• The effect of kin, social network and neighbourhood support on individual well-being

      Ochieng, Bertha (Blackwell Publishing, 2011)
      This paper explores the effects of kin, social network and the neighbourhood on an individual's well-being. The material is drawn from a community-based qualitative study that explored the attitudes and experiences of African-Caribbean adolescents and their families in the north of England towards healthy lifestyles. A convenience sample of 10 African-Caribbean households units comprising 24 adolescents (12-18 years of age) and 18 adults (22-60 years of age) participated in the study with interviews conducted in their homes. The paper focuses on the adult participants' perception of the role of social support networks and neighbourhood effects on well-being. An in-depth interview schedule was used to explore participants' perceptions on barriers to health and healthy lifestyles; and factors facilitating and inhibiting good health and healthy lifestyles. Data were subjected to thematic analysis with the aid of a Qualitative Data Analysis software package. Emerging categories were discussed with participants by conducting post interview visits and at community events.
    • Health, lifestyle, belief and knowledge differences between two ethnic groups with specific reference to tobacco, diet and physical activity.

      Anthony, Denis; Baggott, Rob; Tanner, Judith; Jones, Kathryn; Evans, Hala; Perkins, Gill; Palmer, Hilary; De Montfort University (Blackwell Publishing, 2012-11)
      Aims.  To compare physical activity levels, body mass index, habitual diet, tobacco use and prevalence of non-communicable disease between the two ethnic groups and to identify predictors for differences between groups. Background.  Tobacco use, poor diet and physical inactivity are major lifestyle risk factors for chronic cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, diabetes and chronic lung diseases. There are higher risk and incidence of these diseases in some ethnic groups, for example Asians have higher incidence of diabetes. Design.  Cross sectional survey. Methods.  Cross sectional survey of Asians of Indian descent and white British adults conducted between October-December 2009. Main outcome variables were lifestyle behaviours and BMI. Self-reported disease diagnosis was also collected. In a regression analysis, predictors of outcome variables were demographic variables and beliefs/attitudes/knowledge towards lifestyle behaviours. Results/Findings.  Body mass index, tobacco use and non-communicable disease (except diabetes) were lower in Indians. Indians reported lower physical activity levels and greater salt use than Whites. Tobacco use was higher in Whites, but knowledge, attitudes and beliefs were similar between Whites and Indians. Conclusion.  Health risk behaviour and morbidity are different between the two ethnic groups. Gender, age, educational level, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge do not explain these differences. Health promotion that aims to improve knowledge will probably not work and innovative methods are needed to improve health in high risk groups.
    • Sickle cell, habitual dys-positions and fragile dispositions: young people with sickle cell at school

      Dyson, Simon Martin; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A.; Dyson, Sue Elizabeth; Evans, Hala (Blackwell Publishing, 2011-03)
      The experiences of young people living with a sickle cell disorder in schools in England are reported through a thematic analysis of forty interviews, using Bourdieu’s notions of field, capital and habitus. Young people with sickle cell are found to be habitually dys-positioned between the demands of the clinic for health maintenance through self-care and the field of the school, with its emphases on routines, consistent attendance and contextual demands for active and passive pupil behaviour. The tactics or dispositions that young people living with sickle cell can then employ, during strategy and struggle at school, are therefore fragile: they work only contingently, transiently or have the unintended consequences of displacing other valued social relations. The dispositions of the young people with sickle cell are framed by other social struggles: innovations in school procedures merely address aspects of sickle cell in isolation and are not consolidated into comprehensive policies; mothers inform, liaise, negotiate and advocate in support of a child with sickle cell but with limited success. Reactions of teachers and peers to sickle cell have the enduring potential to drain the somatic, cultural and social capital of young people living with sickle cell
    • Specialist nurse training programme: dealing with asking for organ donation

      Randhawa, Gurch; University of Luton (Blackwell Publishing, 1998-08)
      The issue of cadaveric organ transplantation is by its very nature emotional as it is associated with the very traumatic time of a loved one’s death. Making a request for organs needs to be handled very sensitively by health professionals when discussing the issue with a family. Those nurses working in critical care areas are most likely to confront this issue and need to be equipped for dealing with ensuing events. The major challenge for the nurse is to address the concerns with brain death and organ donation in an environment of grief and sadness. Asking for organ consent is the most important element of all and needs to be done in the most sensitive manner, providing appropriate support to the donor family. To facilitate this process specialist training programmes in the nursing curriculum are imperative. Education programmes should incorporate presentations, role play situations and discussions based upon past experiences of organ requests. This would hopefully result in increased rates of donor consent and thereby a reduction in transplant waiting lists.