• Throwing and catching as relational skills in game play: situated learning in a modified game unit

      MacPhail, Ann; Kirk, David; Griffin, Linda; Leeds Metropolitan University (Human Kinetics, 2008-01)
      In this article, we were interested in how young people learn to play games within a tactical games model (TGM) approach (Griffin, Oslin, & Mitchell, 1997) in terms of the physical-perceptual and social-interactive dimensions of situativity. Kirk and MacPhail’s (2002) development of the Bunker-Thorpe TGfU model was used to conceptualize the nature of situated learning in the context of learning to play an invasion game as part of a school physical education program. An entire class of 29 Year-5 students (ages 9–10 years) participated in a 12-lesson unit on an invasion game, involving two 40-min lessons per week for 6 weeks. Written narrative descriptions of videotaped game play formed the primary data source for the principal analysis of learning progression. We examined the physical-perceptual and social-interactive dimensions of situated learning (Kirk, Brooker, & Braiuka, 2000) to explore the complex ways that students learn skills. Findings demonstrate that for players who are in the early stages of learning a ball game, two elementary, or fundamental, skills of invasion game play—throwing and catching a ball—are complex, relational, and interdependent.
    • Toward the development of a pedagogical model for health-based physical education

      Haerens, Leen; Kirk, David; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse (2010)
      The purpose of this advocacy paper is to make a case for the development of a pedagogical model for Health-Based Physical Education (HBPE) drawing on Jewett, Bain and Ennis's (1995) and Metzler's (2005) ground-breaking work on models-based practice in physical education. A selective review of what has been learnt about HBPE was made to be able to define the central theme for the model as ‘pupils valuing a physically active life, so that they learn to value and practice appropriate physical activities that enhance health and wellbeing for the rest of their lives.’ This theme requires that teachers' beliefs are oriented toward selfactualization and social reconstruction. It also suggests that the affective domain (valuing physical active) is prominent in planning for learning. The discussion focuses on identified tensions related to the central theme and its associated value orientations and learning domain priorities. A stepwise research agenda for progressively developing the model through implementation by teachers in different contexts is proposed.
    • Trading places: from physical education teachers to teacher educators

      Casey, Ashley; Fletcher, Tim (Human Kinetics, 2012)
      Recently, there has been an increase in research on becoming teacher educators, yet little is known about becoming physical education teacher educators (PETE). Responding to concerns about the current state of doctoral PETE programs and inadequate preparation of novice teacher educators, this paper explores our transition from high school teaching to university-based PETE. Employing self-study methodologies we used ourselves as data gathering tools to improve our understandings of self and practice. Our analysis showed that we struggled with the transition from teacher to teacher educator, primarily in navigating the different pedagogies required in teacher education. Based on our high school and PETE experiences, we drew on different sources to shape our respective pedagogies of teacher education. Future PETEs may benefit from structured learning about teaching teachers where they can discover and explore teacher education theory and practice, or be provided with opportunities to observe experienced colleagues and engage in discussion about PETE programming and practice with mentors.
    • The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein ratio identifies children who may be at risk of developing cardiometabolic disease

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Savory, Louise A.; Denton, Sarah J.; Davies, Ben Rhys; Kerr, Catherine J.; University of Bedfordshire; Newcastle University; Oxford Brookes University; University of Bedfordshire; Newcastle University; et al. (Wiley, 2014-08)
      Aim: It is important to develop simple, reliable methods to identify high-risk individuals who may benefit from intervention. This study investigated the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and cardiometabolic risk, cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in children. Methods: Anthropometric, biochemical parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness and accelerometry determined physical activity were assessed in 155 children (80 girls) from 10 to 14 years of age from Bedfordshire, UK. Participants were grouped into high and low TG/HDL ratio groups, according to published thresholds. MANCOVA and logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results: Cardiometabolic risk factor levels were significantly higher in participants with a high TG/HDL ratio (p < 0.05). The odds of having high waist circumference (OR = 13.99; 95% CI 2.93, 69.25), elevated systolic blood pressure (5.27; 1.39, 20.01), high non-HDL cholesterol (19.47; 4.42, 85.81) and ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors (15.32; 3.10, 75.79) were higher in participants with a high TG/HDL ratio. The TG/HDL ratio values were significantly lower in those with high cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.01), but there was no association with physical activity. Conclusion: These findings support the use of the TG/HDL ratio to identify children with cardiometabolic risk factors who may be at risk of developing cardiometabolic disease.
    • Using digital technology to enhance student engagement in physical education

      Casey, Ashley; Jones, Benjamin (Taylor and Francis, 2011)
      This paper explored the use of video technology as an aid to student engagement in physical education. Working in a comprehensive high school in Australia with disaffected students, the study used the New South Wales Quality Teaching Program as a basis for assessing the effectiveness of video technology in enhancing students' engagement in Physical Education lessons aimed at facilitating deeper understanding of throwing and catching. The results highlighted the effectiveness of video technology in enhancing engagement and subsequently suggest that such a degree of commitment helped students to develop understanding beyond technical replication and towards rational and reasoned student investigations around their learning. Additionally, it helped students to feel less marginalised and enabled them to be more engaged in their learning.
    • Using social media in physical education

      Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2012)
    • Using the jigsaw classroom to facilitate student-designed games

      Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2010)
    • Using the TGfU tactical hierarchy to enhance students understanding of game play : expanding the target games category

      Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández, Río J.; Casey, Ashley (Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM), 2012)
      This article reviews the structural and functional elements of a group of activities denominated moving target games, and promotes its inclusion in the Teaching Games for Understanding framework as a new game category. It represents an attempt to enlarge Almond’s taxonomy (1986) to make the transition from one group to another smoother. The basic idea is to modify the structural elements of games to make them developmentally appropriate. Self-made equipment is also introduced as a tool to enhance the educational possibilities of these games. It is easy to make, it reduces the risk of causing damage to an opponent, and it gives students the opportunity to invent games. Finally, the article also tries to show how this approach can be implemented in schools.
    • Variation in basal heat shock protein 70 is correlated to core temperature in human subjects.

      Sandström, Marie E.; Madden, Leigh A.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Lovell, Ric J.; Midgley, Adrian W.; McNaughton, Lars R. (Springer, 2009-07)
      Heat shock proteins are highly conserved proteins and play an important chaperone role in aiding the folding of nascent proteins within cells. The heat shock protein response to various stressors, both in vitro and in vivo, is well characterised. However, basal levels of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) have not previously been investigated. Monocyte-expressed Hsp70 was determined every 4 h, over a 24 h time period, in 17 healthy male subjects (177 +/- 6.4 cm, 75.7 +/- 10.9 kg, 19.8 +/- 4.3 years) within a temperature and activity controlled environment. Core temperature was measured at 5-min intervals during the 24 h period. Hsp70 showed significant diurnal variation (F = 7.4; p < 0.001), demonstrating peaks at 0900 and 2100 hours, and a nadir at 05.00. Core temperature followed a similar temporal trend (range = 35.96-38.10 degrees C) and was significantly correlated with Hsp70 expression (r(s) = 0.44; p < 0.001). These findings suggest a high responsiveness of Hsp70 expression in monocytes to slight variations in core temperature.
    • Vasoreactivity before and after handgrip training in chronic heart failure patients

      Credeur, Daniel P.; Mariappan, Nithya; Francis, Joseph; Thomas, David; Moraes, Denzil; Welsch, Michael A.; University of Missouri (Elsevier, 2012-11)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the vasodilatory and vasoconstrictor responses of the brachial artery in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and controls (CON) before and after a period of training and detraining.
    • ‘We had to do intelligent thinking during recent PE’: students’ and teachers’ experiences of assessment for learning in post‐primary physical education

      MacPhail, Ann; Halbert, John (Taylor & Francis, 2010-02)
      This study arose in response to a perceived need for additional teacher support for assessment in physical education and the limited focus in physical education pedagogy literature on the impact of Assessment for Learning (AfL), in particular the impact of formative assessment on student learning. The study involved the refinement and evaluation of a post‐primary physical education planning framework with assessment instruments for use by teachers. A number of teachers were engaged in the development of assessment and planning materials, the trialling of these in school settings and their subsequent refinement based on the feedback received from the teaching and learning setting. The study was contingent on teachers cultivating a learning culture within their class. Students’ and teachers’ experiences of AfL are reported before highlighting some of the challenges that remain in investigating formative assessment.
    • What are we being told about how to teach games? a three-dimensional analysis of comparative research into different instructional studies in Physical Education and School Sports

      Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Valero-Valenzuela, Alfonso; Casey, Ashley (Ramón Cantó Alcaraz, 2010)
      Determining what pedagogical approach could be most effective in delivering the desired learning outcomes in teaching games has been one of the more relevant concerns for physical education teachers, coaches and researches in the last few decades. Nevertheless, until recently, the research carried out in this field has been little profuse, has met with several difficulties and has been made from different perspectives, which has complicated its analysis altogether. The present study follows three main objectives: a) to analyse the nature of the interventions used in the comparative investigation directed to teaching sports, b) to determine the effects of the levels of treatment and, c) to outline some didactic consequences. Twenty comparative studies were selected for a systematic review.
    • What examining teaching metaphors tells us about pre-service teachers' developing beliefs about teaching and learning

      Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann (Taylor and Francis, 2012)
      Pre-service teachers (PSTs) typically do not change their beliefs about teaching and learning during teacher education unless they are confronted with, and challenged about, their held beliefs through powerful and meaningful experiences that cause them to recognise and value the change process and its consequences for themselves and their learners. It has been suggested that examining teaching narratives and metaphors might be one way for teacher education to help PSTs in recognising their pre-existing beliefs about teaching and learning. Such practices assist PSTs to reflect on and examine these beliefs and how they impact both their teaching and the learning of their students. The purpose of this study was to understand how the process of examining metaphors influences PSTs' development of beliefs about teaching and learning.
    • Young people's socialisation into sport: a case study of an athletics club

      MacPhail, Ann; Gorely, Trish; Kirk, David (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2003-10)
      This paper explores young people's (9 to 15 years old) early socialisation into sport. We draw on data from an 18-month-long ethnography of the junior section of an athletics club in England, using field notes, interviews and a psychometric questionnaire. We begin by noting a trend towards increasing numbers of younger children participating in adult-organised, community-based sport. Within this context, we investigate the extent to which Siedentop's [(1995) Junior Sport and the evolution of sport cultures, Keynote presentation to the Junior Sport Forum, Auckland, New Zealand] three main goals for young people's participation in sport, i.e. the educative, public health and elite development, are met in specific, local junior sport settings such as Forest Athletics Club (FAC). We report that most of the young people participating in the Introductory Groups at FAC begin their socialisation into sport by 'sampling' a range of sports and other activities that are available to them. We note the key features of the sampling phase for these young people, including their involvement in sports and other activities in addition to athletics, their reasons for participation, the place of competition and the importance of friendship. We report that FAC created a climate for the Samplers, intentionally or not, conducive to the development of Siedentop's educative goal, and to a lesser extent the public health and elite development goals. In concluding, we note the implications of the study for community-based programmes run by clubs.
    • Young people’s socialisation into sport: experiencing the specialising phase

      MacPhail, Ann; Kirk, David (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2006)