The Applied Sport and Exercise Science group undertakes research that has a direct impact on athletes and individuals undertaking sport and exercise. In particular, the influence of training or nutritional regimens on human performance are a key focus for this group, which works closely with external partners in sport and business.

Recent Submissions

  • Estimation of abdominal fat compartments by bioelectrical impedance: the validity of the ViScan measurement system in comparison with MRI

    Thomas, E. Louise; Collins, Adam L.; McCarthy, John; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Durighel, Giuliana; Goldstone, Anthony P.; Bell, Jimmy D.; Imperial College, London; University of Surrey; University of Bedfordshire (Nature Publishing Group, 2010-05)
    Abdominal obesity, more specifically increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue, is strongly associated with increased risk of metabolic disease. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been proposed as a potential method of determining individual abdominal fat compartments in the form of the commercially available ViScan measurement system (Tanita Corporation), but it has yet to be independently validated. The objective of this study was to analyse the validity of the ViScan to assess adult abdominal adiposity across a range of body fatness.
  • Effects of handgrip training with venous restriction on brachial artery vasodilation

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Hollis, Brandon C.; Welsch, Michael A.; Louisiana State University (Wolters Kluwer/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010-07)
    Previous studies have shown that resistance training with restricted venous blood flow (Kaatsu) results in significant strength gains and muscle hypertrophy. However, few studies have examined the concurrent vascular responses following restrictive venous blood flow training protocols.
  • An elevation of resting metabolic rate with declining health in nonagenarians may be associated with decreased muscle mass and function in women and men, respectively.

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A.; Ravussin, Eric; Welsch, Michael A.; Cherry, Katie E.; Myers, Leann; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Tulane University Health Sciences Center; Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center; Pennington Biomedical Research Center; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2014-06)
    Previously, we showed that FI34, a frailty index based on 34 health and function ability variables, is heritable and a reliable phenotypic indicator of healthy aging. We have now examined the relationship between major components of energy expenditure and the FI34 in participants of the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Resting metabolic rate was associated with FI34, even after adjustment for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, sex, thyroid hormones, and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, in multiple regression analyses. In contrast, there was no association between total daily energy expenditure and FI34. Circulating creatine phosphokinase, a clinical marker of muscle damage, was also significantly associated with FI34. However, these associations of resting metabolic rate with FI34 were restricted to the oldest old (≥90 years) and absent in younger age groups. In oldest old men, the association of FI34 with creatine phosphokinase persisted, whereas in the oldest old women, only the association with resting metabolic rate pertained with the appearance of an effect of body size and composition. These results point toward an increasing metabolic burden for the maintenance of homeodynamics as health declines in nonagenarians, and this has implications for contraction of metabolic reserve that may potentially accelerate the path to disability.
  • Effects of exercise intensity on salivary antimicrobial proteins and markers of stress in active men

    Allgrove, Judith E.; Gomes, Elisa; Hough, John; Gleeson, Michael; Loughborough University (Taylor & Francis, 2008-04)
    In the present study, we assessed the effects of exercise intensity on salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and salivary lysozyme (s-Lys) and examined how these responses were associated with salivary markers of adrenal activation. Using a randomized design, 10 healthy active men participated in three experimental cycling trials: 50% maximal oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O2max), 75%[Vdot]O2max, and an incremental test to exhaustion. The durations of the trials were the same as for a preliminary incremental test to exhaustion (22.3 min, s x = 0.8). Timed, unstimulated saliva samples were collected before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 h after exercise. In the incremental exhaustion trial, the secretion rates of both s-IgA and s-Lys were increased. An increase in s-Lys secretion rate was also observed at 75%[Vdot]O2max. No significant changes in saliva flow rate were observed in any trial. Cycling at 75%[Vdot]O2max and to exhaustion increased the secretion of α-amylase and chromogranin A immediately after exercise; higher cortisol values at 75%[Vdot]O2max and in the incremental exhaustion trial compared with 50%[Vdot]O2max were observed 1 h immediately after exercise only. These findings suggest that short-duration, high-intensity exercise increases the secretion rate of s-IgA and s-Lys despite no change in the saliva flow rate. These effects appear to be associated with changes in sympathetic activity and not the hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal axis.
  • The role of acidosis during multiple bouts of high intensity exercise: subsequent effect of recovery in attenuating fatigue

    Chrismas, Bryna C. (University of Wisconsin, 2008)
    The etiology of fatigue following multiple bouts of high-intensity exercise and the subsequent limitations on exercise performance remains a highly contentious and controversial phenomenon. One important factor that could augment performance is the type of recovery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of active recovery () vs. passive recovery () on blood acidosis during multiple bouts of forearm-wrist-flexion.
  • Acute antioxidant pre-treatment attenuates endothelial microparticle release after decompression

    Chrismas, Bryna C.; Midgley, Adrian W.; Taylor, Lee; Vince, Rebecca V.; Laden, Gerard; Madden, Leigh A. (South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (SPUMS), 2010-12)
    The hyperbaric and hyperoxic effects of a dive have been demonstrated to elicit changes in oxidative stress, endothelial function and microparticle (MP) release. Endothelial MP, which are small membrane vesicles shed from the endothelium, have been suggested as a valid in vivo marker of endothelial function. Furthermore, recent research has shown an increase in CD105 MP post-dive to be associated with a decline in endothelial function. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether antioxidant (AOX) pre-treatment can attenuate increased CD105 MP release post-dive.
  • Endothelial function and stress response after simulated dives to 18 msw breathing air or oxygen

    Madden, Leigh A.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Mellor, Duane; Vince, Rebecca V.; Midgley, Adrian W.; McNaughton, Lars R.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Laden, Gerard; University of Hull (Aerospace Medical Association, 2010-01)
    Decompression sickness is caused by gas bubbles released upon decompression. These bubbles have the potential to occlude blood vessels and damage the vascular endothelium. The aim of this study was to quantify damage to the vascular endothelium resulting from decompression by measuring endothelial microparticles (MP) and endothelial function.
  • Daily quadratic trend in basal monocyte expressed HSP72 in healthy human subjects

    Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R.; University of Hull (Springer, 2010-05)
    The inducible human stress protein heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) performs vital roles within the body at rest and during periods of stress. Recently it was shown over a 24 hour period that basal HSP72 followed a diurnal variation. However, these results and previous literature demonstrate noticeable inter-subject variation in basal HSP72 expression. The notion of intra/inter-day variation in basal HSP72 expression has not been explored in detail. Basal monocyte expressed HSP72 was determined every 3 hours, over a 9 hour period in 12 healthy male subjects (20.2 +/- 1.9 years, 178.7 +/- 5.6 cm, 75.1 +/- 6.0 kg) within a temperature controlled laboratory. A significant quadratic trend was observed for time (F = 26.0, P = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.74), where HSP72 decreased between 0800 and 1100 hours (P < 0.001) and then increased between 1100 and 1400 hours (P = 0.015). The main effect for day (F = 2.6, P = 0.14) and the day x time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = 0.08) were not significant. There was no correlation between serum and monocyte expressed HSP72, with no significant effect for time (F = 2.0, P = 0.21) in serum HSP72 expression. The results support findings by others that basal monocyte expressed HSP72 follows a diurnal variation which incorporates a quadratic trend, which is not compromised by any significant daily variation and that serum HSP72 expression has no endogenous circadian rhythm. The significant quadratic trend in basal monocyte HSP72 expression shown here highlights the need to tightly control variables, such as timing of sample collection, as it is known basal values influence the magnitude of HSP72 expression post-stressor/intervention.
  • The effect of acute hypoxia on heat shock protein 72 expression and oxidative stress in vivo

    Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R. (Springer, 2010)
    The inducible human stress protein HSP72 performs vital roles within the body at rest and during periods of stress. Recently, a previously disclosed quadratic trend in basal HSP72 expression was shown to be reliable and repeatable. The notion of a physiological stressor such as hypoxia disrupting this basal quadratic trend is an interesting one. Monocyte-expressed HSP72 and TBARS were determined every 3 h, over a 12-h period in 12 healthy male subjects on two separate days, with trial day one ascertaining control values. A hypoxic intervention consisting of 75 min at a simulated altitude of 2,980 m, commencing and ceasing at 0930 and 1045, respectively, was incorporated on trail day 2. The hypoxic condition induced significantly (elevated) HSP72 values at 1100 (P = 0.002), 1400 (P < 0.001), 1700 (P = 0.034) and 2000 (P = 0.041) compared to control. Significant increases in plasma TBARS were seen in the hypoxic condition compared to control at 1100 (P = 0.006) and 1400 (P = 0.032). The results demonstrate that a 75-min bout of normobaric hypoxia is sufficient to induce significant increases in HSP72 expression, which disrupts the basal quadratic trend shown by others and here in the control condition. This increase may be linked to the observed changes in oxidative stress. These results may provide a tool for manipulating basal monocyte HSP72 expression within human heat acclimation exercise protocols.
  • Exercise-induced dehydration with and without environmental heat stress results in increased oxidative stress

    Hillman, Angela R.; Vince, Rebecca V.; Taylor, Lee; McNaughton, Lars R.; Mitchell, Nigel; Siegler, Jason C. (NRC Research Press, 2011)
    While in vitro work has revealed that dehydration and hyperthermia can elicit increased cellular and oxidative stress, in vivo research linking dehydration, hyperthermia, and oxidative stress is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise-induced dehydration with and without hyperthermia on oxidative stress. Seven healthy male, trained cyclists (power output (W) at lactate threshold (LT): 199 ± 19 W) completed 90 min of cycling exercise at 95% LT followed by a 5-km time trial (TT) in 4 trials: (i) euhydration in a warm environment (EU-W, control), (ii) dehydration in a warm environment (DE-W), (iii) euhydration in a thermoneutral environment (EU-T), and (iv) dehydration in a thermoneutral environment (DE-T) (W: 33.9 ± 0.9 °C; T: 23.0 ± 1.0 °C). Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) increased significantly postexercise in dehydration trials only (DE-W: p < 0.01, DE-T: p = 0.03), and while not significant, total glutathione (TGSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) tended to increase postexercise in dehydration trials (p = 0.08 for both). Monocyte heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) concentration was increased (p = 0.01) while lymphocyte HSP32 concentration was decreased for all trials (p = 0.02). Exercise-induced dehydration led to an increase in GSSG concentration while maintenance of euhydration attenuated these increases regardless of environmental condition. Additionally, we found evidence of increased cellular stress (measured via HSP) during all trials independent of hydration status and environment. Finally, both 90-min and 5-km TT performances were reduced during only the DE-W trial, likely a result of combined cellular stress, hyperthermia, and dehydration. These findings highlight the importance of fluid consumption during exercise to attenuate thermal and oxidative stress during prolonged exercise in the heat.
  • Microparticle-associated vascular adhesion molecule-1 and tissue factor follow a circadian rhythm in healthy human subjects

    Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V.; Sandström, Marie E.; Taylor, Lee; McNaughton, Lars R.; Laden, Gerard (Schattauer, 2008-05)
    An increased risk of death or severe injury due to late-morning thrombotic events is well established. Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the coagulation cascade, and endothelial stresses, coupled with production of pro-coagulant microparticles (MP) are also important factors in loss of haemostasis. TF and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) -positive cell microparticles were assessed periodically over a 24-hour (h) period in healthy human subjects to ascertain if they followed a circadian rhythm. Eleven healthy male subjects were assessed in a temperature-controlled environment with dietary intake consistent between subjects. Blood samples were taken every 4 h by venipuncture, and TF and VCAM-1 positive microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. A significant circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 MP (p=or<0.0001), and a trend was shown, although not statistically significant (p=0.065) in TF microparticles. A peak was observed at 9 a.m. for VCAM-1 positive MP, followed by a decrease and subsequent peak at 9 p.m. and a minimum at 5 a.m. TF-positive MP followed a strikingly similar trend in both variation and absolute numbers with a delay. A circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 and less so TF-positive MP. This has significant implications in terms of the well known increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events matching this data. To our knowledge this is the first such report of quantified measurements of these MP over a 24-h period and the only measurement of a 24-h variation of in-vivo blood-borne TF.
  • Pre-exercise alkalosis attenuates the heat shock protein 72 response to a single-bout of anaerobic exercise

    Peart, Daniel J.; McNaughton, Lars R.; Midgley, Adrian W.; Taylor, Lee; Towlson, Christopher; Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V. (Elsevier, 2011-09)
    The heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) response following exercise is well documented, however, little is known on whether the expression may be mediated by the ingestion of ergogenic aids prior to performance. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) ingestion on monocyte and lymphocyte expressed HSP72 and oxidative stress for 4-h post exercise. Seven active males (22.3 ± 2.9 years, 181.6 ± 4.5 cm, 78.1 ± 8.1 kg) performed a 4-min 'all-out' cycle test following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of NaHCO(3), or an equimolar placebo dose of sodium chloride. HSP72 was measured by flow cytometry and oxidative stress was determined via plasma thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) analysis. The NaHCO(3) ingestion significantly increased blood pH (p<0.001), bicarbonate (p<0.001) and base excess (p<0.001) pre-exercise. Despite this there was no evidence of a significantly improved exercise performance when compared with the placebo trials (p ≥ 0.26) (means ± SD; average power 292 ± 43 W vs. 291 ± 50 W; peak power 770 ± 218 W vs. 775 ± 211 W; work completed 71 ± 10 kJ vs. 68 ± 10 kJ). Monocyte expressed HSP72 was significantly lower under experimental conditions during the 4-h post-exercise (p=0.013), as was plasma TBARS (p<0.001). These findings suggest that pre-exercise alkalosis can attenuate the stress response to a single bout of anaerobic exercise.
  • Variation in basal heat shock protein 70 is correlated to core temperature in human subjects.

    Sandström, Marie E.; Madden, Leigh A.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Lovell, Ric J.; Midgley, Adrian W.; McNaughton, Lars R. (Springer, 2009-07)
    Heat shock proteins are highly conserved proteins and play an important chaperone role in aiding the folding of nascent proteins within cells. The heat shock protein response to various stressors, both in vitro and in vivo, is well characterised. However, basal levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) have not previously been investigated. Monocyte-expressed Hsp70 was determined every 4 h, over a 24 h time period, in 17 healthy male subjects (177 +/- 6.4 cm, 75.7 +/- 10.9 kg, 19.8 +/- 4.3 years) within a temperature and activity controlled environment. Core temperature was measured at 5-min intervals during the 24 h period. Hsp70 showed significant diurnal variation (F = 7.4; p < 0.001), demonstrating peaks at 0900 and 2100 hours, and a nadir at 05.00. Core temperature followed a similar temporal trend (range = 35.96-38.10 degrees C) and was significantly correlated with Hsp70 expression (r(s) = 0.44; p < 0.001). These findings suggest a high responsiveness of Hsp70 expression in monocytes to slight variations in core temperature.
  • Release of VCAM-1 associated endothelial microparticles following simulated SCUBA dives.

    Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R.; Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Laden, Gerard; Madden, Leigh A. (Springer, 2009-03)
    Microparticles (MP) are shed into the circulation from endothelium following activation or apoptosis. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is expressed on endothelial cells following activation and here we report quantification of VCAM-1 positive microparticles (VCAM + MP) following simulated SCUBA dives, breathing either air or oxygen. VCAM + MP were quantified pre-dive (09:00 and 13:00) and post-dive (+1, +3 and +15 h) on both air and oxygen dives and compared with control samples taken from the same subjects. VCAM + MP followed a similar trend in all experiments, however both dives caused a change in endothelial state, as measured by VCAM + MP. A significant increase in VCAM + MP was observed 1 h post-air dive relative to the control (p = 0.013), which was not observed after the oxygen dive (p = 0.095). Oxidative stress (TBARS) was correlated with VCAM + MP. Data presented highlights the potential of MP as a biological marker of both endothelial state and decompression illness.
  • The effect of the hyperbaric environment on heat shock protein 72 expression in vivo

    Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Sandström, Marie E.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; McNaughton, Lars R. (Taylor and Francis, 2012-04)
    Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is expressed in response to stress and has been demonstrated to follow a diurnal expression pattern within monocytes and is sensitive to changes in core temperature. Numerous studies have shown changes in HSP72 expression within cell lines exposed to hyperbaric conditions. No studies have investigated changes in HSP72 expression in vivo. Six males participated in the study and were exposed to hyperbaric air and hyperbaric oxygen a week apart. Monocyte HSP72 was analyzed by flow cytometry at 09:00, 13:00, 17:00, 21:00 with hyperbaric oxygen or hyperbaric air breathing commencing at 15:00 for 78 min at a pressure of 2.8 ATA. HSP72 under normoxia followed the established trend; however, following the hyperbaric air or oxygen exposure a reduction in detectable HSP72 was observed at 17:00 and 21:00. No changes in core temperature were observed between 13:00 and 21:00 for any condition. The data show that HSP72 expression is impaired following hyperbaric air (HA) exposure, when compared with control or hyperbaric oxygen (HO) exposure.
  • Hypoxia mediated release of endothelial microparticles and increased association of S100A12 with circulating neutrophils

    Vince, Rebecca V.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Midgley, Adrian W.; McNaughton, Lars R.; Madden, Leigh A. (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2009)
    Microparticles are released from the endothelium under normal homeostatic conditions and have been shown elevated in disease states, most notably those characterised by endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium is sensitive to oxidative stress/status and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression is upregulated upon activated endothelium, furthermore the presence of VCAM-1 on microparticles is known. S100A12, a calcium binding protein part of the S100 family, is shown to be present on circulating leukocytes and is thought a sensitive marker to local inflammatory process, which may be driven by oxidative stress. Eight healthy males were subjected to breathing hypoxic air (15% O(2), approximately equivalent to 3000 metres altitude) for 80 minutes in a temperature controlled laboratory and venous blood samples were processed immediately for VCAM-1 microparticles (VCAM-1 MP) and S100A12 association with leukocytes by flow cytometry. A pre-hypoxic blood sample was used for comparison. Both VCAM-1 MP and S100A12 association with neutrophils were significantly elevated post hypoxic breathing later declining to levels observed in the pre-test samples. A similar trend was observed in both cases and a correlation may exist between these two markers in response to hypoxia. These data offer evidence using novel markers of endothelial and circulating blood responses to hypoxia.
  • Acute effect of fatmax exercise on the metabolism in overweight and nonoverweight girls

    Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2012)
    Acute exercise can reduce postprandial insulin concentrations and increase fat oxidation in adults, which may have important implications for insulin resistance and weight control. However, similar studies with young people or comparing overweight (OW) and nonoverweight (NO) individuals are sparse. Therefore, the acute effect of Fatmax exercise on glucose, insulin, and fat oxidation was examined in 12 OW and 15 NO girls.
  • Effect of breakfast glycemic index on metabolic responses during rest and exercise in overweight and non-overweight adolescent girls

    Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Stevenson, E.J.; Tolfrey, Keith (Nature Publishing Group, 2011)
    The metabolic responses to mixed breakfast meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and their effects on substrate metabolism during exercise in adolescent girls have not been examined. The interaction with weight status also warrants investigation. This study investigated the effect of mixed breakfast meals containing high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI) carbohydrates on metabolic responses and fat oxidation during rest and exercise in overweight (OW) and non-overweight (NO) adolescent girls.
  • Comparison of fat oxidation over a range of intensities during treadmill and cycling exercise in children

    Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith (Springer, 2011)
    Substrate metabolism differs between children and adults and is important for weight management during childhood. A direct comparison of fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities and the estimation of Fatmax (exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation (MFO)) during treadmill (TM) and cycling exercise (CE) does not appear to be available in children. Fat oxidation and Fatmax were compared during TM and CE in 22 pre- to early pubertal children (9 girls and 13 boys). Fat oxidation was higher for TM compared with CE over a range of absolute and relative exercise intensities and this difference was more pronounced at higher intensities (P ≤ 0.05). Fat oxidation was higher in boys compared with girls at similar relative, but not absolute intensities (P ≤ 0.05). Fatmax was higher during TM compared with CE and higher in boys compared with girls (P ≤ 0.05). The 5% Fatmax zone (range of exercise intensities where fat oxidation was within 5% of MFO) spanned a wider range of intensities for TM compared with CE (P ≤ 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that exercise programmes aimed at promoting high rates of fat oxidation in pre- to early pubertal children should include TM rather than CE regardless of exercise intensity. Furthermore, Fatmax values indicate that brisk walking or slow running promotes MFO rates in this population.
  • Exercise protocols to estimate Fatmax and maximal fat oxidation in children

    Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith (Human Kinetics, 2011-02)
    Consensus on the exercise protocol used to measure Fatmax (exercise intensity corresponding to maximum fat oxidation (MFO)) in children has not been reached. The present study compared Fatmax estimated using the 3 min incremental cycling protocol (3-INC) and a protocol consisting of several 10 min constant work rate exercise bouts (10-CWR) in 26 prepubertal children. Group Fatmax values were the same for 3-INC and 10-CWR (55% VO2peak) and 95% limits of agreement (LoA) were ± 7% VO2peak. Group MFO values were similar between protocols, although 95% LoA were -94 to 113 mg·min-1. While 3-INC provides a valid estimation of Fatmax compared with 10-CWR, caution should be exercised when estimating MFO in prepubertal children.

View more