• Editorial

      Kohl, Peter; Coveney, Peter V.; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Viceconti, Marco (Royal Society Publishing, 2008-09)
      The second issue of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, devoted to ‘The virtual physiological human’, highlights the challenges involved in organ-level modelling of biological systems.
    • Editorial

      Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Viceconti, Marco; Coveney, Peter V.; Kohl, Peter (Royal Society Publishing, 2008-09)
    • Enabling the interactive display of large medical volume datasets by multiresolution bricking

      Agrawal, Anupam; Kohout, Josef; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; McFarlane, Nigel J.B.; Dong, Feng; Viceconti, Marco; Taddei, Fulvia; Testi, Debora (SpringerLink, 2010)
    • Energy-saving MAC protocols for Point-Controlled Wireless Networks: Best-Effort, QoS

      Safdar, Ghazanfar Ali (VDM Verlag, 2010)
      As wireless networks become an integral component of the modern communication infrastructure, energy efficiency will be an important design consideration due to the limited battery life of mobile and portable terminals. Such devices must operate with the highest possible energy efficiency while still maintaining a minimum quality of service to meet the user?s expectations. PCSAR, a new power-saving MAC protocol for centralized control wireless networks is presented in this book. The book contains power saving techniques employed by standards for WPAN and WLANs, such as Bluetooth, Zigbee, HiperLan, and IEEE 802.11. The steady state performance of PCSAR was compared with IEEE 802.11b power saving mode (PCF-PS) using DES of a typical WLAN scenario. To account for effect of errors on performance, PCSAR was also compared with PCF-PS for both uncorrelated and time-correlated channel models. Finally, PCSAR was modified to suit a QoS enabled MAC such as IEEE 802.11e. This book should be useful for professionals both in academics and industry, in the field of wireless communications and networking, especially those engaged in the development of MAC protocols for wireless networks
    • Enhancing Bayesian estimators for removing camera shake

      Wang, Chao; Yue, Y.; Dong, Feng; Tao, Yubo; Ma, Xiangyin; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Ye, Xujiong; University of Bedfordshire (Wiley, 2013)
      The aim of removing camera shake is to estimate a sharp version x from a shaken image y when the blur kernel k is unknown. Recent research on this topic evolved through two paradigms called MAP(k) and MAP(x,k). MAP(k) only solves for k by marginalizing the image prior, while MAP(x,k) recovers both x and k by selecting the mode of the posterior distribution. This paper first systematically analyses the latent limitations of these two estimators through Bayesian analysis. We explain the reason why it is so difficult for image statistics to solve the previously reported MAP(x,k) failure. Then we show that the leading MAP(x,k) methods, which depend on efficient prediction of large step edges, are not robust to natural images due to the diversity of edges. MAP(k), although much more robust to diverse edges, is constrained by two factors: the prior variation over different images, and the ratio between image size and kernel size. To overcome these limitations, we introduce an inter-scale prior prediction scheme and a principled mechanism for integrating the sharpening filter into MAP(k). Both qualitative results and extensive quantitative comparisons demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
    • The EuroPhysiome, STEP and a roadmap for the virtual physiological human

      Fenner, J.W; Brook, B.; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Coveney, Peter V.; Feipel, V.; Gregersen, H.; Hose, D.R.; Kohl, Peter; Lawford, Patricia; McCormack, K.M.; et al. (The Royal Society, 2008-09)
    • Evaluation of a statistical model for the characterization of multipath affecting mobile terminal GPS antennas in sub-urban areas

      Ur-Rehman, Masood; Chen, Xiaodong; Parini, Clive G.; Ying, Zhinong (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2012-02)
      This paper describes and validates a technique to characterize the environmental effects on mobile terminal GPS antennas using statistical model. This method requires the knowledge of 3-D free space antenna gain patterns and average angular distribution of incident power in the environment. The power distribution must be known in both elevation and azimuth and separately for parallel and perpendicular polarizations. The antenna performance is assessed in terms of GPS Mean Effective Gain (MEGGPS) and GPS Coverage Efficiency (ηc). Angle of Arrival (AoAGPS) distributions of incident GPS radio waves arriving at the mobile terminal are assumed to be randomly uniform in both the azimuth and elevation planes. It effectively replicates the open field (sub-urban) working conditions for the mobile terminal GPS antennas. The method could be adapted to an urban environment by introducing the information of AoAGPS distributions. A lengthy open field measurement campaign based on received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mean number of tracked GPS satellites is carried out to validate the statistical model.
    • Evolution and sustainability of a wildlife monitoring sensor network

      Dyo, Vladimir; Yousef, Kharsim; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Macdonald, David W.; Markham, Andrew; Mascolo, Cecilia; Pásztor, Bence; Scellato, Salvatore; Trigoni, Niki; Wohlers, Ricklef (ACM, 2010)
      In this paper, we report the findings from a one year deployment of an automated wildlife monitoring system for analyzing the social co-location patterns of European badgers (Meles meles) residing in a dense woodland environment. We describe the stages of its evolution cycle, from implementation, deployment and testing, to various iterations of software optimization, followed by hardware enhancements, which in turn triggered the need for further software optimization. We report preliminary descriptive analyses of a subset of the data collected, demonstrating the significant potential our system has to generate new insights into badger behavior. The main lessons learned were: the need to factor in the maintenance costs while designing the system; to look carefully at software and hardware interactions; the importance of a rapid initial prototype deployment (this was key to our success); and the need for continuous interaction with domain scientists which allows for unexpected optimizations.
    • Face to face: anthropometry-based interactive face shape modeling using model priors

      Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C. (Hindawi, 2009)
      This paper presents a new anthropometrics-based method for generating realistic, controllable face models. Our method establishes an intuitive and efficient interface to facilitate procedures for interactive 3D face modeling and editing. It takes 3D face scans as examples in order to exploit the variations presented in the real faces of individuals. The system automatically learns a model prior from the data-sets of example meshes of facial features using principal component analysis (PCA) and uses it to regulate the naturalness of synthesized faces. For each facial feature, we compute a set of anthropometric measurements to parameterize the example meshes into a measurement space. Using PCA coefficients as a compact shape presentation, we formulate the face modeling problem in a scattered data interpolation framework which takes the user-specified nthropometric parameters as input. Solving the interpolation problem in a reduced subspace allows us to generate a natural face shape that satisfies the user-specified constraints. At runtime, the new face shape can be generated at an interactive rate. We demonstrate the utility of our method by presenting several applications, including analysis of facial features of subjects in different race groups, facial feature transfer, and adapting face models to a particular population group.
    • Fast isosurface rendering on a GPU by cell rasterization

      Liu, Baoquan; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Dong, Feng (Blackwell Publishing, 2009-12)
    • Feature enhancement by volumetric unsharp masking

      Tao, Yubo; Lin, Hai; Bao, Hujun; Dong, Feng; Clapworthy, Gordon J. (SpringerLink, 2009-04)
    • Finding a set of optimal viewing for 3D surface reconstruction from 2D X-ray images using genetic algorithm

      Prakoonwit, Simant; University of Reading (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010)
    • Generating stereoscopic 3D from holoscopic 3D

      Fatah, O. Abdul; Aggoun, Amar; Swash, M.R.; Alazawi, E.; Li, B.; Fernandez, Juan C. J.; Chen, D.; Tsekleves, Emmanuel; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University (IEEE, 2013-10)
      In this paper a single aperture motion picture camera based on holoscopic imaging used to generate high-resolution stereoscopic image. The idea of single aperture camera reduces the very cumbersome and expensive of dual cameras in stereoscopic production. The camera is known as light field camera, which was first proposed in 1908 by lippmann [1]. The rendering method relied on up-sampling, shift and integrating of different views to extract stereo images. This is the first experiment attempted to generate stereo form holoscopic content on motion capturing, where researchers so far have been experimenting on still images. In this paper presents motion picture image rendering on holoscopic content to generate content for stereoscopic systems. We have carried out experiments with focused plenoptic camera on a single stage omnidirectional integral camera arrangement with capturing both horizontal and vertical parallax, using a low cost lens array and relay lens. Our results show an improvement in the resolution of images with artefact free and also the rendered stereo content are played back on polarized stereoscopic system and anaglyph system to perceive the 3D depth using filter glasses in our experimental section.
    • GPU-based refraction and caustics rendering on depth textures

      Sheng, Bin; Sun, Hanqiu; Liu, Baoquan; Wu, Enhua (ACM, 2009)
    • GPU-Based Shooting and Bouncing Ray Method for Fast RCS Prediction

      Tao, Yubo; Lin, Hai; Bao, Hujun (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2010-02)
    • Healthcare-event driven semantic knowledge extraction with hybrid data repository

      Yu, Hong Qing; Zhao, Xia; Zhen, Xin; Dong, Feng; Liu, Enjie; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2014-08)
      In this paper, we introduce a Healthcare-Event (H-event) based knowledge extraction approach on a hybrid data repository. The repository collects (with individual user's permission) dynamic and large volume healthcare related data from various resources such as wearable sensors, social media Web APIs and our application itself. The proposed extraction approach relies on two data processing processes. One is the data integration process to dynamically retrieving the large data using public data service APIs. The first process also generates a set of big knowledge bases and stored in NoSQL storage. This paper will focus on the second extraction process that is the H-Event based ontological knowledge extraction for detecting and monitoring user's healthcare related situations, such as medical symptoms, treatments, conditions and daily activities from the NoSQL knowledge bases. The second process can be seen as post-processing step to detect more explicit healthcare knowledge about personalised health conditions and represent the knowledge using RDF formats in a semantic triple repository to enhance further data analytics.
    • Holoscopic 3D image rendering for Autostereoscopic Multiview 3D Display

      Swash, M.R.; Aggoun, Amar; Fatah, O. Abdul; Li, B.; Fernandez, Juan C. J.; Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-06)
      The Autostereoscopic Multiview 3D Display is robustly developed and widely adopted by both home and professional users however Multiview 3D content generation remains a great challenge. This paper proposes a novel method for Multiview 3D content generation and it describes the necessary steps for Holoscopic 3D image rendering for autostereoscopic Multiview 3D display. The Holoscopic imaging technology mimics the imaging system of insects, such as the fly, utilizing a single camera, equipped with a large number of micro-lenses, to capture a scene, offering rich parallax information and enhanced 3D feeling without the need of wearing specific eyewear. In addition a 3D pixel mapping/conversion algorithm has been developed that is supported by the Multiview 3D display.
    • IMENSE: an e-infrastructure environment for patient specific multiscale data integration, modelling and clinical treatment

      Zasada, Stefan J.; Wang, Tao; Haidar, Ali; Liu, Enjie; Graf, Norbert; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Manos, Steven; Coveney, Peter V. (Elsevier, 2012-09)
      Secure access to patient data and analysis tools to run on that data will revolutionize the treatment of a wide range of diseases, by using advanced simulation techniques to underpin the clinical decision making process. To achieve these goals, suitable e-Science infrastructures are required to allow clinicians and researchers to trivially access data and launch simulations. In this paper we describe the open source Individualized MEdiciNe Simulation Environment (IMENSE), which provides a platform to securely manage clinical data, and to perform wide ranging analysis on that data, ultimately with the intention of enhancing clinical decision making with direct impact on patient health care. We motivate the design decisions taken in the development of the IMENSE system by considering the needs of researchers in the ContraCancrum project, which provides a paradigmatic case in which clinicians and researchers require coordinated access to data and simulation tools. We show how the modular nature of the IMENSE system makes it applicable to a wide range of biomedical computing scenarios, from within a single hospital to major international research projects.
    • Immersive 3D holoscopic video system

      Aggoun, Amar; Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Swash, M.R.; Zarpalas, D.; Dimou, A.; Daras, P.; Nunes, P.; Soares, L.D.; Brunel University; University of Bedfordshire (IEEE, 2013-02)
      We demonstrated a 3D holoscopic video system for 3DTV application. We showed that using a field lens and a square aperture significantly reduces the vignetting problem associated with a relay system and achieves over 95 percent fill factor. The main problem for such a relay system is the nonlinear distortion during the 3D image capturing, which can seriously affect the reconstruction process for a 3D display. The nonlinear distortion mainly includes lens radial distortion (intrinsic) and microlens array perspective distortion (extrinsic). This is the task of future work. Our results also show that the SS coding approach performs better than the standard HEVC scheme. Furthermore, we show that search and retrieval performance relies on the depth map's quality and that the multimodal fusion boosts the retrieval performance.
    • Intelligent ray launching algorithm for indoor scenarios

      Lai, Zhihua; De La Roche, Guillaume; Bessis, Nik; Kuonen, Pierre; Clapworthy, Gordon J.; Zhou, Dibin; Zhang, Jie (SPOLECNOST PRO RADIOELEKTRONICKE INZENYRSTVI, CZECH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, DEPT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD, TECHNICKA 2, PRAHA, CZ-16627, CZECH REPUBLIC, 2011-06)