• The parental antagonism theory of language evolution: preliminary evidence for the proposal.

      Brown, William Michael; Queen Mary University of London (2011-04)
      Language--as with most communication systems--likely evolved by means of natural selection. Accounts for the genetical selection of language can usually be divided into two scenarios, either of which used in isolation of the other appear insufficient to explain the phenomena: (1) there are group benefits from communicating, and (2) there are individual benefits from being a better communicator. In contrast, it is hypothesized that language phenotypes emerged during a coevolutionary struggle between parental genomes via genomic imprinting, which is differential gene expression depending on parental origin of the genetic element. It is hypothesized that relatedness asymmetries differentially selected for patrigene-caused language phenotypes to extract resources from mother (early in development) and matrigene-caused language phenotypes to influence degree of cooperativeness among asymmetric kin (later in development). This paper reports that imprinted genes have a high frequency of involvement in language phenotypes (~36%), considering their presumed rarity in the human genome (~2%). For example, two well-studied genes associated with language impairments (FOXP2 and UBE3A) exhibit parent-of- origin effects. Specifically, FOXP2 is putatively paternally expressed, whereas UBE3A is a maternally expressed imprinted gene. It is also hypothesized that the more unique and cooperative aspects of human language emerged to the benefit of matrilineal inclusive fitness. Consistent with this perspective, it is reported here that the X-chromosome has higher involvement in loci that have associations with language than would be expected by chance. It is also reported, for the first time, that human and chimpanzee maternally expressed overlapping imprinted genes exhibit greater evolutionary divergence (in terms of the degree of overlapping transcripts) than paternally expressed overlapping imprinted genes. Finally, an analysis of global language patterns reveals that paternally but not maternally silenced Alu elements are positively correlated with language diversity. Furthermore, there is a much higher than expected frequency of Alu elements inserted into the protein-coding machinery of imprinted and X-chromosomal language loci compared with nonimprinted language loci. Taken together these findings provide some support for parental antagonism theory. Unlike previous theories for language evolution, parental antagonism theory generates testable predictions at the proximate (e.g., neurocognitive areas important for social transmission and language capacities), ontogenetic (e.g., the function of language at different points of development), ultimate (e.g., inclusive fitness), and phylogenetic levels (e.g., the spread of maternally derived brain components in mammals, particularly in the hominin lineage), thus making human capacities for culture more tractable than previously thought.
    • Partial heat acclimation of athletes with spinal cord lesion

      Castle, Paul C.; Kularatne, B. Pasan; Brewer, John; Mauger, Alexis R.; Austen, Ross A.; Tuttle, James A.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Mackenzie, Richard W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Webborn, Anthony D. J. (Springer, 2012)
      Heat acclimation (HA) can improve thermoregulatory stability in able-bodied athletes in part by an enhanced sweat response. Athletes with spinal cord lesion are unable to sweat below the lesion and it is unknown if they can HA. Five paralympic shooting athletes with spinal cord lesion completed seven consecutive days HA in hot conditions (33.4 ± 0.6 °C, 64.8 ± 3.7 %rh). Each HA session consisted of 20 min arm crank exercise at 50 % [Formula: see text] followed by 40 min rest, or simulated shooting. Aural temperature (T (aur)) was recorded throughout. Body mass was assessed before and after each session and a sweat collection swab was fixed to T12 of the spine. Fingertip whole blood was sampled at rest on days 1 and 7 for estimation of the change in plasma volume. Resting T (aur) declined from 36.3 ± 0.2 °C on day 1 to 36.0 ± 0.2 °C by day 6 (P < 0.05). During the HA sessions mean, T (aur) declined from 37.2 ± 0.2 °C on day 1, to 36.7 ± 0.3 °C on day 7 (P < 0.05). Plasma volume increased from day 1 by 1.5 ± 0.6 % on day 7 (P < 0.05). No sweat secretion was detected or changes in body mass observed from any participant. Repeated hyperthermia combined with limited evaporative heat loss was sufficient to increase plasma volume, probably by alterations in fluid regulatory hormones. In conclusion, we found that although no sweat response was observed, athletes with spinal cord lesion could partially HA.
    • Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) cohort

      Soubry, Adelheid; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Murtha, Amy; Wang, Frances; Huang, Zhiqing; Bernal, Autumn J.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy L.; Murphy, Susan K.; Hoyo, Cathrine; et al. (BioMed Central, 2013)
      Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene.
    • Perfectionism and burnout in junior elite soccer players: The mediating influence of unconditional self-acceptance

      Hill, Andrew P.; Hall, Howard K.; Appleton, Paul Richard; Kozub, Stephen A.; University of Bedfordshire (2008)
    • Physical education futures

      Kirk, David; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2010)
    • Physical education teachers' use of practitioner inquiry: effective, enjoyable and relevant professional learning

      Goodyear, Victoria A.; Casey, Ashley; Kirk, David (Taylor and Francis, 2013)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore how four physical education teachers in the United Kingdom engaged with reflection and dialogue as part of their daily practice. Technology, in the form of a voice recorder and focussed questions for reflection, facilitated teachers' engagement and constructive reflection. Furthermore, teachers made time within the busy school day to informally discuss their pedagogical decisions with colleagues and formally listen to their students' perceptions of their practice. Consequently, the quality of teaching in a physical education department was enhanced and practitioner inquiry supported effective, enjoyable and relevant professional learning.
    • Physical literacy and physical education

      Killingbeck, M.; Bowler, Mark; Golding, D.; Sammon, Paul (Association for Physical Education, 2007)
    • Plasma and salivary steroid hormone responses of men to high-intensity cycling and resistance exercise

      Hough, John; Papacosta, Elena; Wraith, Elizabeth; Gleeson, Michael (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2011)
      Hormonal responses to exercise could be used as a marker of overreaching. A short exercise protocol that induces robust hormonal elevations in a normal trained state should be able to highlight hormonal changes during overreaching. This study compared plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to 4 exercise trials; these were (a) continuous cycle to fatigue at 75% peak power output (Wmax) (FAT); (b) 30-minute cycle alternating 1-minute 60% and 1 minute 90% Wmax (60/90); (c) 30-minute cycle alternating 1-minute 55% and 4-minute 80% Wmax (55/80); and (d) Squatting 8 sets of 10 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum (RESIST). Blood and saliva samples were collected pre-exercise and at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minute postexercise. Pre- to postexercise plasma cortisol increased in all exercise trials, except 60/90. Increases in 55/80 remained above pre-exercise levels for the entire postexercise period. Salivary cortisol increased from pre- to postexercise in FAT and 55/80 trials only. Once elevated after 55/80, it remained so for the postexercise period. Plasma testosterone increased from pre- to postexercise in all trials except 55/80. Saliva testosterone increased from pre- to postexercise in all trials with the longest elevation occurring after 55/80. Area under the curve analysis indicated that the exercise response of salivary hormones was greater in all cycle trials (cortisol) and in the 60/90 and 55/80 trials (testosterone) compared with the other trials. This study indicates that the 55/80 cycle protocol induces a prolonged salivary and plasma cortisol and salivary testosterone response compared with the other trials and so may be a useful diagnostic tool of overreaching.
    • Practitioner research: a means of coping with the systemic demands for continual professional development?

      Casey, Ashley (Sage Publications, 2012)
      This article explores the current demands that teachers engage in year-on-year continued professional development (CPD) as a means of showing their ongoing competence to teach. In particular it highlights two types of CPD: the talked about notion of the ‘reflective practitioner’ and the actioned reality of CPD as a measure of technical and competent practice. The paper explores the feelings of teachers towards CPD and then, drawing on a seven-year longitudinal practitioner research study, uses the example of physical education to highlight the discordance between the intentions of the provider and the learning of the teachers. Finally, it uses the self-same study to illustrate the difference between traditional CPD and an idea of professional development that focuses on the use of practitioner research. It argues that through the use of inquiry and research teachers are able to focus their learning on ‘their kids’ and ‘their problems’ rather than engage in CPD which is delivered off-site and which assumes that ‘one size fits all’.
    • Pre-exercise alkalosis attenuates the heat shock protein 72 response to a single-bout of anaerobic exercise

      Peart, Daniel J.; McNaughton, Lars R.; Midgley, Adrian W.; Taylor, Lee; Towlson, Christopher; Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V. (Elsevier, 2011-09)
      The heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) response following exercise is well documented, however, little is known on whether the expression may be mediated by the ingestion of ergogenic aids prior to performance. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) ingestion on monocyte and lymphocyte expressed HSP72 and oxidative stress for 4-h post exercise. Seven active males (22.3 ± 2.9 years, 181.6 ± 4.5 cm, 78.1 ± 8.1 kg) performed a 4-min 'all-out' cycle test following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of NaHCO(3), or an equimolar placebo dose of sodium chloride. HSP72 was measured by flow cytometry and oxidative stress was determined via plasma thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) analysis. The NaHCO(3) ingestion significantly increased blood pH (p<0.001), bicarbonate (p<0.001) and base excess (p<0.001) pre-exercise. Despite this there was no evidence of a significantly improved exercise performance when compared with the placebo trials (p ≥ 0.26) (means ± SD; average power 292 ± 43 W vs. 291 ± 50 W; peak power 770 ± 218 W vs. 775 ± 211 W; work completed 71 ± 10 kJ vs. 68 ± 10 kJ). Monocyte expressed HSP72 was significantly lower under experimental conditions during the 4-h post-exercise (p=0.013), as was plasma TBARS (p<0.001). These findings suggest that pre-exercise alkalosis can attenuate the stress response to a single bout of anaerobic exercise.
    • Pre-service physical education teachers' beliefs about competition in physical education

      Harvey, Stephen; O'Donovan, Toni M.; University of Bedfordshire (2012-05-15)
      The discourse of competitive sport is, and has been, a defining feature of physical education for many years. Given the privileged and dominant position competition holds in physical education curricula, it is concerning that competitive physical education remains steeped in traditional pedagogies and that these pedagogies are constrained by teachers’ everyday philosophies rather than any explicit understanding of pedagogy or the needs of pupils. This in turn affects pupils’ experiences of physical education and specifically the type and form of activities that are offered to pupils. Physical education teachers’ biographies generally show a profound attachment to sport, and in particular competitive sport, and the value of competitive sport is significant in the lives and identities of physical education recruits. However, there is a paucity of research specifically in relation to in-service and pre-service physical education teacher's beliefs about competition and its place in physical education. It is well documented that the implicit theories that pre-service, beginning and experienced teachers hold influence their reactions to teacher education and their teaching practice, with their beliefs acting as a filter through which a host of instructional judgements and decisions are made. Thus, it is important to understand pre-service physical education teachers’ (PSTs’) beliefs about competition. Thirty five (16 men, 15 women, 4 unknown) PSTs completed a reflective journal alongside their participation in a University-based module focused on models-based practice. The data generated were analysed using the procedures and techniques of grounded theory which revealed five major themes grouped in the discussion under the sub-categories of: (1) defining competition; (2) learning through competition; (3) competitive physical education and the sporting pathway; (4) competition needs to be got out of children; and (5) a little competition. The discussion challenges how we transform traditional views of competition and the competitive practices that alienate some young people from physical education.
    • Precooling can prevent the reduction of self-paced exercise intensity in the heat

      Duffield, Rob; Green, Robbie; Castle, Paul C.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Charles Sturt University (2010-03)
      This study investigated the effects of precooling on performance and pacing during self-paced endurance cycling in the heat and, further, the effects of cooling on contractile function as a mechanism for performance changes.
    • Preparing physical education preservice teachers to design instructionally aligned lessons through constructivist pedagogical practices

      MacPhail, Ann; Tannehill, Deborah; Goc Karp, Grace (Elsevier, 2013)
      Examining how teacher education influences preservice teachers' (PSTs) application of content knowledge, decision making when planning for teaching, creation of innovative teaching practices and design of aligned instruction, has significant implications for understanding learning to teach. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which the constructivist pedagogies (e.g., interactive community discussions, problem solving, group challenges) employed by teacher educators through the implementation of a rich task (Macdonald, Hunter, & Tinning, 2007) assisted PSTs in their understanding and construction of knowledge about instructional alignment. Data collection employed rich tasks and focus-group interviews with a sample of 31 physical education teacher education (PETE) PSTs enrolled on a one-year Graduate Diploma Physical Education program. Data were analysed inductively (Patton, 1990) using the constant comparative method (Rubin & Rubin, 1995).
    • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrasound for hepatic fat quantification

      Mehta, Sanjeev R.; Louise Thomas, Elizabeth; Patel, Nayna; Crofton, Mary E.; McCarthy, John; Eliahoo, Joseph; Morin, Stanislas X.; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Durighel, Giuliana; Goldstone, Anthony P.; et al. (Wiley, 2010-04)
      Aim:  The increasing prevalence of fatty liver disease requires routine assessment methods. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is increasingly used for steatosis measurement, but due to cost, is unlikely to become a widely-used screening tool. Ultrasound is cheaper and more widely available, although subject to observer variability. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound against 1H MRS, using MRS as a gold standard, for the detection and quantification of hepatic fat content. Methods:  Fifty adults participated (43 men, seven women) in this study. Hepatic steatosis was assessed by ultrasound and 1H MRS. Images were graded by two independent radiologists to classify severity and distribution of liver fat. Results:  Ultrasound detected liver fat infiltration in 82% of cases measurable by 1H MRS, while liver fat was detectable in 44% of cases graded absent by ultrasound. Ultrasound grading was subjective, with the radiologists in agreement in 53% of cases (κ = 0.39, P = 0.002). Considerable overlap in intrahepatocellular lipid content was observed between different grades: absent (0.0–1.58%), mild (2.2–16.2%), moderate (4.9–26.7%) and severe (8.1–76.8%) steatosis. Ultrasound could not detect liver fat levels below 2% as measured by 1H MRS Conclusion:  Ultrasound is less sensitive than 1H MRS in detecting very low levels of liver fat content, but is sensitive to fatty infiltration greater than 2%. There is a tendency of higher ultrasound grades to correlate with higher degrees of fatty infiltration, although some overlap exists. Our findings are still consistent with ultrasound being useful as a low cost screening tool.
    • Reduction of myoblast differentiation following multiple population doublings in mouse C2 C12 cells: a model to investigate ageing?

      Sharples, Adam P.; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Lewis, Mark P.; Stewart, Claire E.; University of Bedfordshire (2011-12)
      Ageing skeletal muscle displays declines in size, strength, and functional capacity. Given the acknowledged role that the systemic environment plays in reduced regeneration (Conboy et al. [2005] Nature 433: 760-764), the role of resident satellite cells (termed myoblasts upon activation) is relatively dismissed, where, multiple cellular divisions in-vivo throughout the lifespan could also impact on muscular deterioration. Using a model of multiple population doublings (MPD) in-vitro thus provided a system in which to investigate the direct impact of extensive cell duplications on muscle cell behavior. C(2) C(12) mouse skeletal myoblasts (CON) were used fresh or following 58 population doublings (MPD). As a result of multiple divisions, reduced morphological and biochemical (creatine kinase, CK) differentiation were observed. Furthermore, MPD cells had significantly increased cells in the S and decreased cells in the G1 phases of the cell cycle versus CON, following serum withdrawal. These results suggest continued cycling rather than G1 exit and thus reduced differentiation (myotube atrophy) occurs in MPD muscle cells. These changes were underpinned by significant reductions in transcript expression of: IGF-I and myogenic regulatory factors (myoD and myogenin) together with elevated IGFBP5. Signaling studies showed that decreased differentiation in MPD was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt, and with later increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2. Chemical inhibition of JNK1/2 (SP600125) in MPD cells increased IGF-I expression (non-significantly), however, did not enhance differentiation. This study provides a potential model and molecular mechanisms for deterioration in differentiation capacity in skeletal muscle cells as a consequence of multiple population doublings that would potentially contribute to the ageing process.
    • Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes

      Watson, R.A.; Pride, N.B.; Thomas, E. Louise; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Durighel, Giuliana; McCarthy, John; Morin, Stanislas X.; Ind, P.W.; Bell, Jimmy D.; National Heart and Lung Institute; et al. (American Physiological Society, 2010-03-18)
      Restriction of total lung capacity (TLC) is found in some obese subjects, but the mechanism is unclear. Two hypotheses are as follows: 1) increased abdominal volume prevents full descent of the diaphragm; and 2) increased intrathoracic fat reduces space for full lung expansion. We have measured total intrathoracic volume at full inflation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 asymptomatic obese men [mean age 52 yr, body mass index (BMI) 35–45 kg/m2] and 7 control men (mean age 50 yr, BMI 22–27 kg/m2). MRI volumes were compared with gas volumes at TLC. All measurements were made with subjects supine. Obese men had smaller functional residual capacity (FRC) and FRC-to-TLC ratio than control men. There was a 12% predicted difference in mean TLC between obese (84% predicted) and control men (96% predicted). In contrast, differences in total intrathoracic volume (MRI) at full inflation were only 4% predicted TLC (obese 116% predicted TLC, control 120% predicted TLC), because mediastinal volume was larger in obese than in control [heart and major vessels (obese 1.10 liter, control 0.87 liter, P = 0.016) and intrathoracic fat (obese 0.68 liter, control 0.23 liter, P < 0.0001)]. As a consequence of increased mediastinal volume, intrathoracic volume at FRC in obese men was considerably larger than indicated by the gas volume at FRC. The difference in gas volume at TLC between the six obese men with restriction, TLC < 80% predicted (OR), and the eight obese men with TLC > 80% predicted (ON) was 26% predicted TLC. Mediastinal volume was similar in OR (1.84 liter) and ON (1.73 liter), but total intrathoracic volume was 19% predicted TLC smaller in OR than in ON. We conclude that the major factor restricting TLC in some obese men was reduced thoracic expansion at full inflation.
    • Release of VCAM-1 associated endothelial microparticles following simulated SCUBA dives.

      Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R.; Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Laden, Gerard; Madden, Leigh A. (Springer, 2009-03)
      Microparticles (MP) are shed into the circulation from endothelium following activation or apoptosis. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is expressed on endothelial cells following activation and here we report quantification of VCAM-1 positive microparticles (VCAM + MP) following simulated SCUBA dives, breathing either air or oxygen. VCAM + MP were quantified pre-dive (09:00 and 13:00) and post-dive (+1, +3 and +15 h) on both air and oxygen dives and compared with control samples taken from the same subjects. VCAM + MP followed a similar trend in all experiments, however both dives caused a change in endothelial state, as measured by VCAM + MP. A significant increase in VCAM + MP was observed 1 h post-air dive relative to the control (p = 0.013), which was not observed after the oxygen dive (p = 0.095). Oxidative stress (TBARS) was correlated with VCAM + MP. Data presented highlights the potential of MP as a biological marker of both endothelial state and decompression illness.