• Are relatives friends? disaggregating VFR Travel 1994-2014

      Seaton, Tony; Tie, Caroline; University of Bedfordshire (Channel View Publications, 2015-06-01)
    • Tourism and the green economy: a place for an environmental ethic?

      Holden, Andrew (Taylor & Francis, 2015-01-12)
      Tourism has been recognized by major multilateral world agencies, the World Bank, IMF and United Nations, as a key economic sector for achieving a global transition from a brown to a green economic system. This transition includes an incumbent ethical mission, seeking to improve 'human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities' (UNEP 2011: 1ndash;2). Nevertheless, five key challenges have been identified to tourism playing its part in fulfilling the aims of a green economy, four of which are directly related to its interaction with the natural environment and encompass a strong behavioural component. They are: a consumer trend to travel further for shortening durations of time; a preference for energy-intensive transportation based upon non-renewable fuel usage with an accompanying growth in GHG emissions; excessive water consumption; and damage to marine and terrestrial biodiversity. Simultaneously, the United Nations Environment Programme holds that the driving force of the greening of the tourism industry is consumer demand. The favoured approach from the World Bank and IMF to change environmentally destructive behaviour and reflect the full costs of an increasing ecological scarcity is through price and market correction. Other favoured approaches place a reliance on the greening of technology as a solution to environmental problems. This paper argues that these measures will not be sufficient to deal with the environmental challenges facing the tourism industry and system, and that without a stronger environmental ethic in the market it will be difficult to impose controls on tourists behaviour designed for environmental conservation. It subsequently analyzes the conceptualization of environmental ethics, the rationale for the evolution of an environmental ethic in society and evaluates its relevance to the tourism market.
    • A ‘reality of return’: the case of the Sarawakian-Chinese visiting China

      Tie, Caroline; Holden, Andrew; Park, Hyung yu; University of Bedfordshire; Middlesex University (Elsevier, 2015)
      Using an interpretive ethnographic framework, this paper focuses on how travel to the homeland informs the identity of the Sarawakian-Chinese, a diaspora that contains a composite of subcultures. The data collection is based upon 35 semi-structured interviews and participant observation of a SarawakianChinese tour group to China. Whilst emotional connections with China are universally significant in constructing the diaspora's ethnic identity, the strength of association is influenced by characteristics of education, religion and language, as identity becomes re-defined and plural. The findings suggest that the influence of tourism to the homeland may not necessarily be significant in enhancing emotional and cultural connections with China. Instead, ambivalent connections to homeland become established during tourism experiences. Visits to the homeland could play a significant role in forging new and hybrid identities of ethnic communities outside the homeland, thereby bringing a new vital dimension to identity formation and communication of the Sarawakian-Chinese in the future.
    • Measuring the effect of subsidization on tourism demand and destination competitiveness through the AIDS model: an evidence-based approach to tourism policymaking

      Mangion, Marie -Louise; Cooper, Chris; Cortés-Jiménez, Isabel; Durbarry, Ramesh (IP Publishing, 2012-12-01)
      There is increasing recognition of the need for improved policymaking in tourism and the consequent evaluation of tourism public policies. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of econometric modelling for tourism policy analysis, showing that crucial information is generated from such econometric policy analysis. A dynamic Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model is used to quantify the impact on demand elasticity of Malta's policy of supporting British inclusive tour holidays. Such analysis can contribute to improved policymaking as the policymaker is informed about how and to what extent the market has responded to previous policies – thus promoting an evidence-based approach to tourism policymaking.
    • Children, sport and active play: a comparison of rural and urban places

      Beedie, Paul (Leisure Studies Association, 2012-10-01)
    • The seductions of “soft power”: the call for multifronted research into the articulative reach of tourism in China

      Hollinshead, Keith; Hou, Chun Xiao (Taylor & Francis, 2012-07)
      In recent years, tourism has been increasingly posited as not just that set of ordinary promotional processes by which destinations are projected to visitors from afar (and by which those holiday-makers/trippers are managed there) but also as that mix of political and aspirational activities through which institutions and interest groups variously collaborate and contend to solidify particular visions of their supposed culture, heritage, and nature for not only distant/external others but for their own proximal/internal selves. Working from these later/broader perspectives, this article calls for a much richer critique of the ways in which China itself is articulated. Drawing particularly from Bell's (2008) scrutiny of Confucian orientations to the world and from Nyíri's (2006) examination of declarative agency of and over tourism, this article calls for deeper and more sustained critique of the conceivable “soft power” normalizations of China through tourism today.
    • Worldmaking agency – worldmaking authority: the sovereign constitutive role of tourism

      Hollinshead, Keith; Ateljevic, Irena; Ali, Nazia (2012-05-23)
    • Ways of seeing degrees of leisure: from practice to pedagogy

      Elkington, Samuel D. (2012-05-23)
      In the context of higher education (HE), Leisure Studies has become an increasingly diverse, segmented and disjointed collection of curricula, driven by a fast-changing politico-economic landscape and the growing market potential of emergent sub-specialisms such as sport, tourism and event management. A decline in interest in, and perceived relevance of, the idea of leisure has seen Leisure Studies as a field fade from curricula at many universities. With issues of disconnect between leisure research and leisure practice cited as a major reason for the downturn in leisure-focused degree programmes, the challenges facing leisure scholars are inherently pedagogic: linking the fields of theory and practice in meaningful ways. Drawing upon evidence-based practice, this paper examines the philosophical and practical utility of leisure not just as a teaching object but as a pedagogic orientation; a profound way of seeing that ushers in a critical appreciation and understanding of the nature and significance of leisure in the lifeworld experiences of students. The ‘leisured' pedagogic orientation outlined represents one way experiential knowledge can be recognised and embedded in HE curricula, providing insight into the kinds of learning that might be effective in terms of enhancement of students' awareness of leisure and their development of leisure knowledge, skills, attitudes and values. This calls for the suspension of the traditional paradigms of thought relating to learning for leisure, in favour of a leisure pedagogy that is truly situated in the context of modern leisure in all its subtle complexity.
    • Event design

      Ali, Nazia (Sage Publications, 2012)
    • Using structured writing retreats to support novice researchers

      Petrova, Petia; Coughlin, Annika (Emerald, 2012)
    • (Re)viewing Cannibal Tours: lost in translation

      Burns, Peter; Zafiri, Konstantina (Inderscience, 2012)
      The film Cannibal Tours powerfully portrays the impact of tourism in the Sepik region of Papua New Guinea through an array of host-guest encounters. Using text from the film as data, the present paper reveals new insights through a close analysis of the English subtitles given as translation for the Italian and German tourists. The subtitles are examined at three levels of equivalence to establish translation strategy and impact. The whole text is also be submitted to analysis using the critical discourse analysis (CDA) method. The findings have far-reaching implications on several levels. First, they are insightful for the study of tourism in developing destinations. Second, they confirm the significance of using visual data for research in the social sciences. Third, they demonstrate that translation in films can impact heavily on film meaning-making and viewer perception.
    • Diasporic identity, heritage and "homecoming": how Sarawakian-Chinese tourists feel on tour in Beijing

      Tie, Caroline; Seaton, Tony; University of Bedfordshire; University of Limerick (2012)
    • Research themes for tourism

      Petrova, Petia (Taylor and Francis, 2011)