirements to support the inter-cooperation between various scales, dynamically evolved Virtual Organizations (VOs). This proposed method is able to assign a weighted value to each pair-wise path that each member (node) can select in order to locate neighbouring nodes according to their preferences. The method also takes into account the communication overhead between each node interaction. The weight of each path is to be measured by the analysis of prerequisites in order to achieve a mutually agreed interaction between nodes. Requirements are defined as the least parameters or conditions that a node needs to achieve in order to determine its accessibility factor. The motivation behind this work is the vision of the Critical Friends Community model, which is a suitable topology for interoperable grid environments. The topology suggests that capturing inter-cooperated nodes interactions that can be publicly available could lead to knowledge of neighbouring VO members which, in turn, could be used for facilitating a more effective resource discovery and selection decision.
    • Defining minimum requirements of inter-collaborated nodes by measuring the weight of node interactions

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Huang, Ye; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      In this paper we are focusing on the minimum requirements to be addressed in order to demonstrate a inter-node communication within a Virtual Organisation (VO) using the method of Self-led Critical Friends (SCF). The method is able to decide paths that a node can choose in order to locate neighbouring nodes by aiming at realizing the overhead of each communication. The weight of each path will be measured by the analysis of prerequisites in order to achieve the interaction between nodes. We define requirements as the least fundamentals that a node needs to achieve in order to determine its accessibility factor. The information gathered from an interaction is then stored in a snapshot, a profile that is made available during the discovery stage.
    • Development of a customer satisfaction model for enabling e-collaboration in Second Life

      Shukla, Mitul; Bessis, Nik; Conrad, Marc; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (IADIS, 2009)
    • A dynamically adaptive dimensionalised experience feedback mechanism within Second Life

      Shukla, Mitul; Bessis, Nik; Conrad, Marc; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (IADIS, 2009)
    • Encoding minimum requirements of ad hoc inter-connected grids to a genetic algorithm infrastructure

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IADIS, 2010)
    • From grids to clouds: a collective intelligence study for inter-cooperated infrastructures

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IARIA, 2010)
      Recently, more effort has been put into developing interoperable and distributed environments that offer users exceptional opportunities for utilizing resources over the internet. By utilising grids and clouds, resource consumers and providers, they gain significant benefits by either using or purchasing the computer processing capacities and the information provided by data centres. On the other hand, the collective intelligence paradigm is characterized as group based intelligence that emerges from the collaboration of many individuals, who in turn, define a coordinated knowledge model. It is envisaged that such a knowledge model could be of significant advantage if it is incorporated within the grid and cloud community. The dynamic load and access balancing of the grid and cloud data centres and the collective intelligence provides multiple opportunities, involving resource provisioning and development of scalable and heterogeneous applications. The contribution of this paper is that by utilizing grid and cloud resources, internal information stored within a public profile of each participant, resource providers as well as consumers, can lead to an effective mobilization of improved skills of members. We aim to unify the grid and cloud functionality as consumable computational power, for a) discussing the supreme advantages of such on-line resource utilization and provisioning models and b) analyzing the impact of the collective intelligence in the future trends of the aforementioned technologies.
    • A high-level semiotic trust agent scoring model for collaborative virtual organisations

      French, Timothy Stewart; Bessis, Nik; Maple, Carsten (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      In this paper, we describe how a semiotic ladder, together with a supportive trust agent, can be used to address “soft” trust issues in the context of collaborative Virtual Organisations (VO). The intention is to offer all parties better support for trust (as reputation) management including the reduction of risk and improved reliability of VO e-services. The semiotic ladder is intended to support the VO e-service lifecycle through the articulation of e-trust at various levels of system abstraction, including trust as measurable confidence. At the social level, reputation and reliability measures of e-trust are the relevant dimensions as regards choice of VO partner and are also relevant to the negotiation of service level agreements between the VO partners. By contrast, at the lower levels of the trust ladder, e-trust measures typically address the degree to which secure sign on and message level security conforms to various tangible technological security protocols. The novel trust agent provides the e-service consumer with an objective measure of the trustworthiness of the e-service at run-time, just prior to its actual consumption. Specifically, VO e-service consumer confidence level is informed, by leveraging third party objective evidence. This evidence comprises a set of Corporate Governance (CG) scores. These scores are used as a trust proxy for the "real" owner of the VO. There are also inherent limitations associated with the use of CG scores. These are duly acknowledged.
    • Managing inconsistencies in data grid environments

      Ahmed, Ejaz; Bessis, Nik; Norrington, Peter; Yue, Yong (IGI Global, 2010)
      Much work has been done in the area of data access and integration using various data mapping, matching, and loading techniques. One of the main concerns when integrating data from heterogeneous data sources is data redundancy. The concern is mainly due to the different business contexts and purposes from which the data systems were originally built. A common process for accessing data from integrated databases involves the use of each data source’s own catalogue or metadata schema. In this article, the authors take the view that there is a greater chance of data inconsistencies, such as data redundancies when integrating them within a grid environment as compared to traditional distributed paradigms. The importance of improving the data search and matching process is briefly discussed, and a partial service oriented generic strategy is adopted to consolidate distinct catalogue schemas of federated databases to access information seamlessly. To this end, a proposed matching strategy between structure objects and data values across federated databases in a grid environment is presented.
    • A mathematical analysis of a data-grid push service for disaster management response scenarios

      Bessis, Nik; Asimakopoulou, Eleana; Conrad, Marc (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2009)
    • A mathematical analysis of a disaster management data-grid push service

      Bessis, Nik; Brown, Antony; Asimakopoulou, Eleana (IGI Global, 2010)
      Much work is under way within the Grid technology community on issues associated with the development of services fostering the integration and exploitation of multiple autonomous, distributed data sources through a seamless and flexible virtualized interface. These developments involve fluid and dynamic, ad hoc based interactions between dispersed service providers and consumers. However, several obstacles arise in the design and implementation of such services. In this article, the authors examine a notable obstacle, namely how to keep service consumers informed of relevant changes about data committed in multiple and distributed service provider levels, and most importantly, when these changes can affect others’ well-being. To achieve this, the authors use aggregated case scenarios to demonstrate the need for a data-Grid push service in a disaster management situation. In this regard, the article describes in detail the service architecture, as well as its mathematical analysis for keeping interested stakeholders informed automatically about relevant and critical data changes.
    • A mobile agent strategy for grid interoperable virtual organisations

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IADIS, 2010)
    • Modelling of a self-led critical friend topology in inter-cooperative grid communities

      Bessis, Nik; Huang, Ye; Norrington, Peter; Brown, Antony; Kuonen, Pierre; Hirsbrunner, Beat (Elsevier, 2011-01)
      For decades, much work has been done to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of job sharing amongst available computational resources. Resources can be organized into a variety of topologies, and recent work has shown that a decentralized distributed resource topology is a crucial but complicated scenario. This is because decentralized resources are normally grouped into independent virtual organizations (VOs) and isolated from each other by VO boundaries. To convey jobs across gaps between various virtual organizations, a novel resource topology called the self-led critical friend model (CFM) is proposed in this work. The CFM deals with trust credits between resources according to their historical collaboration records. This trust reveals a feasible, realistic, and transferable correlation to facilitate the resource selection process for job delegation between arbitrarily connected physical resources. Consequently, the CFM is able to overcome the constraints caused by virtual organization boundaries.
    • Modelling self-led trust value management in grid and service oriented infrastructures

      Brown, Antony; Sant, Paul; Bessis, Nik; French, Tim; Maple, Carsten (IGI Global, 2010)
      Current developments in grid and service oriented technologies involve fluid and dynamic, ad hoc based interactions between delegates, which in turn, serves to challenge conventional centralised structured trust and security assurance approaches. Delegates ranging from individuals to large-scale VO (Virtual Organisations) require the establishment of trust across all parties as a prerequisite for trusted and meaningful e-collaboration. In this paper, a notable obstacle, namely how such delegates (modelled as nodes) operating within complex collaborative environment spaces can best evaluate in context to optimally and dynamically select the most trustworthy ad hoc based resource/service for e-consumption. A number of aggregated service case scenarios are herein employed in order to consider the manner in which virtual consumers and provider ad hoc based communities converge. In this paper, the authors take the view that the use of graph-theoretic modelling naturally leads to a self-led trust management decision based approach in which delegates are continuously informed of relevant up-to-date trust levels. This will lead to an increased confidence level, which trustful service delegation can occur. The key notion is of a self-led trust model that is suited to an inherently low latency, decentralised trust security paradigm.
    • A resource discovery architecture of loosely coupled grid inter-cooperated virtual organisations using mobile agents and neural networks

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Grid computing offers a service for sharing resources over uncertain and complex environments. In such multi-participated settings it is essential to make the grid middleware functionality transparent to members by providing the ability to act autonomous and learning from the environment. Parallel to grid, artificial neural networks is a paradigm for processing information, which is inspired by the processes of biological nervous systems. The latter fields can be really promoted from the artificial intelligent agents, which offer an autonomous acting infrastructure of members with proactive and reactive aptitude. As grid is about sharing and allocating resources within uncertain domains, intelligent agents and neural networks may be the mean of achieving an autonomous learning environment of self-motivated members. In this study, we focus on the mobility agents' model aiming to discovery resources dynamically, parallel to the artificial neural networks as a way to achieve the best resource discovery paths. Our work is fundamentally based on the Self-led Critical Friends method, a technique for realizing inter-cooperation among various scales Virtual Organisations (VOs). Their mediator acting nature redirects communication to other parties of different VOs by utilizing a public profile of data stored within VO members.
    • Towards a bespoke framework for eliciting consumer satisfaction in Second Life

      Shukla, Mitul; Conrad, Marc; Bessis, Nik (IGI Global, 2012)
      The approach taken to data gathering, analysis, and interpretation in the context of the framework is described; as well as refinements made to the framework as a consequence of emergent themes revealed through the analysis of the gathered data
    • Towards a corporate governance trust agent scoring model for collaborative virtual organisations

      French, Tim; Bessis, Nik; Xhafa, Fatos; Maple, Carsten (Inderscience, 2011)
      In this 'visionary' paper, we describe how a semiotic ladder, together with a supportive trust agent, can be used to address 'soft' trust issues in the context of collaborative Virtual Organisations (VOs). The intention is to offer all parties better support for trust (as reputation) management, including the reduction of risk and improved reliability of VO e-services. The semiotic ladder is intended to support the VO e-service life cycle through the articulation of e-trust at various levels of system abstraction, including trust as a measurable confidence level. A novel trust agent is used to provide the consumer with an objective measure of the trustworthiness of the e-service at runtime, just prior to its actual consumption. Specifically, VO consumer confidence level is informed via a set of Corporate Governance (CG) scores, which are used as a trust proxy for the 'real' owner of the VO.
    • Towards context-aware real-world environments: the case of a remote autonomous energy aware monitoring system

      Bessis, Nik; McLauchnan, Nicholas; Asimakopoulou, Eleana; Brown, Antony; Norrington, Peter (World Scientific Publishing, 2011)
      Work is underway on issues associated with the development of tools and services to reduce energy consumption. Current trends suggest that energy consumption is increasing and carbon reserves are decreasing whilst green technologies for energy generation are yet to prove themselves. In industry, there are many legacy installations of equipment capable of transmitting their energy usage via the MODBUS protocol. Here we introduce a means of logging energy usage data and transmitting it to a database. The motivation is that making energy users aware of their consumption can help assist them in taking informed action towards the reduction of wasted energy. Thus, we offer a state-of-the-art of possible networking technologies, which have led to a real-world implementation. We present requirements whilst we mathematically model the compression technique. On the development side, we use GSM/GPRS technology, embedded KJava runtime and a bespoke Java application as the framework to email the usage data to the database.
    • Towards decentralized grid agent models for continuous resource discovery of interoperable grid Virtual Organisations

      Sotiriadis, Stelios; Bessis, Nik; Huang, Ye; Sant, Paul; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire, UK (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
      Grid technology enables resource sharing among a massive number of dynamic and geographically distributed resources. The significance of such environments is based on the aptitude of grid members to look across multiple grids for resource discovery and allocation. Parallel to grid, agents are autonomous problem solvers capable of self-directed actions in flexible environments. As grid systems require self-sufficiency, agents may be the means by which to achieve a robust autonomy infrastructure. In this direction we propose a resource discovery method of interoperable grid agents which travel within Virtual Organizations (VOs) and by capturing resource information regarding their action domain; they update the internal data of each grid member. Moreover we propose that resource discovery is a systematic and continually updating process that occurs within a VO and allows information exchange to happen. This exchange takes place between various community members at a pre-defined interval, aiming to distribute internal knowledge about the domain.