Browsing IHR Institute for Health Research by Publisher "Wiley-Blackwell"
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Awareness and attitudes towards organ donation and transplantation among the Asian population. A preliminary survey in Luton, UKCurrently the demand for transplant organs, particularly kidneys, far outstrips the supply in the UK. This problem is particularly severe for the Asian population, which has been shown to have a disproportionately large representation on kidney-transplant waiting lists in some regions of the UK. The situation is clear: there is an urgent need to address the number of Asians requiring a kidney transplant, otherwise the human and economic costs will be very high. An exploratory qualitative study was therefore undertaken with the aim of assessing current awareness of organ donation and transplantation and to explore attitudes towards these issues in a cross section of the Asian population in Luton. It was found that nearly half of the respondents in this survey did not know what a donor card was used for, and approximately half of these had never seen one; only 6 of the 64 people interviewed had heard of the National Donor Register. Of the three people who carried a donor card, two had an immediate family member who had received a transplant. This suggests that media campaigns aimed at attracting donors from the Asian population have had limited success thus far. It appears that the vast majority of the Asian population is at the initial stage of the process of making a decision about donating their organs, that of simply knowing that transplantation takes place. Very little debate of pertinent issues seems to have taken place, which is essential for reaching a decision on whether or not to donate an organ. The study should be seen as exploratory but is nonetheless an important initial step towards the establishment of a greater knowledge and understanding of the issues affecting the low donation rate in the Asian population.
Incentives for organ donation: proposed standards for an internationally acceptable system.Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than harm. We herein address the second concern and propose for discussion standards and guidelines for an acceptable system of incentives for donation. We believe that if systems based on these guidelines were developed, harms would be no greater than those to today's conventional donors. Ultimately, until there are trials of incentives, the question of benefits and harms cannot be satisfactorily answered.
The relationship between bullying roles and children's everyday dyadic interactionsThis study investigated the behaviour and communication of seven- to eight-year-old children during a dyadic computer task. The children participating were identified by peers as: (1) initiators of bullying (‘bullies’); (2) defenders of those victimised (‘defenders’); and (3) those who generally do not take on a consistent role in relation to bullying (‘non-role’ children). Children were videotaped during the task and the interaction was coded, 34 dyads participated. Defenders used significantly higher levels of supportive communication such as explanation and guidance than bullies. The task performance of dyads consisting of defenders with non-role children was significantly superior to that of dyads comprising bullies plus non-role children. The behaviour of the non-role children was influenced according to whether they were working with a bully, a defender or another non-role child. The study suggests that the roles that children adopt in relation to bullying influence their behaviour in other, non-bullying contexts.
Renal health and transplantation: a focus on ethnicityIt is widely acknowledged within the United Kingdom that there are significant inequalities in renal health and transplant services--in relation to demand for, access to and waiting times for these services--between minority ethnic groups in particular. This phenomenon is not unique to the United Kingdom and affects many other countries that have a strong tradition of immigration. The solutions to reducing these inequalities are multi-faceted and require both short-term and long-term policy and resource-driven initiatives. In the short term, there is an urgent need to increase the number of organ donors from minority ethnic groups which will positively impact upon improved access to transplantation and contribute to reduced waiting times. The increase in donor registration can only be achieved if there are evidence-based, concerted and adequately resourced efforts to engage with minority ethnic communities at grass-roots level. In the long term, public health interventions are required that proactively seek to prevent and manage long-term conditions among the United Kingdom's multi-ethnic and multi-faith population, thereby reducing the demand for transplantation.