• Structure-aware lighting design for volume visualization

      Tao, Yubo; Lin, Hai; Dong, Feng; Wang, Chao; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Bao, Hujun (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012-12)
      Lighting design is a complex, but fundamental, problem in many fields. In volume visualization, direct volume rendering generates an informative image without external lighting, as each voxel itself emits radiance. However, external lighting further improves the shape and detail perception of features, and it also determines the effectiveness of the communication of feature information. The human visual system is highly effective in extracting structural information from images, and to assist it further, this paper presents an approach to structure-aware automatic lighting design by measuring the structural changes between the images with and without external lighting. Given a transfer function and a viewpoint, the optimal lighting parameters are those that provide the greatest enhancement to structural information - the shape and detail information of features are conveyed most clearly by the optimal lighting parameters. Besides lighting goodness, the proposed metric can also be used to evaluate lighting similarity and stability between two sets of lighting parameters. Lighting similarity can be used to optimize the selection of multiple light sources so that different light sources can reveal distinct structural information. Our experiments with several volume data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the structure-aware lighting design approach. It is well suited to use by novices as it requires little technical understanding of the rendering parameters associated with direct volume rendering.
    • Subspace-based SNR estimator for OFDM system under different channel conditions

      Li, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Yuan; Huang, Li-Ke; Cosmas, John; Maple, Carsten; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-06)
      Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation plays an important role to adaptive modulation in Evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (eMBMS). Based on the knowledge that the received signal space consists of signal subspace and noise subspace, we propose a subspace-based SNR estimation solution to cope with the time-varying channel with frequency selective effect and different OFDM pilot structure situations in eMBMS. The simulation is carried out on both PC and Aeroflex PXI platform. Simulation results show this proposed method gives good performance with different eMBMS pilot length and time-varying channels.
    • Super depth-map rendering by converting holoscopic viewpoint to perspective projection

      Alazawi, E.; Abbod, M.; Aggoun, Amar; Swash, M.R.; Fatah, O. Abdul; Fernandez, Juan C. J.; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University (IEEE, 2014-07)
      The expansion of 3D technology will enable observers to perceive 3D without any eye-wear devices. Holoscopic 3D imaging technology offers natural 3D visualisation of real 3D scenes that can be viewed by multiple viewers independently of their position. However, the creation of a super depth-map and reconstruction of the 3D object from a holoscopic 3D image is still in its infancy. The aim of this work is to build a high-quality depth map of a real 3D scene from a holoscopic 3D image through extraction of multi-view high resolution Viewpoint Images (VPIs) to compensate for the poor features of VPIs. To manage this, we propose a reconstruction method based on the perspective formula to convert sets of directional orthographic low resolution VPIs into perspective projection geometry. Following that, we implement an Auto-Feature point algorithm for synthesizing VPIs to distinctive Feature-Edge (FE) blocks to localize and provide an individual feature detector that is responsible for integration of 3D information. Detailed experiments proved the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method, which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for depth map creation.
    • Support for the calculation of stent fatigue fracture in peripheral arteries

      McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Wei, Hui; Zhao, Youbing; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Testi, Debora; Chiarini, Alessandro; University of Bedfordshire (European Association for Computer Graphics, 2013)
      Vascular stenting is a medical intervention in which a wire mesh tube is inserted into an artery or vein to provide internal support. This is a safe and common procedure, but stents are now increasingly being deployed in peripheral locations, such as the femoral artery, as part of a procedure called Peripheral Vascular Angioplasty (PVA). Stents in such locations are subject to cyclic bending, and are therefore at risk of fatigue fracture. This paper describes the work of the RT3S project, which brings together stent modelling, surgical simulation and risk calculation for surgical planning. This will allow the clinical user to interactively assess different stent models and deployment options for breakage risk. In the RT3S system, models of several commercial models of self-expanding stent are available for simulation. The placement of the stent in the vessel and the withdrawal of the catheter sheath to expand the stent are visualised. A simplex control mesh is used to guide the deformation of the stent from its compressed start configuration to its expanded final position. The fracture risk for the given model and its patient-specific final position is precomputed using the response surfaces methodology.
    • A survey and classification of visualisation in multiscale biomedical applications

      McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Ma, Xiangyin; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Bessis, Nik; Testi, Debora (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
    • Synopsis of an engineering solution for a painful problem - phantom limb pain

      Mousavi, A.; Cole, J.; Kalganova, T.; Stone, R.; Zhang, J.; Pettifer, S.; Walker, R.; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, P.; Henderson Slater, D.; Aggoun, Amar; et al. (Scitepress, 2014)
      This paper is synopsis of a recently proposed solution for treating patients who suffer from Phantom Limb Pain (PLP). The underpinning approach of this research and development project is based on an extension of "mirror box" therapy which has had some promising results in pain reduction. An outline of an immersive individually tailored environment giving the patient a virtually realised limb presence, as a means to pain reduction is provided. The virtual 3D holographic environment is meant to produce immersive, engaging and creative environments and tasks to encourage and maintain patients' interest, an important aspect in two of the more challenging populations under consideration (over-60s and war veterans). The system is hoped to reduce PLP by more than 3 points on an 11 point Visual Analog Scale (VAS), when a score less than 3 could be attributed to distraction alone.
    • Taxonomy of optimisation techniques and applications

      Maple, Carsten; Prakash, Edmond C.; Huang, Wei; Qureshi, Adnan Nabeel Abid; University of Bedfordshire (Inderscience Publishers, 2014-06)
      This paper presents a review of recent advances in optimisation techniques. Optimisation is a complex task and it is nearly impossible to identify a single technique which can act as a silver bullet in all contexts where scarcity and limitation of resources and constraints exist. The list of individual optimisation methods, their combinations and hybridisations is endless and, hence, it is imperative to classify them based on common attributes and highlight some of the salient industrial and research domains where they have been implemented. This paper concentrates on application areas of the different optimisation techniques in particular, with the objective to establish a practical taxonomy based on the combination of heuristic or non-heuristic nature of algorithms, nature of design variables and nature of equations. A précis of research at the University of Bedfordshire is also given to highlight the contributions made towards optimising different industrial and engineering problems exemplifying the latest trends and research arenas.
    • Three-dimensional integral image reconstruction based on viewpoint interpolation

      Abdul Fatah, O.; Lanigan, Peter M. P.; Aggoun, Amar; Swash, M.R.; Alazawi, E.; Li, B.; Fernandez, Juan C. J.; Chen, D.; Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Brunel University; et al. (IEEE, 2013-07)
      This paper presents new algorithm for improving the visual definition quality of real integral images computationally through image reconstructing. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of true 3D “Integral imaging”. A real world scene is recorded based on the fly's eye technique, which is simulated by an array of microlenses.. The proposed method works on orthographic viewpoint images, where shift-and-integration of the neighbouring viewpoints are used with quadratic interpolation to increase the visual quality on the final image. This process returns a standard photographic image with enhanced image quality. Detailed experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method and results are offered.
    • Towards multiple 3D bone surface identification and reconstruction using few 2D X-ray images for intraoperative applications

      Prakoonwit, Simant; University of Bedfordshire (IGI Global, 2014-06)
      This article discusses a possible method to use a small number, e.g. 5, of conventional 2D X-ray images to reconstruct multiple 3D bone surfaces intraoperatively. Each bone’s edge contours in X-ray images are automatically identified. Sparse 3D landmark points of each bone are automatically reconstructed by pairing the 2D X-ray images. The reconstructed landmark point distribution on a surface is approximately optimal covering main characteristics of the surface. A statistical shape model, dense point distribution model (DPDM), is then used to fit the reconstructed optimal landmarks vertices to reconstruct a full surface of each bone separately. The reconstructed surfaces can then be visualised and manipulated by surgeons or used by surgical robotic systems.
    • Towards rapid 3D reconstruction using conventional X-ray for intraoperative orthopaedic applications

      Prakoonwit, Simant; University of Reading (IGI Global, 2011)
      A rapid 3D reconstruction of bones and other structures during an operation is an important issue. However, most of existing technologies are not feasible to be implemented in an intraoperative environment. Normally, a 3D reconstruction has to be done by a CT or an MRI pre operation or post operation. Due to some physical constraints, it is not feasible to utilise such machine intraoperatively. A special type of MRI has been developed to overcome the problem. However, all normal surgical tools and instruments cannot be employed. This chapter discusses a possible method to use a small number, e.g. 5, of conventional 2D X-ray images to reconstruct 3D bone and other structures intraoperatively. A statistical shape model is used to fit a set of optimal landmarks vertices, which are automatically created from the 2D images, to reconstruct a full surface. The reconstructed surfaces can then be visualised and manipulated by surgeons or used by surgical robotic systems.
    • A two-stage RESTful web Service composition method based on linear logic

      Zhao, Xia; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011-09)
    • A user interface design for a patient oriented digital patient

      Ersotelos, Nikolaos; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Youbing; Wei, Hui; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-11)
      MyHealthAvatar is designed to provide a digital representation of patient health status. It aims to become a `lifetime companion' for individual citizens that will facilitate the collection of, and access to, long term health-status information. This avatar is not only extremely valuable for clinical decision-making, but it will generate data to support clinical investigation, thereby leading to strengthened multidisciplinary research and excellence in supporting innovative medical care across the population. My Health Avatar platform is currently under development. The purpose of this paper is to present the scope, the provided service and the future plans of the platform as well as a detailed description of the visual representation of the MyHealthAvatar platform.
    • Using web services as functional-level plug ins for interactive 3D medical visualisation

      Wang, Tao; Zhao, Youbing; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Hui; Dong, Feng (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
    • Using web services for distributed medical visualisation

      Zhao, Xia; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Quadrani, Paolo; Testi, Debora; Viceconti, Marco (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2008)
    • Video enhancement using adaptive spatio-temporal connective filter and piecewise mapping

      Wang, Chao; Sun, Li-Feng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yi-Ming; Yang, Shi-Qiang; Tsinghua University (SpringerOpen, 2008-05)
      This paper presents a novel video enhancement system based on an adaptive spatio-temporal connective (ASTC) noise filter and an adaptive piecewise mapping function (APMF). For ill-exposed videos or those with much noise, we first introduce a novel local image statistic to identify impulse noise pixels, and then incorporate it into the classical bilateral filter to form ASTC, aiming to reduce the mixture of the most two common types of noises - Gaussian and impulse noises in spatial and temporal directions. After noise removal, we enhance the video contrast with APMF based on the statistical information of frame segmentation results. The experiment results demonstrate that, for diverse low-quality videos corrupted by mixed noise, underexposure, overexposure, or any mixture of the above, the proposed system can automatically produce satisfactory results.
    • The virtual physiological human — a European initiative for in silico human modelling

      Viceconti, Marco; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Jan, Serge Van Sint (Physiological Society of Japan, 2008-12)
      The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is an initiative, strongly supported by the European Commission (EC), that seeks to develop an integrated model of human physiology at multiple scales from the whole body through the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels to the genomic level. VPH had its beginnings in 2005 with informal discussions amongst like-minded scientists, which led to the STEP project, a Coordination Action funded by the EC that began in early 2006. The STEP project greatly accelerated the progress of the VPH and proved to be a catalyst for wide-ranging discussions within Europe and for outreach activities designed to develop a broad international approach to the huge scientific and technological challenges involved in this area. This paper provides an overview of the VPH and the developments it has engendered in the rapidly expanding worldwide activities associated with the physiome. It then uses one particular project, the Living Human Project, to illustrate the type of advances that are taking place to further the aims of the VPH and similar initiatives worldwide.
    • Visual odometer for pedestrian navigation

      Jirawimut, Rommanee; Prakoonwit, Simant; Cecelja, Franjo; Balachandran, Wamadeva (IE, 2003)
    • Visual odometer for pedestrian navigation

      Jirawimut, Rommanee; Prakoonwit, Simant; Cecelja, Franjo; Balachandran, Wamadeva (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2002)
    • Visualisation of left ventricular dysfunction in the virtual pathological heart

      Lin, X.; McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Zhao, Youbing; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; Redaelli, A. (IEEE, 2012-06-08)
    • Visualization and simulated surgery of the left ventricle in the virtual pathological heart of the Virtual Physiological Human

      McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Lin, X.; Zhao, Youbing; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; Redaelli, A.; Parodi, O.; Testi, Debora (The Royal Society, 2011-03)