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Oxidant stress in healthy normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals.Brown, Louise A.; Kerr, Catherine J.; Whiting, Paul; Finer, Nicholas; McEneny, Jane; Ashton, Tony; University of Bedfordshire (2009-03)This study was undertaken to investigate the association among BMI and lipid hydroperoxide (LH), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). Ninety (n = 90) healthy males and females (n = 23/67) (29 normal weight (BMI: 22.74 +/- 0.25 kg/m(2)), 36 overweight (BMI: 27.18 +/- 0.23 kg/m(2)), and 25 obese (33.78 +/- 0.48 kg/m(2))) participated in the study. Data collected included anthropometric measures, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, LH, TAS, and enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, and reduced GSH). The results of the study showed that obese individuals had significantly increased LH levels compared to normal-weight individuals (obese vs. normal weight (0.88 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.03 micromol/l, P < 0.01)) but the increased levels were not significantly different when compared to the overweight group (obese vs. overweight (0.88 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.05 micromol/l)). No other consistent significant differences in TAS, SOD, and GSH were identified between groups. This study concluded that only obesity and not moderate overweight elevates LH levels. Furthermore, the levels of TAS, SOD, and GSH in obesity do not explain the increased LH levels observed in obesity.
Selenium supplementation and exercise: effect on oxidant stress in overweight adultsSavory, Louise A.; Kerr, Catherine J.; Whiting, Paul; Finer, Nicholas; McEneny, Jane; Ashton, Tony; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2012-04)Both obesity and acute high-intensity exercise increase oxidant stress levels. This study investigates whether selenium (Se) supplementation could be a potential effective therapy to reduce obesity-associated oxidant stress and exercise-induced oxidant stress. Ten normal-weight (NW) (22.80 ± 0.41 kg/m(2)) and ten overweight (OW) healthy subjects (28.00 ± 0.81 kg/m(2)) were assessed during a randomized double-blind Se supplementation study (200 µg sodium selenite/day for 3 weeks) with a 3-week placebo control and inversion of treatment periods. Blood levels of lipid hydroperoxide (LH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), erythrocyte glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant status (TAS), were measured at rest, pre-, and postexercise (30 min 70% VO(2) max before and after treatment (pretreatment (week 0 and 12) and post-treatment (week 3 or 15)). At rest, compared to placebo, Se supplementation had no significant effect on LH, SOD, GSH, and TAS levels. However, Se supplementation decreased LH levels in the OW group, immediately postexercise (-0.25 ± 0.12 µmol/l, P = 0.05) compared to placebo treatment. Postexercise, with or without Se supplementation, no changes in TAS, SOD, and GSH levels were observed in both the NW and OW group. This study has highlighted a potential benefit of Se in reducing LH levels postexercise in OW individuals. Given that oxidant stress is a predictor of coronary events, it is imperative to better understand oxidant stress-related responses to lifestyle factors (in particular "high-risk" population groups) and potential antioxidant therapy.