• Diabetes is associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease.

      Sanz, C.; Andrieu, S.; Sinclair, Alan J.; Hanaire, H.; Vellas, B.; INSERM U558 (BMJ, 2009-10-27)
    • Donor identification and consent for deceased organ donation: summary of NICE guidance

      Chamberlain, K.; Baker, M.R.; Kandaswamy, P.; Shaw, E.J.; McVeigh, G.; Siddiqui, F.; Randhawa, Gurch (BMJ, 2012-01)
      Organ donation plays a major role in the management of patients with single organ failure of the kidneys, liver, pancreas, heart, or lung, or with combined organ failure of heart and lung (such as in cystic fibrosis) or of kidney and pancreas (such as in diabetes). A shortage of transplant organs has resulted in long waits for transplantation. Currently about 500 people in the United Kingdom die each year because of a shortage of donated organs, and at 31 March 2011 almost 7000 patients were waiting for a kidney transplant1 and would be having costly dialysis with serious morbidity and impact on quality of life. This shortage of organs is partly the result of relatively low numbers of road traffic deaths (lower than in many countries) but is also the result of inefficiencies in the donor identification and consent processes. This article summarises the most recent recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) on improving donor identification and consent rates for deceased organ donation.
    • Introducing the Palliative Performance Scale to clinicians: the Grampian experience

      Pang, Dong; Linklater, Gordon; Lawton, Sally; Fielding, Shona; Macauley, Lisa; Carroll, David (BMJ, 2012-03)
      Objectives The Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) was introduced across NHS Grampian. Our aim was to determine how practical and useful the PPS was for clinicians looking after palliative patients in a variety of settings. Methods A prospective audit approach was used in primary, secondary and nursing home care settings who. Demographic and assessment data were gathered for 3 months; feedback was gathered at the end of the data collection phase. Patient follow-up status was determined at 12 months. Results Fifteen clinical sites participated and feedback was obtained from all clinical areas (n=30). Most respondents found the PPS easy to use and that it helped recognise disease progression in cancer patients, but not in patients with dementia/frailty. Assessment data were gathered on 666 patients. Sixty per cent had a malignant diagnosis and 62.5% of the sample died within 12 months. Lower PPS scores at initial assessment indicated poorer prognosis. Median survival figures differed from previously published data. Falling PPS scores increased the risk of death compared with patients whose PPS scores remained static or improved. Conclusion Clinicians found the PPS to be a quick, useful way of assessing and reviewing functional changes in palliative patients. However, it may not identify the subtle changes in individuals with advanced dementia. The survival figures confirm that caution is needed in generalising survival data across different settings and populations. Further work is needed to examine changing functional status in patients with non-malignant diseases or dementia/frailty.