• Compression of 3D integral images using 3D wavelet transform

      Aggoun, Amar; Brunel University (IEEE, 2011-11)
      Integral imaging is a technique capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. It has been reported by many research groups and is becoming a viable alternative for 3D television. With the development of 3D integral imaging, image compression becomes mandatory for the storage and transmission of 3D integral images. In this paper, the use of the lifting scheme in the application of a 3D Wavelet Transform for the compression of 3D Integral Images is proposed. The method requires the extraction of different viewpoint images from an integral image. The 3D wavelet decomposition is computed by applying three separate 1D transforms along the coordinate axes of the given sequence of Viewpoint Images. The spatial wavelet decompositions on a single viewpoint and on the inter-viewpoint images are performed using the biorthogonal Cohen-Debauchies-Feauveau 9/7 and 5/3 filter banks, respectively. All the resulting wavelet coefficients from application of the 3D wavelet decomposition are arithmetic encoded. Simulations are performed on a set of different grey level 3D Integral Images using a uniform scalar quantizer with deadzone. The results for the average of the four intensity distributions are presented and compared with previous use of 2D DWT and 3D-DCT based schemes. It was found that the algorithm achieves better rate-distortion performance and reconstructs the images with much better image quality at very low bit rates.
    • Depth mapping of integral images through viewpoint image extraction with a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm

      Wu, ChunHong; McCormick, Malcolm; Aggoun, Amar; Kung, S.Y. (OSA Publishing, 2008)
      Integral imaging is a technique capable of displaying 3–D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. It is one of the most promising methods for producing smooth 3–D images. Extracting depth information from integral image has various applications ranging from remote inspection, robotic vision, medical imaging, virtual reality, to content-based image coding and manipulation for integral imaging based 3–D TV. This paper presents a method of generating a depth map from unidirectional integral images through viewpoint image extraction and using a hybrid disparity analysis algorithm combining multi-baseline, neighborhood constraint and relaxation strategies. It is shown that a depth map having few areas of uncertainty can be obtained from both computer and photographically generated integral images using this approach. The acceptable depth maps can be achieved from photographic captured integral images containing complicated object scene.
    • Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera

      Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar; University of Bedfordshire (SPIE - the international society for optics and photonics, 2014-02-03)
      A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.