• To embed or not to embed? the embedding of PDP in the curriculum

      Ujma, Dorota; Atlay, Mark; Petrova, Petia (Threshold Press Ltd, 2009)
    • Tourism and natural resources

      Holden, Andrew (Pearson, 2009)
    • Tourism and poverty reduction: an interpretation by the poor of Elmina, Ghana

      Holden, Andrew; Sonne, Joel; Novelli, Marina (2011)
      Over the past decade, academic research into the use of tourism as a contributor to poverty reduction has grown considerably; however, there are few insights on how the poor perceive the connections between poverty and tourism. Based upon interpretive and participatory fieldwork with the poor of Elmina in Ghana, this paper explores their understanding and constructions of poverty and how they comprehend tourism as a provider of alternative livelihood opportunities. It emerged that poverty is understood as a multi-dimensional construct, including low and irregular incomes, depletion of natural resources, a lack of access to social assets and educational opportunities, and denial of meaningful participation in society. At a time of structural readjustment in Elmina's economy, the potential of tourism to enhance livelihoods and reduce poverty is high, but remains hindered by major barriers to entrepreneurship development and employment within the sector, which is worsened by the lack of access to credit, exclusion from decision-making, poor skills and excessive bureaucracy. It became evident that a focus on the use of tourism for macroeconomic gains will not necessarily benefit the poor. They need to be included in tourism policy and practice, not only as a target group, but also in participatory mechanisms to ensure the appropriate use of tourism for poverty reduction. It is argued that it is only through a better understanding of poor people's experiences of poverty, that tourism can be used more meaningfully as a strategy for its alleviation.
    • Tourism and the green economy: a place for an environmental ethic?

      Holden, Andrew (Taylor & Francis, 2015-01-12)
      Tourism has been recognized by major multilateral world agencies, the World Bank, IMF and United Nations, as a key economic sector for achieving a global transition from a brown to a green economic system. This transition includes an incumbent ethical mission, seeking to improve 'human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities' (UNEP 2011: 1ndash;2). Nevertheless, five key challenges have been identified to tourism playing its part in fulfilling the aims of a green economy, four of which are directly related to its interaction with the natural environment and encompass a strong behavioural component. They are: a consumer trend to travel further for shortening durations of time; a preference for energy-intensive transportation based upon non-renewable fuel usage with an accompanying growth in GHG emissions; excessive water consumption; and damage to marine and terrestrial biodiversity. Simultaneously, the United Nations Environment Programme holds that the driving force of the greening of the tourism industry is consumer demand. The favoured approach from the World Bank and IMF to change environmentally destructive behaviour and reflect the full costs of an increasing ecological scarcity is through price and market correction. Other favoured approaches place a reliance on the greening of technology as a solution to environmental problems. This paper argues that these measures will not be sufficient to deal with the environmental challenges facing the tourism industry and system, and that without a stronger environmental ethic in the market it will be difficult to impose controls on tourists behaviour designed for environmental conservation. It subsequently analyzes the conceptualization of environmental ethics, the rationale for the evolution of an environmental ethic in society and evaluates its relevance to the tourism market.
    • ‘Tourism state’ cultural production: the re-making of Nova Scotia

      Hollinshead, Keith; Ateljevic, Irena; Ali, Nazia (Taylor and Francis, 2009-11)
      Mathews and Richter - amongst many - have condemned the paucity of political analyses in Tourism Studies, while Hall and Meethan have likewise bemoaned the field's related privileging of prescriptivist studies of policy making at the expense of longitudinal, descriptivist interpretations. Responding to such calls, this paper (on the under-suspected ideological power and authority of tourism) critiques the contribution to the understanding of real-world governmental action of the historian McKay as generated in his investigation of matters of cultural representation and cultural formation in Canada.
    • Tourism studies and confined understanding: the call for a 'new sense' postdisciplinary

      Hollinshead, Keith; Seaton, V. (2010)
      Recently, in Current Issues in Tourism, Coles, Hall, and Duval produced a very well-received inspection of the state of Tourism Studies/Tourism Management and acutely stated the case for the much more frequent and rigorous use of postdisciplinary forms of research in the (above) twin fields. This succeeding review article in Tourism Analysis is an update of a like “call-to-postdisciplinarity,” which has been in steady gestation over the last decade, and it is now published here as one that seeks to augment the well-reasoned, panoramic thinking of Coles, Hall, and Duval by clarifying the kinds of “new sense” and “open to the future” dialogic understandings that such a turn towards or engagement with postdisciplinary insight would conceivably entail. While Coles, Hall, and Duval have so capably surveyed the distinctions between (mainly) postdisciplinary styles of inquiry and interdisciplinary ones, this review article now seeks to provide an introductory critique of the kinds of postdisciplinary awarenesses that Tourism Studies/Tourism Management now ubiquitously need. In this examination of the demand for flexible forms of understanding that can more readily interpolate the often difficult-to-distill identifications and the new-register aspirations of populations today—notably those in ambiguous/hybrid postcolonal settings—this critique draws on Gilroy and Bhabha to help map the ambivalent terrain of the world's many new enunciations (i. e., the freshly vivified/revivified projections of culturehood). Thereafter, it beckons the bricoleurship approaches (i. e., the slow/tall-in-reflexivity/high-in-demonstrability interpretative 'soft science' approaches) of Kincheloe to help researchers achieve those sought forms of postdisciplinary criticality. Hopefully, there are nowadays not just a few universities and colleges preparing researchers and practitioners for service in Tourism Studies/Tourism Management (on each continent) who can recognize the need to more than occasionally escape the confines of restrictive/ overinstitutionalized “old sense” interpretations of the world, and support or replace them with other and fresher sorts of postdisciplinary (or extradisciplinary?/adisciplinary?) understandings that are not so restrictively ruled and regulated by the often-acute disciplinary normalizations of yesteryear.
    • Tourism travel and Islamaphobia

      Ali, Nazia; Stephenson, M. (Bingley, 2010)
    • Using structured writing retreats to support novice researchers

      Petrova, Petia; Coughlin, Annika (Emerald, 2012)
    • Using the panel cointegration approach to analyse the determinants of tourism demand in South Africa

      Seetanah, Boopen; Durbarry, Ramesh; Ragodoo, J.F. Nicolas (IP Publishing, 2010-09-01)
      Estimating tourism demand has become a challenge among researchers, as identification of key determinants is important for policymakers at a time when tourism has become the world's largest industry. Using a theoretical framework based on the gravity model, this paper models inbound tourism demand for South Africa to estimate price and income sensitivities as well as the impact of other important factors that affect tourist flows, such as the location of markets and socio-political factors. Given the non-stationary but cointegrated nature of the panel data, panel cointegration estimation techniques are employed. The results show that tourists are sensitive to price changes in South Africa and also to tourism price changes in competing destinations. The level of development, tourism infrastructure, distance (or transportation costs), common border and language are also found to affect arrivals. The results also indicate the need to conduct estimation by regional groupings for a better understanding of different markets.
    • The value of tourism degrees: a Luton-based case study

      Petrova, Petia; Mason, Peter (Emerald, 2004)
    • Ways of seeing degrees of leisure: from practice to pedagogy

      Elkington, Samuel D. (2012-05-23)
      In the context of higher education (HE), Leisure Studies has become an increasingly diverse, segmented and disjointed collection of curricula, driven by a fast-changing politico-economic landscape and the growing market potential of emergent sub-specialisms such as sport, tourism and event management. A decline in interest in, and perceived relevance of, the idea of leisure has seen Leisure Studies as a field fade from curricula at many universities. With issues of disconnect between leisure research and leisure practice cited as a major reason for the downturn in leisure-focused degree programmes, the challenges facing leisure scholars are inherently pedagogic: linking the fields of theory and practice in meaningful ways. Drawing upon evidence-based practice, this paper examines the philosophical and practical utility of leisure not just as a teaching object but as a pedagogic orientation; a profound way of seeing that ushers in a critical appreciation and understanding of the nature and significance of leisure in the lifeworld experiences of students. The ‘leisured' pedagogic orientation outlined represents one way experiential knowledge can be recognised and embedded in HE curricula, providing insight into the kinds of learning that might be effective in terms of enhancement of students' awareness of leisure and their development of leisure knowledge, skills, attitudes and values. This calls for the suspension of the traditional paradigms of thought relating to learning for leisure, in favour of a leisure pedagogy that is truly situated in the context of modern leisure in all its subtle complexity.
    • Worldmaking agency – worldmaking authority: the sovereign constitutive role of tourism

      Hollinshead, Keith; Ateljevic, Irena; Ali, Nazia (2012-05-23)
    • The 'worldmaking' prodigy of tourism: the reach of power of tourism in the dynamics of change and transformation

      Hollinshead, Keith (2009)
      This review article is the second of a pair of articles that introduce the field of Tourism Studies/Tourism Management (hereafter Tourism Studies) to the concept of worldmaking as an operational construct to help critically describe the creative/inventive role and function of tourism in the making of culture and place. In the first article—the companion manuscript, which appeared in the preceding issue of Tourism Analysis—the recent work of Meethan in Tourism in Global Society: Place, Culture, and Consumption (hereafter “Tourism as Global Society”) was used as a conceptual catalyst to help make the case for deeper and more frequent critical and interpretive inspections of the power and reach of tourism in significantly and variously contributing to the making/demaking/remaking of peoples, places, and pasts, rather than just serving as a reproducing authority cum agency, which just mirrors what is already there in each location. While Tourism Studies was found (by Meethan) to be an as yet rather contained theoretical field, the concept of worldmaking was put forward in the first article as a thinking tool to assist critical understanding of the everyday articulation and the everyplace effectivity of tourism as a particular strong and pervasive producer of political meanings (or contested versions) of locality. In this follow-up article, an attempt is made to encourage more commonplace reflective and reflexive examinations of the creative and inventive manufacture capacity of tourism—as it works, or is worked upon, in collaboration with other formative and educative vehicles in society—to produce particular vistas of place and space, or to otherwise reconfigure the held visions of meaning and of becoming by populations. Such is the very prodigy of tourism (such are the potential prodigies of tourism!!), with all the immense myriad cultural, social, psychic, and political—as well as economic and environmental—ramifications that are entailed by that sort of sometimes-grand-and-magnificent/sometimes-petty-and-quotidian mediation of locality and heritage. While the article concludes by codifying (and damning!) a number of clichés that litter much hastily-derived contemporary commentary on and about tourism—as drawn from the insight-loaded sociological work of Meethan—this second article is composed under the judgment that too many commentators in Tourism Studies (itself) are prone to reifying tourism as an almost undifferentiated industrial force of globalization. Such a judgment suggests that too many who work within Tourism Studies uncritically depict tourism as an almost-inevitable set of almost-neat impacts or almost-neat processes that affect places in almost-unstoppable and repeatable fashions across the globe. Such recurring (if generally implied rather than exhaustively shown) commentaries in the field of Tourism Studies are inclined to far too frequently envision local or involved populations merely as being nothing more than passive agents of “tourism”—that is, as a sort of fodder for the unrelenting growth of the expansionist and almost-predictable industry. Running through both of these companion articles on the worldmaking role and function of tourism, therefore, is the view that the creative authority and inventive agency of tourism is something that can be (or is being) used positively by groups and communities—in accordance with their own perspective, of course—at all levels of society to express new/corrective/fresh enunciative visions for local places. It can also be (and is being) used negatively—again, in perspectival regard—to silence, suppress, or subjugate other unwanted interpretations of place, space, or local inheritance. Such is the declarative and clearly pungently political force of tourism as it is deployed in worldmaking fashion in concert with (or at times, wholly against) other coproductive and co-generative narrative-issuing mediating forces in and across society. The two companion articles were first presented as one overall keynote delivery at the second Critical Tourism Studies Conference in Split, Croatia, in 2007. An earlier version of the combined/aggregate presentation may be found in a 400-page work by Ateljevic, Pritchard, and Morgan within the Elsevier Advances in Tourism Research series: The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative Research Methods.