• Athlete compliance to therapist requested contraction intensity during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.

      Sheard, Peter W.; Smith, Paul M.; Paine, Tim J.; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2009-10)
      Contraction intensities between 10 and 100% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) have been proposed in varying muscle energy technique (MET) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) post-isometric relaxation (PIR) protocols. The current study was undertaken to determine if athletes were able to comply with differing therapist requested contraction intensities during (PNF) stretching protocols. Thirty-six university athletes were recruited and MVC was established at hip extension, hip adduction, and horizontal shoulder adduction. Target PIR contractions were set at 20, 50 and 100% MVC and monitored throughout the contractions with a strain gauge dynamometer. Athletes were not able to match the target contraction values at 20 and 100% MVC (P< or =0.001). When examined for consistency across the three component contractions within each of the three PIR protocols, the athletes demonstrated widely variable scores (coefficient of variation (CV)=23.2-36.4% at 20% MVC; CV=19.3-29.4% at 50% MVC; and, CV=9.4-14.5% at 100% MVC). Our findings indicate that this group of athletes displayed a poor level of compliance to varying therapist requested contraction intensities with respect to both accuracy and consistency.
    • Biochemical and spectroscopic studies of human melanotransferrin (MTf): electron-paramagnetic resonance evidence for a difference between the iron-binding site of MTf and other transferrins

      Farnaud, Sébastien; Amini, Maryam; Rapisarda, Chiara; Cammack, Richard; Bui, Tam; Drake, Alex F.; Evans, Robert W.; Rahmanto, Yohan Suryo; Richardson, Des R.; University of Westminster; et al. (Elsevier, 2008-01)
      Melanotransferrin (MTf) is a member of the transferrin (Tf) family of iron (Fe)-binding proteins that was first identified as a cell-surface marker of melanoma. Although MTf has a high-affinity Fe-binding site that is practically identical to that of serum Tf, the protein does not play an essential role in Fe homeostasis and its precise molecular function remains unclear. A Zn(II)-binding motif, distinct from the Fe-binding site, has been proposed in human MTf based on computer modelling studies. However, little is known concerning the interaction of its proposed binding site(s) with metals and the consequences in terms of MTf conformation. For the first time, biochemical and spectroscopic techniques have been used in this study to characterise metal ion-binding to recombinant MTf. Initially, the binding of Fe to MTf was examined using 6 M urea gel electrophoresis. Although four different iron-loaded forms were observed with serum Tf, only two forms were found with MTf, the apo-form and the N-monoferric holo-protein, suggesting a single high-affinity site. The presence of a single Fe(III)-binding site was also supported by EPR results which indicated that the Fe(III)-binding characteristics of MTf were unique, but somewhat comparable to the N-lobes of human serum Tf and chicken ovo-Tf. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis indicated that, as for Tf, no changes in secondary structure could be observed upon Fe(III)-binding. The ability of MTf to bind Zn(II) was also investigated using CD which demonstrated that the single high-affinity Fe-binding site was distinct from a potential Zn(II)-binding site.
    • Can reflexology maintain or improve the well-being of people with Parkinson's Disease?

      Johns, Christopher; Blake, Debbie; Sinclair, Alan J. (Elsevier, 2010-05)
    • Copeptin as a prognostic factor for major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease

      von Haehling, Stephan; Papassotiriou, Jana; Morgenthaler, Nils G.; Hartmann, Oliver; Doehner, Wolfram; Stellos, Konstantinos; Wurster, Thomas; Schuster, Andreas; Nagel, Eike; Gawaz, Meinrad; et al. (Elsevier, 2012-12)
      Background C-terminal portion of provasopressin (copeptin) has recently been discussed as a novel biomarker for the early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim is to investigate the prognostic value of copeptin with regard to mortality and morbidity in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We consecutively recruited a cath lab cohort of 2,700 patients (74.1% male; AMI, n = 1316; stable angina pectoris, n = 1384) presenting to the emergency department of a large primary care hospital. All patients received coronary angiography. Copeptin and other laboratory markers were sampled at the time of presentation or in the cath lab. Clinical outcomes were assessed by hospital chart analysis and telephone interviews. 2621 patients (97.1%) have been successfully followed-up at three months. The primary endpoint was a combined endpoint of rehospitalization for cardiovascular events, stroke, and all-cause death. Results Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we calculated areas under the curve of 0.703 (95%confidence interval(CI):0.681–0.725) for the composite endpoint after three months (myocardial reinfarction, stroke, all-cause death;n = 183), and 0.770 (95%CI:0.736–0.803) for all-cause death (n = 76) for copeptin. A cutoff value of 21.6 pmol/L for the composite endpoint yielded a sensitivity of 56.3% and a specificity of 78.6%. The predictive performance of copeptin was independent of other clinical variables or cardiovascular risk factors, and superior to that of troponin I or other cardiac biomarkers (all:P < 0.0001). Conclusions Copeptin may help in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with symptomatic CAD. Further studies should substantiate the findings and support the suggested cutoff value of the present study.
    • Disclosure and sickle cell disorder: a mixed methods study of the young person with sickle cell at school

      Dyson, Simon Martin; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A.; Dyson, Sue Elizabeth; Evans, Hala; Rowley, Dave T. (Elsevier, 2010-06)
      Sickle cell is a leading genetic condition, both globally and in England. Little research has been conducted into the experiences of young people with sickle cell at school. A mixed methods study (May 2007–September 2008) based on 569 questionnaires and 40 taped interviews with young people living with sickle cell disorder (SCD) in England found that students with SCD are faced with a dilemma as to whether or not to disclose their sickle cell to teachers and pupils: the latent and hidden characteristics of their symptoms make it possible, in Goffmanesque terms, to “pass”. However the variable and unpredictable course of sickle cell is a reminder of Goffman’s notion of being “discreditable”. We found that teacher or pupil knowledge that a young person has sickle cell is not statistically associated with reported better treatment of young people with SCD at school. Analysis of interviews suggests most young people favour disclosing their sickle cell status. A minority disagreed because disclosure was felt to attract unwarranted attention or disabling attitudes. Attitudes to disclosing to peers were more varied: either for or against disclosure to peers, or ambivalent in that they felt a tension between acknowledging the reality of their sickle cell, and not wanting it to be a central part of their identity. Some health promotion advice appears to assume that teacher and/or peer awareness is the key to improving school experience for young people with SCD, but this is not borne out by this study.
    • Illegal drugs: knowledge, attitudes and drug habits of the Greek and Greek Cypriot youth living in London.

      Papadopoulos, Irena; Papadopoulos, Chris; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2006)
    • Increasing the donor supply from the United Kingdom's Asian population: the need for further research

      Randhawa, Gurch; University of Luton (Elsevier, 2000-11)
      The overall shortage of transplant donors internationally is well documented.1 The recent revival of the debate surrounding the use of animal organs for transplantation (xenotransplantation) sought to provide a solution to this life-threatening dilemma. However, the outcome of discussions at various ethics committees has proved to be inconclusive. The Nuffield Council of Bioethics and the Department of Health’s Advisory Group both concluded that it is ethical to use pigs as donors. However, human trials will not be allowed to go ahead until there has been further research into aspects of physiology and immunology and the risk of infection.2 This cautious and sensible approach is understandable in the light of the recent CJD cases.
    • Inverse relation of body weight and weight change with mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular co-morbidity: an analysis of the PROactive study population

      Doehner, Wolfram; Erdmann, Erland; Cairns, Richard; Clark, Andrew L.; Dormandy, John A.; Ferrannini, Ele; Anker, Stefan D.; Charité Medical School (Elsevier, 2012-12-15)
      Although weight reduction is a recommended goal in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), weight loss is linked to impaired survival in patients with some chronic cardiovascular diseases.
    • Journeying with Alice: some things I don't know for certain.

      Johns, Christopher; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2009-08)
    • The opening phase of telemedicine consultations: an analysis of interaction

      Pappas, Yannis; Seale, Clive (Elsevier, 2009)
      This paper describes communication in the opening phases of real-time, video-mediated telemedicine consultations, using the method of conversation analysis, in three NHS settings in the UK. The literature on interaction analysis in face-to-face medical consultations indicates that physicians' capacity to determine topics in consultations is established in the opening phases of the encounter. This is because patients concede the communicative floor to physicians who claim it for themselves by using well-established patterns of interaction. Drawing on 10 teleconsultations, the analysis shows that, for health care professionals and patients, video-mediated telemedicine is unfamiliar terrain, where communication requires constant negotiation of skills and roles, this complexity being added to by the fact that more than one professional participates in the encounter.
    • 'Opting-in or opting-out?'--the views of the UK's faith leaders in relation to organ donation.

      Randhawa, Gurch; Brocklehurst, Anna; Pateman, Ruth; Kinsella, Suzannah; Parry, Vivienne; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2010-06)
    • Patient dignity in an acute hospital setting: a case study.

      Baillie, Lesley; London South Bank University (Elsevier, 2009-01)
    • Perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the United Kingdom: is it a matter of biology, behaviour, policy, social determinants or access to health care?

      Puthussery, Shuby; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2016-04)
      This paper examines trends in perinatal outcomes among migrant mothers in the UK, and it explores potential contributors to disparities focusing on pregnancy, birth and the first year of life. Trends in perinatal outcomes indicate that ethnic minority grouping, regardless of migrant status, is a significant risk factor for unfavourable outcomes. It is unclear whether migrant status per se adds to this risk as within-group comparisons between UK-born and foreign-born women show variable findings. The role of biological and behavioural factors in producing excess unfavourable outcomes among ethnic minority mothers, although indicated, is yet to be fully understood. UK policies have salient aspects that address ethnic inequalities, but their wide focus obscures provisions for migrant mothers. Direct associations between socio-economic factors, ethnicity and adverse infant outcomes are evident. Evidence is consistent about differential access to and utilisation of health services among ethnic minority mothers, in particular recently arrived migrants, refugees and asylum seekers.
    • The physical examination in telecardiology and televascular consultations: a study using conversation analysis

      Pappas, Yannis; Seale, Clive (Elsevier, 2010)
      This paper describes communication in the physical examination phases of telemedicine consultations, using the method of conversation analysis
    • Renal health disparities in the United Kingdom: a focus on ethnicity

      Randhawa, Gurch; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2010-01)
      The increased rate of type 2 diabetes among minority ethnic groups compared with Caucasians in the United Kingdom has been well documented. Diabetes complications, such as end-stage renal failure, are much more prevalent among the South Asian and African-Caribbean population in the United Kingdom. Inequalities do currently exist in diabetes and renal services and the solutions to rectifying this situation are complex, focusing both on disease prevention and disease management. However, the financial and human burden of not addressing these inequalities encourage some immediate action.
    • Risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asian countries: a systematic review of the evidence

      Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Puthussery, Shuby; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2015-03)
      Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess and synthesize the published evidence on risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asia. STUDY DESIGN: A systematically conducted narrative review. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of all primary studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives located through the following data bases: PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BioMed central, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and electronic libraries of the authors' institutions. Data extraction and quality appraisal of included studies was done independently by two authors and findings were synthesized in a narrative manner as meta-analysis was found to be inappropriate due to heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven primary studies were included in the final review, all of which were conducted in school settings in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Prevalence of overweight and obesity showed wide variations in the included studies. The key individual risk factors with statistically significant associations to overweight and obesity included: lack of physical activities reported in six studies; prolonged TV watching/playing computer games reported in four studies; frequent consumption of fast food/junk food reported in four studies; and frequent consumption of calorie dense food items reported in two studies. Family level risk factors included higher socioeconomic status reported in four studies and family history of obesity reported in three studies. CONCLUSION: This review provides evidence of key contributors to the increasing burden of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents in South Asia, and demonstrates the nutritional transition that characterizes other developing countries and regions around the world. The findings have implications for policy, practice and the development of interventions at various levels to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children and adolescents in the region as well as more globally.
    • Simvastatin reduces wasting and improves cardiac function as well as outcome in experimental cancer cachexia

      Palus, Sandra; von Haehling, Stephan; Flach, Valerie C.; Tschirner, Anika; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D.; Springer, Jochen; Charité Medical School; IRCCS San Raffaele; University of East Anglia (Elsevier, 2013-10-09)
      Chronic inflammation is common in cancer cachexia (CC) and directly involved in the atrophy seen in this condition. Recently, several groups have described a form of cardiomyopathy in CC animal models. Hence, we investigated the effect of simvastatin with its known anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects in a rat model of CC.
    • Stressors and vulnerabilities of young single childless women with breast cancer: a qualitative study

      Corney, Roslyn; Puthussery, Shuby; Swinglehurst, Jane; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2014-02)
      Purpose of the research Marital or partnership status is seldom investigated as a primary contributing factor to women's wellbeing after a diagnosis of breast cancer. It has been suggested, however, that single childless women with breast cancer may face unique stressors. This paper explores the stressors and vulnerabilities of young single childless women with a first episode of breast cancer. Methods and sample A qualitative descriptive method was used. As part of a larger study examining fertility concerns of young childless women with first episode of breast cancer, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 single women. Recorded interviews were analysed using the framework approach. Key results Findings cover three main themes: partnership worries; fertility concerns; and views about emotional and practical support received. Partnership worries included concerns about having to undergo treatment without a partner to support them; the fear of rejection by potential partners; and feelings about the precious time lost in diagnosis and treatment. Fertility concerns included dilemmas about having children and feelings about the options of pursuing Assisted Reproductive Techniques. Views about the emotional and practical support received included the overall support received as well as perceptions about the attitudes of health professionals towards fertility issues. Conclusions Findings indicate that single childless women with breast cancer face additional vulnerabilities and may benefit from tailored support from health care professionals and interventions specifically targeted at them.
    • UK-born ethnic minority women and their experiences of feeding their newborn infant

      Twamley, Katherine; Puthussery, Shuby; Harding, Seeromanie; Baron, Maurina; Macfarlane, Alison; City University; University of Glasgow (Elsevier, 2011-10)
      to explore the factors that impact on UK-born ethnic minority women's experiences of and decisions around feeding their infant.