• 3D scanning by multiple fan beam X-ray sources and sensors

      Benjamin, Ralph; Prakoonwit, Simant (Emerald, 2005)
    • 3D surface reconstruction from multiview photographic images using 2D edge contours

      Prakoonwit, Simant; Benjamin, Ralph; University of Bedfordshire (SpringerLink, 2012)
      Most techniques for reconstructing 3D shapes from multi-view 2D photographic images require a large number of images. In this paper, we present a new method for reconstructing 3D surfaces, represented by sets of polygons, using a small number, e.g. 10, of 2D photographic images with full prior knowledge of camera configurations. The method is automatic. Unlike most currently available silhouette-based multiview reconstruction methods, 3D surface points and surfaces are reconstructed directly from 2D edges without costly intermediate voxel reconstruction. The surfaces reconstructed by the proposed method are self-optimized. More surface points and polygons are automatically generated on highly curved parts of a surface. Experiments on computer generated objects and real physical objects were conducted to verify the method.
    • 3D-holoscopic imaging: a new dimension to enhance Iimaging in minimally invasive therapy in urologic oncology

      Makanjuola, Jonathan K.; Aggoun, Amar; Swash, Mohammad; Grange, Philippe C.R.; Challacombe, Benjamin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital; Brunel University; King's College Hospital (Mary Ann Liebert, 2013-05)
      Background and Purpose: Existing imaging modalities of urologic pathology are limited by three-dimensional (3D) representation on a two-dimensional screen. We present 3D-holoscopic imaging as a novel method of representing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data images taken from CT and MRI to produce 3D-holographic representations of anatomy without special eyewear in natural light. 3D-holoscopic technology produces images that are true optical models. This technology is based on physical principles with duplication of light fields. The 3D content is captured in real time with the content viewed by multiple viewers independently of their position, without 3D eyewear. Methods: We display 3D-holoscopic anatomy relevant to minimally invasive urologic surgery without the need for 3D eyewear. Results: The results have demonstrated that medical 3D-holoscopic content can be displayed on commercially available multiview auto-stereoscopic display. Conclusion: The next step is validation studies comparing 3D-Holoscopic imaging with conventional imaging.
    • Accelerating tumour growth aimulations on many-core architectures: a case study on the use of GPGPU within VPH

      Liu, Baoquan; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; Kolokotroni, Eleni; Stamatakos, Georgios (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011-07)
    • Accelerating volume raycasting using proxy spheres

      Liu, Baoquan; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng (Blackwell Publishing, 2009-07-27)
    • Access methods to WiMAX femtocells: a downlink system-level case study

      Lopez-Perez, David; Valcarce, Alvaro; De La Roche, Guillaume; Liu, Enjie; Zhang, Jie (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2008)
      Over the last two years, GSM and UMTS femtocell access points have been proposed as a solution to the poor indoor coverage problem experienced in certain areas. Research on these devices has shown that femtocells will not only increase indoor system coverage, but also system capacity. Femtocells will allow new services and business models to be offered to indoor users. Almost parallely, the WiMAX standard has emerged as a potential candidate technology for the future wireless networks. WiMAX femtocells are currently under development and will therefore play an important role in the world of indoor broadband wireless access. However, several aspects of this new technology, such as the access method and interference avoidance techniques play a crucial role in the amount of interference caused to co-channel deployed macrocells. This paper provides a framework for the study of WiMAX macro-femtocell hybrid scenarios. An in-depth description of the necessary radio coverage prediction and system-level simulation for this kind of scenarios is introduced. Simulations and numerical results for two different types of access methods (public and private) in the downlink are also presented.
    • Accumulation of local maximum intensity for feature enhanced volume rendering

      Liang, Ronghua; Wu, Yunfei; Dong, Feng; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (Springer, 2012-06)
      Maximum Intensity Difference Accumulation (MIDA) combines the advantage of Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) and Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP). However, many features with local maximum intensity are still missing in the final rendering image. This paper presents a novel approach to focus on features with local maximum intensity within the dataset. Moving Least Squares (MLS) is used to smooth each ray profile during the raycasting in order to eliminate noise in the data and to highlight significant transition points on the profile. We then adopt a local minimum-point searching method to analyze the ray profile, and identify the transition points that mark the local maximum intensity points within the dataset. At the rendering stage, we implement a novel local intensity difference accumulation (LIDA) to accumulate the colors and opacity. Surface shading is introduced to improve the spatial cues of the features. We also employ tone-reduction to preserve the original local contrast. Our approach can highlight local features in the dataset without involving the adjustment of transfer functions. The experiments demonstrate high-quality rendering results at an interactive frame rate.
    • Achieving high data rate in multiband-OFDM UWB over power-line communication system

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Wang, Shihua; Liu, Yanchao; Chen, Shuxian; Chen, Xiaodong; Parini, Clive G.; Queen Mary University, London (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
      Theoretical studies indicate that a transmission data rate of up to gigabits per second can be achieved over low-voltage (LV) indoor power-line cables. Achieving a very high data rate (up to 480 Mb/s) is expected by applying WiMedia multiband-orthogonal frequency-divison multiplexing (MB-OFDM) standard for wireless ultra-wideband (UWB) communication over the power-line channel. However, the viability of this concept needs to be tested experimentally. This paper presents a novel design of demonstration system for the UWB over power-line communication technology. The demonstration system consists of an MB-OFDM UWB kit and is capable of transmitting very high data-rate signals over the LV power-line cables. It provides means to evaluate the performance of the UWB over power-line communication systems and analyze its viability in actual home networking scenarios.
    • Adaptive 3D-DCT based compression algorithms for integral images

      Mehanna, A.; Aggoun, Amar; Fatah, O. Abdul; Swash, M.R.; Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013)
      This paper proposes a novel mean adaptive 3DDCT algorithm for 3D content to achieve the optimal result by trading of quality and compression of 3D image. The proposed method enables users to adjust the compression rate according to application areas by applying small blocks to the more detailing area (non -stationary regions) and larger blocks to the background or less details area (homogenous regions) [1]. This proposed method “Mean Adaptive 3D-DCT” is applied on Holoscopic 3D images also known as Integral Images. In addition, the experiment results prove the method is applicable to any 3D content.
    • Adaptive and autonomous power-saving scheme for beyond 3G  user equipment

      Ren, Weili; Liu, Enjie; Zhang, Jie (IET, 2013)
      Beyond 3G mobile networks will be data service centric. User equipment (UE) stays in the Connected State relatively long while supporting data services, so efficient power-saving mechanisms for the Connected State are becoming more significant in order to prolong battery life of a handset. Discontinuous reception (DRX) has been a dominant approach for power saving in the Idle State and Connected State. In this study, a novel counter-driven adaptive DRX (CDA-DRX) scheme is proposed and analysed. The CDA-DRX scheme is intended to present a generic and easy-to-implement algorithm to adaptively and autonomously adjust DRX cycle to keep up with changing user activity level. The scheme distinguishes itself from all other researches by minimising signalling overhead and easily balancing packet delivery latency and power consumption. Numerical analysis and system simulation showed that this scheme produces a better tuned DRX operation than the ones proposed in literature or suggested in the standards.
    • Adaptive aperture partition in shooting and bouncing ray method

      Tao, Yubo; Lin, Hai; Bao, Hu Jun (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011-09)
    • Adaptive depth map estimation from 3D integral image

      Alazawi, E.; Aggoun, Amar; Abbod, M.; Fatah, O. Abdul; Swash, M.R.; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-06)
      Integral Imaging (InIm) is one of the most promising technologies for producing full color 3-D images with full parallax. InIm requires only one recording in obtaining 3D information and therefore no calibration is necessary to acquire depth values. The compactness of using InIm in depth measurement has been attracting attention as a novel depth extraction technique. In this paper, an algorithm for depth extraction that builds on previous work by the authors is presented. Three main problems in depth map estimation from InIm have been solved; the uncertainty and region homogeneity at image location where errors commonly appear in disparity process, dissimilar displacements within the matching block around object borders, object segmentation. This method is based on the distribution of the sample variance in sub-dividing non-overlapping blocks. A descriptor which is unique and distinctive for each feature on InIm has been achieved. Comparing to state-of-the-art techniques, it is shown that the proposed algorithm has improvements on two aspects: depth map extraction level, computational complexity.
    • Advances in games technology : software, models, and intelligence

      Prakash, Edmond C.; Brindle, G.; Jones, K.; Zhou, S.; Chaudhari, Narendra S.; Wong, K.-W. (Sage Publications, 2009-12)
    • AimaSimul: a software tool to plan stent positioning in peripheral arteries and evaluate the associated fatigue fracture risk

      Testi, Debora; McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Wei, Hui; Zhao, Youbing; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Ryan, D. M.; Lawford, Patricia; University of Bedfordshire; CINECA Supercomput. Centre (IEEE, 2013-11)
      Vascular stent deployment in peripheral arteries is a medical intervention in which a wire mesh tube is inserted into the artery to provide internal support. However, stents positioned in locations such as the femoral artery are subject to cyclic bending, and are therefore at risk of fatigue fracture. A software tool chain, called AimaSimul, is being implemented to support stent modeling, surgical simulation and risk calculation for surgical planning. In particular, the AimaSimul preoperative planning tool allows clinicians, starting from patient-specific medical images, to interactively assess different stent models and deployment options for the risk of breakage. This paper describes the main functionalities of AimaSimul and, in particular, the stent deployment and deformation.
    • An algorithm for accurate taillight detection at night

      Boonsim, Noppakun; Prakoonwit, Simant; University of Bedfordshire (Foundation of Computer Science, 2014-08)
      Vehicle detection is an important process of many advance driver assistance system (ADAS) such as forward collision avoidance, Time to collision (TTC) and Intelligence headlight control (IHC). This paper presents a new algorithm to detect a vehicle ahead by using taillight pair. First, the proposed method extracts taillight candidate regions by filtering taillight colour regions and applying morphological operations. Second, pairing each candidates and pair symmetry analysis steps are implemented in order to have taillight positions. The aim of this work is to improve the accuracy of taillight detection at night with many bright spot candidates from streetlamps and other factors from complex scenes. Experiments on still images dataset show that the proposed algorithm can improve the taillight detection accuracy rate and robust under limited light images.
    • Analyzing image deblurring through three paradigms

      Wang, Chao; Sun, Lifeng; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Jianwei; Yang, Shiqiang (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012)
    • Aneurysm identification by analysis of the blood-vessel skeleton

      Kohout, Josef; Chiarini, Alessandro; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Klajnšek, Gregor (Elsevier, 2013)
    • Applying Cross-cultural theory to understand users’ preferences on interactive information retrieval platform design

      Chessum, Karen; Liu, Haiming; Frommholz, Ingo; University of Bedfordshire (University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science., 2014-09)
      In this paper we look at using culture to group users and model the users’ preference on cross cultural information retrieval, in order to investigate the relationship between the user search preferences and the user’s cultural background. Initially we review and discuss briefly website localisation. We continue by examining culture and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. We identified a link between Hofstede’s five dimensions and user experience. We did an analogy for each of the five dimensions and developed six hypotheses from the analogies. These hypotheses were then tested by means of a user study. Whilst the key findings from the study suggest cross cultural theory can be used to model user’s preferences for information retrieval, further work still needs to be done on how cultural dimensions can be applied to inform the search interface design.
    • Automatic X-ray screening of aircraft hold luggage

      Benjamin, Ralph; Prakoonwit, Simant (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 1997)
      The authors addressed the application of the “object 3D” X ray reconstruction technique for electronically “unpacking” suspect items, when screening aircraft luggage. However, there is no satisfactory solution to the mass screening of hold luggage. Computed Tomography, CT, entails excessive radiation dosages, and its rate of throughput is quite inadequate. A novel variant of “object 3D” is therefore put forward, adapting some of the technology of existing cabin luggage screening systems-but on a substantially larger scale-which does achieve the required throughput at an acceptable radiation dosage and cost.