• Intersecting inequalities in higher education: reaching out to LGBT-identified students on universities marketing communications

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; Farinloye, Temitope; University of Befordshire; Questbury Research Services (2015-12-15)
      The marketisation of higher education has led to increasing emphasis on universities to market themselves to prospective students, competitions among all institutions – not just the very best to attract perspective students. Previous studies has suggested that educational qualifications, geographical mobility and financial considerations affects students choice of Universities and more likely universities will be presenting these information to attract prospective students. This research goes outside these conventional marketing appeal to consider if sexual orientation of students are considered as an advertising appeal and reaching out to prospective LGBT students, after all in the same vein as the Guardian and Times Higher Education Ranking of Universities, Stonewall, a UK charity that works for the equal rights of LGBT people, compiles the ‘Gay by Degree’ ranking of universities in UK, rating how gay-friendly these universities are. Results indicated that unlike disability or race, sexual orientation is seldom considered in University marketing communication, suggesting the need to intersect this inequalities in higher education recruitment.
    • Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture (AGCC): testing the validity of the AGCC scale and some preliminary results from the United Kingdom

      Czarnecka, Barbara; Keles, Serap; University of Bedfordshire; University of Oslo (16th Cross-cultural Research Conference, 2015-12-13)
      This paper presents preliminary results from a study focused on acculturation to Global Consumer Culture (GCC) conducted in the UK. In particular, this paper’s aims are to test the validity of the original ‘Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture’ (AGCC) scale in a new cultural context, and to present preliminary results about the relation between acculturation to GCC and demographic factors, technological anxiety, and compulsive buying. This paper is based on online questionnaire completed by 340 respondents in the UK. The psychometric properties of this scale were verified via confirmatory factor analysis, and a new, shorter scale was proposed. Some results about the links between acculturation to GCC and demographics, technological anxiety, and compulsive buying were presented and discussed within the context of extant GCC research. Limitations and further research were discussed. Key words: consumer culture, global consumer culture, acculturation to global consumer culture
    • Creative execution of United Kingdom banks’ print advertisement

      Mogaji, Emmanuel; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2015-05-14)
      The place of the financial services industry in an economy cannot be over-emphasised, its utilitarian nature has made previous researchers suggest that it demands a different advertising strategy; however, the need to create an effective advertisement in this highly saturated industry cannot be overemphasised. This research aims at developing an understanding of creative strategies adopted by UK Banks’ in their print advertisement. Analysis of 1274 print advertisements in UK newspapers over twelve month period was carried out. The advertisements were analysed on the basis of their size, images used, colour, orientation and number of words used. In terms of the advert size, to create an impression, Full Centre Spread was seldom used whereas small advertisements had the largest share. Images of cartoon characters, celebrities, children, colleagues, couples and customers were frequently used. Cartoons were predominately used by the old LloydsTSB Bank and TSB Bank while Santander used the presence of sport celebrities in their advertisements. HSBC Adverts were predominantly printed in black colour on while First Direct advertisements had white text printed on black background. Natwest adverts are more likely to be in Purple, Lloyds in Green and TSB in Blue, these are their brand colours and are frequently used to reinforce their brand. The creative design, which includes the use of images and colours, has been noted to enhance the attractiveness and memorability of these advertisements which also conveys credibility. The research contributes to the study of advertisement design, providing outcomes relevant to numerous types of stakeholders.
    • Dynamic pricing models for used products in remanufacturing with lost-sales and uncertain quality

      Xiong, Yu; Li, Gendao; Zhou, Yu; Fernandes, Kiran; Harrison, Richard; Xiong, Zhongkai; Chongqing Technology and Business University; Jilin University; University of East Anglia; Chongqing University; et al. (Elsevier, 2013-04-22)
      In this paper, we investigate the remanufacturing problem of pricing single-class used products (cores) in the face of random price-dependent returns and random demand. Specifically, we propose a dynamic pricing policy for the cores and then model the problem as a continuous-time Markov decision process. We first design a basic model that does not consider the quality uncertainty of cores, and then extend our model to incorporate this factor. Besides proving optimal policy uniqueness and establishing monotonicity results for the optimal policy, we also characterize the impact of system parameters on the optimal policies, which can provide simple managerial insights. Finally, we use computational experiments to assess the benefits of dynamic pricing compared to static pricing and identify the impacts of specific parameters on the relative merits of dynamic pricing policy.
    • The multi-layered nature of the internet-based democratization of brand management

      Asmussen, Bjoern; Harridge-March, Sally; Occhiocupo, Nicoletta; Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; University of Bedfordshire; Oxford Brookes University (Elsevier, 2012-12)
      The evolution of the internet, including developments such as Web 2.0, has led to new relationship realities between organizations and their stakeholders. One manifestation of these complex new realities has been the emergence of an internet-based democratization of brand management. Research about this phenomenon has so far mainly focused on investigating just one or more individual themes and thereby disregarded the inherent multi-layered nature of the internet-based democratization of brand management as a holistic, socio-technological phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to address this limitation through an investigation of the various socio-technological democratization developments of the phenomenon. To achieve this aim, a balanced and stakeholder-oriented perspective on brand management has been adopted to conduct an integrative literature review. The review reveals three key developments, which together form the essential parts of the phenomenon: (I) the democratization of internet technology, (II) the democratization of information, and (III) the democratization of social capital. The insights gained help to clarify the basic structures of the multi-layered phenomenon. The findings contribute also to the substantiation of a call for a new brand management paradigm: one that takes not only company-initiated but also stakeholder-initiated brand management activities into account
    • Strategy in services marketing: value generation

      Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; Hallidey, S.V. (Tilde University Press, Melbourne, 2012-09)
      This chapter extends understanding of services marketing strategies by highlighting the role of interaction rather than exchange, the alignment of corporate and marketing strategies in generating value and the development of a value generating chain as a means of informing specific strategy development.
    • Rich descriptions: evoking informant self-reflexivity in marketing and consumer research

      Takhar, Amandeep; Chitakunye, Pepukayi (Taylor & Francis, 2012-07)
      This study seeks to extend knowledge of reflexivity theories by moving beyond a sole focus on researcher reflexivity (Bettany & Woodruffe-Burton, 2009) in considering the significance of informant self-reflexivity. It explores the promotion of informant self-reflexivity as a means to generating more in-depth interpretive data. Following the call for a ‘structured, disciplinary impetus to begin’ (Bettany & Woodruffe-Burton, 2009, p. 675) in relation to reflexivity, this paper draws on insights from two longitudinal studies, and develops some guidelines that could encourage informants to comprehend fully and realise their views and thoughts through the injection of reflexivity into the research design. Three key themes emerged as being significant within the research encounter: (1) stimulate discussion and promote co-research, (2) empower informants by building trust, and (3) ethical and moral dilemmas in reflexivity.
    • Online behaviour of luxury brand advocates: differences between active advocates and passive loyalists

      Kanthavanich, Poramate; Danbury, Annie Hagen; Parrott, Guy; University of Bedfordshire (European Advertising Academy, 2012-06-30)
      The study aims to identify online behaviours of luxury brand advocates referring to differentiation between active and passive loyalists. A netnographic approach was used to observe groups of luxury handbag advocates. Key findings include an identification of engagement manifested in positive word of mouth and enthusiastic brand recommendation. Advocates routinely share their love of particular brands, openly expressing joy and sharing heightened levels of self-esteem. Engaged passive loyalists tend to share less with peers, but instead celebrate their purchases more personally.
    • Trust me I am an advert! : how to create trusting brand identity through advertising

      Mortimer, Kathleen; Danbury, Annie Hagen; University of Northampton (European Advertising Academy, 2012-06-29)
      Since the importance of Relationship Marketing has been recognised, there has been considerable discussion in the Marketing literature on Trust generally. However, the creation of a trusting brand identity through advertising has received little attention. This paper is our first step towards examining this relationship. Focus group research was undertaken to identify the characteristics of print advertisements perceived as portraying a trusting image. Reasons for trusting a brand were also explored. The results show that advertisements that are simple, straightforward and clear are perceived as being more trusting. Consumers are also quite critical of current advertising efforts in building a trusting brand image.
    • An uphill task: what makes an entrepreneurial triumph?

      Roomi, Muhammad Azam; Srinivasan, Kshama; University of Bedfordshire (European Case Clearing House, UK., 2012-06)
      The case explains how Arun, a senior chemical analyst, establishes and grows his entrepreneurial venture, Agro-Needs with the assistance of his son Prasad, an agricultural engineer and partner in the business. The aim of this case study is to teach students how entrepreneurs who want to have an independent career are ‘pulled’ into business and start new entrepreneurial ventures. It reveals how these entrepreneurs stay committed to their work and motivated to achieve exponential growth. It also explains how they cope with problems and failures in start-ups, and how they use social capital to grow their ventures. Further, it also focuses on how entrepreneurs use innovation and competitive advantage to achieve exponential growth. Additionally, it teaches how entrepreneurs introduce innovative products and establish ventures to commercialise them for competitive advantage to achieve growth. Finally, it teaches the importance of information, knowledge and patent in innovation and how entrepreneurs manage risks to achieve growth.
    • Different strokes: changing fortunes

      Roomi, Muhammad Azam; Srinivasan, Kshama (European Case Clearing House, 2012-05-11)
      Start-up firms face a myriad of problems from their inception to growth, which differ with their magnitude and nature of the industry. Entrepreneurs need to consider several factors such as access to capital, land, infrastructure, and labour; product development and its life cycle; use of technology; marketing as well as customers' satisfaction. This case study highlights these issues during establishment and development of a business successfully and enlighten students as to how an entrepreneur handles them in an effective manner. It also explains the ways in which an entrepreneur uses innovative ideas to create and exploit business opportunities for monetary gains. It explains why and how timely decisions and entrepreneurial traits contribute to the success of an entrepreneurial venture. The case study is about an entrepreneurial endeavour embarked upon by Lee, from his one bedroom apartment. The business kicked off by importing high quality copier paper from China at cheaper prices to earn high profits. The business showed an incremental performance in the first few years but exhibited exponential growth through diversification in the coming years. Nevertheless it has now multiplied several fold into a large outsourcing firm, under its founder's entrepreneurial leadership.
    • Gender and work-life balance: a phenomenological study of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan

      Roomi, Muhammad Azam; Rehman, Sumaira (Emerald, 2012-05)
      Purpose – Increased participation of women in the labor force creates challenges for them to balance work and family obligations. The situation becomes more complicated in patriarchal societies such as Pakistan due to women's stereotypical domestic roles, religious prescriptions as well as cultural norms and values. This study aims to explore different influencing factors on women's work and family roles in the unique Pakistani socio-economic and cultural environment. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA), this study explores different influencing factors on women's work and family roles in the unique Pakistani socio-economic and cultural environment. The methodology helped to analyse data about challenges faced by women entrepreneurs to achieve work-life balance as well as to have an insight about some of the techniques and effective strategies they use to balance work and family obligation. Findings – The results show that among other motivational drivers to start their own businesses, achieving work-life balance is one of the most significant ones. Their own businesses give them flexibility, control and freedom to juggle with their family and social responsibilities. Lack of sufficient time, gender bias, social and cultural norms as well as family responsibilities are the most significant challenges women face to achieve balance in a patriarchal Islamic society. Strategic planning, organising and delegating are the most effective strategies women use to cope with competing roles of work and family.
    • Case study research methods for business

      Farquhar, Jillian Dawes (Sage Publications, 2012)
    • The veneration of relics at Glastonbury Abbey in the middle ages

      Croft, Robin; Durbin, Deanna (Routledge, 2012)
    • Exploring the role of acculturation in brand choice: a new perspective for targeting Indians living in the United Kingdom

      Vijaygopal, Rohini; Dibb, Sally (Palgrave MacMillan, 2012)
      Indians are the largest UK ethnic minority, contributing significantly to the UK economy. Although this group's considerable spending power makes them of interest to marketing practitioners, greater insight into their consumer behaviour is required. An understanding of the influence of cultural factors on preferences and behaviour is a priority. This qualitative article considers how consumer acculturation affects the brand preferences of British Indian consumers. Berry's acculturation taxonomy and Mendoza's Cultural Life Style Inventory underpin the organisation of the data collection. The findings reveal distinctive brand choice patterns for individuals from different acculturation categories. Separated individuals use more of the ethnic brands than host brands; most integrated individuals are familiar with both ethnic and host brands; whereas assimilated individuals have a much narrower brand understanding, being familiar mainly with the host brands. The implications for researchers and practitioners are explored.
    • Opening doors to closed ventures: an entrepreneur’s vision

      Roomi, Muhammad Azam; Srinivasan, Kshama (European Case Clearing House, UK., 2012)
      The case study is about Vel, supervisor at a yarn factory in south India, when his company retrenched employees and closed down due to a loss in business. His previous experience and skill in the yarn industry, enabled to open up a small entrepreneurial venture in manufacturing yarn. His successful business led others to start similar and allied industries in the area. He then diversified the business into related areas in dyeing yarn; manufacturing innovative Indian clothes and doing ‘Finishing processes’ in ready-mades. The case explains how entrepreneurs exploit business opportunities, regardless of the resources they have to make profit. It shows how they use creativity to exploit business opportunities and manage resources to achieve profit and competitive advantage in creating wealth. It emphasises on complementary skills; prior experience; marketing skills, and managerial abilities as responsible factors for a successful business. It further teaches how entrepreneurial activities promote economic growth in a given society, where a successful business promotes the growth of several similar and related businesses in the area that perpetuate economic growth. The importance of innovation; raw material; and social and human capital is highlighted to show that they are the drivers of economic growth in entrepreneurial ventures.
    • Entrepreneurial capital, social values and Islamic traditions: exploring the growth of women-owned enterprises in Pakistan

      Roomi, Muhammad Azam (Sage Journals, 2011-11)
      This study seeks to explore the variables contributing to the growth of women-owned enterprises in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Based on a previously established multivariate model, it uses two econometric approaches: first classifying variables into predetermined blocks; and second, using the general to specific approach. Statistical analyses and in-depth interviews confirm that women entrepreneurs’ personal resources and social capital have a significant role in their business growth. Further, it reveals that the moral support of immediate family, independent mobility and being allowed to meet with men play a decisive role in the sales and employment growth of women-owned enterprises in an Islamic country such as Pakistan.
    • Entrepreneurial leadership: what is it and how should it be taught?

      Roomi, Muhammad Azam; Harrison, Pegram (Senate Hall, 2011-10)
      We offer a comprehensive review of the literature relating to entrepreneurial leadership, noting that there are diverse understandings of the concept and little exploration of how best to teach it. We next present empirical data from a survey of teaching practices at 51 HEIs in the UK that indicate little explicit teaching of entrepreneurial leadership. Drawing on this literature and data, we make recommendations for the design of teaching materials that emphasise the relevance of leadership in entrepreneurship education and of entrepreneurship in leadership education.
    • Affective involvement in advertising effectiveness: implications for interpretation of print advertisements

      Danbury, Annie Hagen; Mortimer, Kathleen; University of Bedfordshire (European Advertising Academy, 2011-06-28)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that affective dimensions of involvement have on the decoding process of print advertisements. The results from a factorial experiment using advertisements for two types of product, credit cards and chocolate bars, indicate that outcomes of the decoding process are predominantly influenced by affective dimensions of involvement, such as interest and pleasure, in a low involvement situation. This affective involvement has a strong relationship with likeability of the advertisement. However the relationship between comprehension and likeability is less straightforward and seems to be linked to beliefs about the advertisement.