• Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part I: object-control skill development

      Robinson, Leah E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D. (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2009-09)
      Part I of this study examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on object-control (OC) skill development in preschoolers (N = 117).
    • Intermittent exercise with and without hypoxia improves insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 2 diabetes

      Mackenzie, Richard W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Castle, Paul C.; Elliott, B.; Brickley, Gary; Watt, Peter; University of Westminster (2012-04)
      Hypoxia and muscle contraction stimulate glucose transport activity in vitro. Exercise and hypoxia have additive effects on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics (T2D).
    • An investigation into the effect of a pre-performance strategy on jump performance

      Fletcher, Iain M. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2013)
      The aim of this study was to explore the effect that different components, making up a commonly used pre-performance preparation strategy, have on jump height performance. Sixteen male collegiate athletes (age, 21.38 ± 0.52 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.07 m; and body mass, 75.1 ± 5.26 kg) performed a preparation strategy involving a cycle ergometer warm-up, followed by a dynamic stretch component, and finishing with heavy back squats. This intervention was repeated to test countermovement, squat or drop jump performance after each component of the preparation strategy, with electromyographic activity measured during each jump test. Significant increases (p < 0.05) in jump height and electromyographic activity were noted, with a stepwise increase in performance from pre- to post-warm-up, increased further by the dynamic stretch component and again increased after the back squat.
    • An investigation into the effects of different warm-up modalities on specific motor skills related to soccer performance.

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Monte-Colombo, Mathew M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-08)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different warm-up stretch modalities on specific high-speed motor capabilities important to soccer performance. Twenty-seven male soccer players performed 3 warm-up conditions, active warm-up (WU), WU with static stretching (SPS), and WU with dynamic stretching (ADS). Heart rate, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Balsom agility tests were performed after each intervention. Vertical jump heights were significantly greater (p < 0.01) in the WU and ADS conditions compared to those in the SPS trial. The 20-m sprint and agility times showed that the SPS condition was significantly slower (p < 0.01) than the WU and ADS conditions, with the ADS trial being significantly faster (p < 0.05) than the WU condition. Heart rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for participants post-WU and -ADS trials compared to the SPS condition. These findings suggest that the superior performance of the dynamic stretch and warm-up-only conditions compared to the static stretch condition may be linked to increases in heart rate. The reasons for the dynamic stretch trial superiority compared to the warm-up condition are less clear and as yet to be established. We recommend for optimal performance, specific dynamic stretches be employed as part of a warm-up, rather than the traditional static stretches.
    • An investigation into the possible physiological mechanisms associated with changes in performance related to acute responses to different preactivity stretch modalities.

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Monte-Colombo, Mathew M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-02)
      The aim of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying performance changes linked to different warm-up stretch modalities. Twenty-one male collegiate-semiprofessional soccer players (age, 20.8 +/- 2.3 years) performed under 3 different warm-up conditions: a no-stretch warm-up (WU), a warm-up including static passive stretches (SPS), and a warm-up incorporating static dynamic stretches (SDS). Countermovement jump, drop jump, peak torque, heart rate, core temperature, movement kinematics, and electromyography (EMG) were recorded for each intervention. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in performance were recorded for the countermovement, drop jump, and peak torque measures when the SDS was compared with the WU and SPS trials. When mechanism data were analysed, heart rate was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the SDS condition compared with the SPS and WU conditions (a pattern also shown with core temperature), whereas the WU condition heart rate was also significantly higher than the SPS condition heart rate. When EMG data were examined for the rectus femoris muscle, significantly greater (p < 0.01) muscle activity was observed in the SDS condition compared with the SPS condition. It seems the most likely mechanisms to explain the increase in performance in the SDS condition compared with the SPS condition are increased heart rate, greater muscle activity, and increased peak torque.
    • Junior sport as a moral practice

      Kirk, David; Loughborough University (Human Kinetics, 2002-07)
      Critiques Siedentop's keynote address, "Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures," reviewing and rationalizing Siedentop's four goals for junior sport (educative, public health, elite development, and preserving, protecting, and enhancing specific sport practices), discussing Siedentop's views on sport as a collective cultural and moral practice, and explaining the salience of Siedentop's views today and in the future.
    • Junior sport models representing best practice nationally and internationally.

      Kirk, David; Brettschneider, W.; Auld, C. (Canberra: Australian Sports Commission, 2007)
    • Just how happy is the happy puppet? An emotion signaling and kinship theory perspective on the behavioral phenotype of children with Angelman syndrome.

      Brown, William Michael; Consedine, Nathan S.; Long Island University (2004)
      The favored level of parental investment in a child may differ for genes of maternal and paternal origin in the child. This conflict can be expressed in the phenomenon of genomic imprinting that refers to situations in which the same gene is differentially expressed depending on its parent of origin. Two disorders that show the effects of genomic imprinting--both at 15q11-q13--are Angelman Syndrome (AS) which is due to the absence of expression of maternally-inherited genes and Prader-Willi syndromes (PWS) which is due to the absence of expression of paternally-inherited genes. However, although both disorders can arise from the deletion of the same genetic region, the gustatory, behavioral, and affective characteristics of AS and PWS children are remarkably distinct. Recent research inspired by kinship theory has suggested the origins of these phenotypic differences may lie in the differential investment of each parent's genome in the AS or PWS child. Specifically, it is thought that each set of parental genes have different 'ideas' regarding how the child should behave towards the mother and how much investment they should look to extract. In normal cases, the trade-off between the competing parental genomes produces a behavioral equilibrium in the child. However, in pathological instances, particularly where gene expression is one-sided, the evolved behavioral strategies favored by the contributing genome will dominate the child's behavior. To date, research in the area of genomic conflict in AS and PWS children has primarily focusing on differences in post-natal nutrition-related behaviors. The current paper extends this framework by offering an emotion and evolutionary signaling interpretation of the affective characteristics of AS children. A review of the affective characteristics of the two syndromes (PWS and AS) is presented before kinship and emotions theory are used to examine the functions that differential affect expression may serve in altering maternal investment. We expected that because the ultimate goal of paternal genes is to increase the child rearing burden of mothers, the Angelman behavioral phenotype should exhibit the emotion signaling characteristics that elicit levels of investment more consistent with paternal genetic interests. AS children display more positive, relative to negative, affect expressions (i.e. AS children laugh and smile more frequently than PWS children). In affect signaling theories, positive affect signals (i.e., smiling, laughing) have evolved to manipulate the sensory systems of receivers to increase social resources. In contrast, because the expression of some negative affects may indicate to the mother that the infant is not viable, negative affect expression is characteristically low among AS children. However, AS children may nonetheless have high levels of non-expressed anxiety because of its role in assisting the child (and its paternal genome) to maintain vigilance for changes in investment on the part of the mother. Overall, our kinship and emotion signaling analysis of AS children suggests that their global pattern of affect signaling represents one manifestation of an array of possible evolved strategies within the parental genome. Specifically, because AS exhibits the effects of paternally-inherited genes unhindered by the expression of maternally-inherited genes, the AS infant manifests a pattern of expression and non-expression that maximize maternal investment and thus paternal fitness. This theory is a significant departure from the standard but erroneous conjecture that a mother and child's inclusive fitness interests are one and the same.
    • Learning a new method: Teaching Games for Understanding in the coaches’ eyes

      Harvey, Stephen; Cushion, Christopher J.; Massa-Gonzalez, Ada N.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-10-11)
    • London 2012 training guide athletics - track events

      Brewer, John (Carlton Books Ltd, 2011)
      This training book is the perfect introduction to the Olympic Athletics track events and will prove an indispensable guide for both the keen beginner and club athlete. Written by a leading sports scientist and fully illustrated with over 50 specially commissioned diagrams, this official book gives an overview of each track event and covers training safety, tactics and techniques, and standards of performance to aim for. Whether you are a beginner who simply wants to try a new sport or a budding Olympian who dreams of one day winning a gold medal, this concise and easy-to-use book will take you to the next level.
    • Low calorie sweetness and hydration: applications in exercise and sport

      Brewer, John (Teknoscienze Srl, 2011)
      Loss of fluid and energy stores are key challenges faced during sport and exercise. Consumption of beverages containing optimal concentrations of fluid, energy and electrolytes are known to offer the best means of delivering fuel and energy to the body during exercise, with palatability a key factor in determining volitional fluid consumption. In certain cases, where weight loss is a primary goal for exercise, a low energy level in a beverage is of increased importance. Hence many manufacturers use low calorie sweeteners within a sports beverage to ensure that the product retains optimal scientific constituents, calorific content and palatability
    • Making cooperation a real part of your teaching

      Casey, Ashley (The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER), 2009)
    • Managing classroom entry: an ecological analysis of ritual interaction and negotiation in the changing room

      O'Donovan, Toni M.; Kirk, David (2012-05-15)
      The first interactions between teachers and pupils in physical education often take place in the changing rooms, and, as such, the changing rooms are a useful place to begin an exploration of the processes and practices of negotiation in physical education. Pupils are generally required to change their clothing for physical education lessons, an activity consistently identified as negatively experienced by many young people, and particularly girls (Kay, 1995; Flintoff & Scraton, 2001); hence the changing rooms are an important location to consider in determining young people’s engagement with physical education. Throughout this paper, I foreground the naturally occurring interaction between teachers and pupils in the changing rooms of one suburban UK secondary school. This is supplemented by interviews with three teachers and pupils in year 7 (aged 11 12 years) throughout the Spring term. The paper examines how the young people attempted to modify participation requirements in a way that allowed them to pursue their own agendas, and yet also comply with the school, department and teacher rules. Throughout the paper, a consideration of the way in which the teachers held the pupils accountable for their attendance and dress in physical education is present. The orderliness of interaction sequences highlights the ritual nature of pupil teacher talk in the changing room. The analysis of naturally occurring talk is interspersed with a consideration of how the teachers understood the young people’s changing room behaviour.
    • The mediating influence of unconditional self-acceptance and labile self-esteem on the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and exercise dependence

      Hall, Howard K.; Hill, Andrew P.; Appleton, Paul Richard; Kozub, Stephen A.; University of Bedfordshire (2009)
    • Microparticle-associated vascular adhesion molecule-1 and tissue factor follow a circadian rhythm in healthy human subjects

      Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V.; Sandström, Marie E.; Taylor, Lee; McNaughton, Lars R.; Laden, Gerard (Schattauer, 2008-05)
      An increased risk of death or severe injury due to late-morning thrombotic events is well established. Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the coagulation cascade, and endothelial stresses, coupled with production of pro-coagulant microparticles (MP) are also important factors in loss of haemostasis. TF and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) -positive cell microparticles were assessed periodically over a 24-hour (h) period in healthy human subjects to ascertain if they followed a circadian rhythm. Eleven healthy male subjects were assessed in a temperature-controlled environment with dietary intake consistent between subjects. Blood samples were taken every 4 h by venipuncture, and TF and VCAM-1 positive microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. A significant circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 MP (p=or<0.0001), and a trend was shown, although not statistically significant (p=0.065) in TF microparticles. A peak was observed at 9 a.m. for VCAM-1 positive MP, followed by a decrease and subsequent peak at 9 p.m. and a minimum at 5 a.m. TF-positive MP followed a strikingly similar trend in both variation and absolute numbers with a delay. A circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 and less so TF-positive MP. This has significant implications in terms of the well known increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events matching this data. To our knowledge this is the first such report of quantified measurements of these MP over a 24-h period and the only measurement of a 24-h variation of in-vivo blood-borne TF.
    • The missing risk: MRI and MRS phenotyping of abdominal adiposity and ectopic fat.

      Thomas, E. Louise; Parkinson, James R.; Frost, Gary S.; Goldstone, Anthony P.; Doré, Caroline J.; McCarthy, John; Collins, Adam L.; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Durighel, Giuliana; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; et al. (Wiley, 2012-01)
      Individual compartments of abdominal adiposity and lipid content within the liver and muscle are differentially associated with metabolic risk factors, obesity and insulin resistance. Subjects with greater intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and hepatic fat than predicted by clinical indices of obesity may be at increased risk of metabolic diseases despite their "normal" size. There is a need for accurate quantification of these potentially hazardous depots and identification of novel subphenotypes that recognize individuals at potentially increased metabolic risk. We aimed to calculate a reference range for total and regional adipose tissue (AT) as well as ectopic fat in liver and muscle in healthy subjects. We studied the relationship between age, body-mass, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the distribution of AT, using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in 477 white volunteers (243 male, 234 female). Furthermore, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to determine intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipid content. The anthropometric variable which provided the strongest individual correlation for adiposity and ectopic fat stores was WC in men and BMI in women. In addition, we reveal a large variation in IAAT, abdominal subcutaneous AT (ASAT), and IHCL depots not fully predicted by clinically obtained measurements of obesity and the emergence of a previously unidentified subphenotype. Here, we demonstrate gender- and age-specific patterns of regional adiposity in a large UK-based cohort and identify anthropometric variables that best predict individual adiposity and ectopic fat stores. From these data we propose the thin-on-the-outside fat-on-the-inside (TOFI) as a subphenotype for individuals at increased metabolic risk.