• Taxonomy of optimisation techniques and applications

      Maple, Carsten; Prakash, Edmond C.; Huang, Wei; Qureshi, Adnan Nabeel Abid; University of Bedfordshire (Inderscience Publishers, 2014-06)
      This paper presents a review of recent advances in optimisation techniques. Optimisation is a complex task and it is nearly impossible to identify a single technique which can act as a silver bullet in all contexts where scarcity and limitation of resources and constraints exist. The list of individual optimisation methods, their combinations and hybridisations is endless and, hence, it is imperative to classify them based on common attributes and highlight some of the salient industrial and research domains where they have been implemented. This paper concentrates on application areas of the different optimisation techniques in particular, with the objective to establish a practical taxonomy based on the combination of heuristic or non-heuristic nature of algorithms, nature of design variables and nature of equations. A précis of research at the University of Bedfordshire is also given to highlight the contributions made towards optimising different industrial and engineering problems exemplifying the latest trends and research arenas.
    • Three-dimensional integral image reconstruction based on viewpoint interpolation

      Abdul Fatah, O.; Lanigan, Peter M. P.; Aggoun, Amar; Swash, M.R.; Alazawi, E.; Li, B.; Fernandez, Juan C. J.; Chen, D.; Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Brunel University; et al. (IEEE, 2013-07)
      This paper presents new algorithm for improving the visual definition quality of real integral images computationally through image reconstructing. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of true 3D “Integral imaging”. A real world scene is recorded based on the fly's eye technique, which is simulated by an array of microlenses.. The proposed method works on orthographic viewpoint images, where shift-and-integration of the neighbouring viewpoints are used with quadratic interpolation to increase the visual quality on the final image. This process returns a standard photographic image with enhanced image quality. Detailed experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method and results are offered.
    • Towards multiple 3D bone surface identification and reconstruction using few 2D X-ray images for intraoperative applications

      Prakoonwit, Simant; University of Bedfordshire (IGI Global, 2014-06)
      This article discusses a possible method to use a small number, e.g. 5, of conventional 2D X-ray images to reconstruct multiple 3D bone surfaces intraoperatively. Each bone’s edge contours in X-ray images are automatically identified. Sparse 3D landmark points of each bone are automatically reconstructed by pairing the 2D X-ray images. The reconstructed landmark point distribution on a surface is approximately optimal covering main characteristics of the surface. A statistical shape model, dense point distribution model (DPDM), is then used to fit the reconstructed optimal landmarks vertices to reconstruct a full surface of each bone separately. The reconstructed surfaces can then be visualised and manipulated by surgeons or used by surgical robotic systems.
    • Towards rapid 3D reconstruction using conventional X-ray for intraoperative orthopaedic applications

      Prakoonwit, Simant; University of Reading (IGI Global, 2011)
      A rapid 3D reconstruction of bones and other structures during an operation is an important issue. However, most of existing technologies are not feasible to be implemented in an intraoperative environment. Normally, a 3D reconstruction has to be done by a CT or an MRI pre operation or post operation. Due to some physical constraints, it is not feasible to utilise such machine intraoperatively. A special type of MRI has been developed to overcome the problem. However, all normal surgical tools and instruments cannot be employed. This chapter discusses a possible method to use a small number, e.g. 5, of conventional 2D X-ray images to reconstruct 3D bone and other structures intraoperatively. A statistical shape model is used to fit a set of optimal landmarks vertices, which are automatically created from the 2D images, to reconstruct a full surface. The reconstructed surfaces can then be visualised and manipulated by surgeons or used by surgical robotic systems.
    • A two-stage RESTful web Service composition method based on linear logic

      Zhao, Xia; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011-09)
    • A user interface design for a patient oriented digital patient

      Ersotelos, Nikolaos; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Youbing; Wei, Hui; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-11)
      MyHealthAvatar is designed to provide a digital representation of patient health status. It aims to become a `lifetime companion' for individual citizens that will facilitate the collection of, and access to, long term health-status information. This avatar is not only extremely valuable for clinical decision-making, but it will generate data to support clinical investigation, thereby leading to strengthened multidisciplinary research and excellence in supporting innovative medical care across the population. My Health Avatar platform is currently under development. The purpose of this paper is to present the scope, the provided service and the future plans of the platform as well as a detailed description of the visual representation of the MyHealthAvatar platform.
    • Using web services as functional-level plug ins for interactive 3D medical visualisation

      Wang, Tao; Zhao, Youbing; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Hui; Dong, Feng (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
    • Using web services for distributed medical visualisation

      Zhao, Xia; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Quadrani, Paolo; Testi, Debora; Viceconti, Marco (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2008)
    • Video enhancement using adaptive spatio-temporal connective filter and piecewise mapping

      Wang, Chao; Sun, Li-Feng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yi-Ming; Yang, Shi-Qiang; Tsinghua University (SpringerOpen, 2008-05)
      This paper presents a novel video enhancement system based on an adaptive spatio-temporal connective (ASTC) noise filter and an adaptive piecewise mapping function (APMF). For ill-exposed videos or those with much noise, we first introduce a novel local image statistic to identify impulse noise pixels, and then incorporate it into the classical bilateral filter to form ASTC, aiming to reduce the mixture of the most two common types of noises - Gaussian and impulse noises in spatial and temporal directions. After noise removal, we enhance the video contrast with APMF based on the statistical information of frame segmentation results. The experiment results demonstrate that, for diverse low-quality videos corrupted by mixed noise, underexposure, overexposure, or any mixture of the above, the proposed system can automatically produce satisfactory results.
    • The virtual physiological human — a European initiative for in silico human modelling

      Viceconti, Marco; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Jan, Serge Van Sint (Physiological Society of Japan, 2008-12)
      The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is an initiative, strongly supported by the European Commission (EC), that seeks to develop an integrated model of human physiology at multiple scales from the whole body through the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels to the genomic level. VPH had its beginnings in 2005 with informal discussions amongst like-minded scientists, which led to the STEP project, a Coordination Action funded by the EC that began in early 2006. The STEP project greatly accelerated the progress of the VPH and proved to be a catalyst for wide-ranging discussions within Europe and for outreach activities designed to develop a broad international approach to the huge scientific and technological challenges involved in this area. This paper provides an overview of the VPH and the developments it has engendered in the rapidly expanding worldwide activities associated with the physiome. It then uses one particular project, the Living Human Project, to illustrate the type of advances that are taking place to further the aims of the VPH and similar initiatives worldwide.
    • Visual odometer for pedestrian navigation

      Jirawimut, Rommanee; Prakoonwit, Simant; Cecelja, Franjo; Balachandran, Wamadeva (IE, 2003)
    • Visual odometer for pedestrian navigation

      Jirawimut, Rommanee; Prakoonwit, Simant; Cecelja, Franjo; Balachandran, Wamadeva (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2002)
    • Visualisation of left ventricular dysfunction in the virtual pathological heart

      Lin, X.; McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Zhao, Youbing; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; Redaelli, A. (IEEE, 2012-06-08)
    • Visualization and simulated surgery of the left ventricle in the virtual pathological heart of the Virtual Physiological Human

      McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Lin, X.; Zhao, Youbing; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng; Redaelli, A.; Parodi, O.; Testi, Debora (The Royal Society, 2011-03)
    • Wavefront raycasting using larger filter kernels for on-the-fly GPU gradient reconstruction

      Liu, Baoquan; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng (SpringerLink, 2010)
    • Web services in distributed information systems

      Zhao, Xia; Wang, Tao; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (IGI Global, 2010)
    • Web-based 3D visualisation for biomedical applications

      Wei, Hui; Liu, Enjie; Zhao, Xia; McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2011-07)
    • WebGL-based interactive rendering of whole body anatomy for web-oriented visualisation of avatar-centered digital health data

      Zhao, Youbing; Zhao, X.; Dong, Feng; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Ersotelos, Nikolaos; Liu, Enjie; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-11)
      The visualisation of whole-body anatomy has a variety of applications in health-related analysis and simulation. However, the rendering of complex 3D human anatomy models is generally performed by standalone applications rather than via a web interface, as rendering large 3D models has always been a weak spot of traditional web browsers. Consequently, online access to, and exploration of, the human anatomy in 3D has not been feasible in the past. With the advent of WebGL and HTML5, high performance OpenGL rendering seamlessly integrated with the web interface is now within reach, and this opens the possibility of visualising avatar-centered health data via a web interface. In this paper, a WebGL-based prototype for rendering whole-body anatomy is introduced, and the technical details are presented.