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Personal knowledge development in online learning: a model for measuring externalisation, combination and internalisationThis paper presents a model for measuring personal knowledge development in online learning environments. It is based on Nonaka‘s SECI model of organisational knowledge creation. It is argued that Socialisation is not a relevant mode in the context of online learning and was therefore not covered in the measurement instrument. Therefore, the remaining three of SECI‘s knowledge conversion modes, namely Externalisation, Combination, and Internalisation were used and a measurement instrument was created which also examines the interrelationships between the three modes. Data was collected using an online survey, in which online learners report on their experiences of personal knowledge development in online learning environments. In other words, the instrument measures the magnitude of online learners‘ Externalisation and combination activities as well as their level of internalisation, which is the outcome of their personal knowledge development in online learning.