• Making cooperation a real part of your teaching

      Casey, Ashley (The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER), 2009)
    • Managing classroom entry: an ecological analysis of ritual interaction and negotiation in the changing room

      O'Donovan, Toni M.; Kirk, David (2012-05-15)
      The first interactions between teachers and pupils in physical education often take place in the changing rooms, and, as such, the changing rooms are a useful place to begin an exploration of the processes and practices of negotiation in physical education. Pupils are generally required to change their clothing for physical education lessons, an activity consistently identified as negatively experienced by many young people, and particularly girls (Kay, 1995; Flintoff & Scraton, 2001); hence the changing rooms are an important location to consider in determining young people’s engagement with physical education. Throughout this paper, I foreground the naturally occurring interaction between teachers and pupils in the changing rooms of one suburban UK secondary school. This is supplemented by interviews with three teachers and pupils in year 7 (aged 11 12 years) throughout the Spring term. The paper examines how the young people attempted to modify participation requirements in a way that allowed them to pursue their own agendas, and yet also comply with the school, department and teacher rules. Throughout the paper, a consideration of the way in which the teachers held the pupils accountable for their attendance and dress in physical education is present. The orderliness of interaction sequences highlights the ritual nature of pupil teacher talk in the changing room. The analysis of naturally occurring talk is interspersed with a consideration of how the teachers understood the young people’s changing room behaviour.
    • The mediating influence of unconditional self-acceptance and labile self-esteem on the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and exercise dependence

      Hall, Howard K.; Hill, Andrew P.; Appleton, Paul Richard; Kozub, Stephen A.; University of Bedfordshire (2009)
    • Microparticle-associated vascular adhesion molecule-1 and tissue factor follow a circadian rhythm in healthy human subjects

      Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V.; Sandström, Marie E.; Taylor, Lee; McNaughton, Lars R.; Laden, Gerard (Schattauer, 2008-05)
      An increased risk of death or severe injury due to late-morning thrombotic events is well established. Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of the coagulation cascade, and endothelial stresses, coupled with production of pro-coagulant microparticles (MP) are also important factors in loss of haemostasis. TF and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) -positive cell microparticles were assessed periodically over a 24-hour (h) period in healthy human subjects to ascertain if they followed a circadian rhythm. Eleven healthy male subjects were assessed in a temperature-controlled environment with dietary intake consistent between subjects. Blood samples were taken every 4 h by venipuncture, and TF and VCAM-1 positive microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. A significant circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 MP (p=or<0.0001), and a trend was shown, although not statistically significant (p=0.065) in TF microparticles. A peak was observed at 9 a.m. for VCAM-1 positive MP, followed by a decrease and subsequent peak at 9 p.m. and a minimum at 5 a.m. TF-positive MP followed a strikingly similar trend in both variation and absolute numbers with a delay. A circadian rhythm was observed in VCAM-1 and less so TF-positive MP. This has significant implications in terms of the well known increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events matching this data. To our knowledge this is the first such report of quantified measurements of these MP over a 24-h period and the only measurement of a 24-h variation of in-vivo blood-borne TF.
    • The missing risk: MRI and MRS phenotyping of abdominal adiposity and ectopic fat.

      Thomas, E. Louise; Parkinson, James R.; Frost, Gary S.; Goldstone, Anthony P.; Doré, Caroline J.; McCarthy, John; Collins, Adam L.; Fitzpatrick, Julie; Durighel, Giuliana; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; et al. (Wiley, 2012-01)
      Individual compartments of abdominal adiposity and lipid content within the liver and muscle are differentially associated with metabolic risk factors, obesity and insulin resistance. Subjects with greater intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and hepatic fat than predicted by clinical indices of obesity may be at increased risk of metabolic diseases despite their "normal" size. There is a need for accurate quantification of these potentially hazardous depots and identification of novel subphenotypes that recognize individuals at potentially increased metabolic risk. We aimed to calculate a reference range for total and regional adipose tissue (AT) as well as ectopic fat in liver and muscle in healthy subjects. We studied the relationship between age, body-mass, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the distribution of AT, using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in 477 white volunteers (243 male, 234 female). Furthermore, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to determine intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipid content. The anthropometric variable which provided the strongest individual correlation for adiposity and ectopic fat stores was WC in men and BMI in women. In addition, we reveal a large variation in IAAT, abdominal subcutaneous AT (ASAT), and IHCL depots not fully predicted by clinically obtained measurements of obesity and the emergence of a previously unidentified subphenotype. Here, we demonstrate gender- and age-specific patterns of regional adiposity in a large UK-based cohort and identify anthropometric variables that best predict individual adiposity and ectopic fat stores. From these data we propose the thin-on-the-outside fat-on-the-inside (TOFI) as a subphenotype for individuals at increased metabolic risk.
    • Models-based practice: great white hope or white elephant?

      Casey, Ashley (Taylor and Francis, 2012)
      The purpose of this paper was to review the literature around pedagogical and curricular change in physical education that relates to teachers experience of models-based practice. This review of research on teachers’ perceptions and use of models-based practice was undertaken in an effort to ascertain the ways in which practitioners interpreted this type of change in practice. Conclusion was made: While models-based practice has begun to help practitioners to change and develop their pedagogies and curriculum, we are still a way away from understanding the impact of changing to a models-based approach. Research needs to be focused beyond the initial use of the model(s) and one needs to explore the longitudinal impact of adopting a multi-model curriculum. Furthermore, advocates of models-based practice need to explore the pedagogical and curricular ramifications on teachers of the long-term adoption of a models-based approach.
    • A multi-ingredient nutritional supplement increases fat oxidation and augments metabolic rate

      Saini, Amarjit; McBride, Roisin; Davies, Ben Rhys; Martin, Neil Richard William; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Brewer, John (SciTechnol, 2013)
      The study investigated the impact of a multi-ingredient nutritional supplement (MINS) on resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure. The supplement contained a combination of factors that are normally administered in isolation (32 g protein, 8.4 g CHO, 1.7 g fibre, 105 mg caffeine and 21 mg green tea extract with 10.5 mg catechins, per 50 g serving. 18 subjects participated in the study (10 males, 8 females), mean age 21.8 yrs. Following overnight fasting, subjects ingested either MINS or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo. Resting oxygen uptake was determined by gas analysis measuring VCO2 produced and VO2 consumed. 7 days later, the protocol was repeated using a randomised twotreatment crossover design so each individual subject’s response to both placebo and supplement was assessed. Results showed mean resting Respiratory Exchange Ratios were 0.77 ± 0.03 after supplementation, compared with 0.93 ± 0.03 after placebo (P<0.05), indicating a shift in contribution of fat to metabolism from 24 ± 2.5% (Control) to 79 ± 1.9% (MINS). Mean resting metabolic rate was found to be 3.69 ml per kg.min-1 O2 after supplementation, compared with 3.45 ml per kg.min-1 O2 after placebo. Whilst this difference is not statistically significant, it impacts on the absolute amount of fat metabolised at rest, increasing from 0.3 kcal.min-1 (Control) to 1.0 kcal.min-1 (MINS) (P<0.05). These findings may have significant implications for individuals involved in weight loss or weight management programmes.
    • Myoblast models of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy.

      Sharples, Adam P.; Stewart, Claire E.; University of Bedfordshire; Manchester Metropolitan University (2011-05)
      To highlight recent breakthroughs and controversies in the use of myoblast models to uncover cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy.
    • A new VO2max protocol allowing self-pacing in maximal incremental exercise

      Mauger, Alexis R.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; University of Bedfordshire (2012-01)
      The traditional maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) protocol has received criticism for being an unnatural form of exercise, lacking ecological validity and producing different VO(2max) responses depending on protocol duration and work rate increments.
    • Novel retrotransposed imprinted locus identified at human 6p25

      Zhang, Aiping; Skaar, David A.; Li, Yue; Huang, Dale; Price, Thomas M.; Murphy, Susan K.; Jirtle, Randy L. (Oxford University Press, 2011)
      Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are stable epigenetic features within or in proximity to imprinted genes. We used this feature to identify candidate human imprinted loci by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. We discovered a unique DMR at the 50-end of FAM50B at 6p25.2. We determined that sense transcripts originating from the FAM50B locus are expressed from the paternal allele in all human tissues investigated except for ovary, in which expression is biallelic. Furthermore, an antisense transcript, FAM50B-AS, was identified to be monoallelically expressed from the paternal allele in a variety of tissues. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed that FAM50B orthologs are absent in chicken and platypus, but are present and biallelically expressed in opossum and mouse.
    • Obesity discourse and the crisis of faith in disciplinary technology

      Gard, Michael; Kirk, David (Örebro University, 2007)
      According to Kirk (1998) (following Foucault) a shift in corporeal power has been underway since the late 18th century in many ‘western’ countries, from an external form of power and locus of control to an internal form and locus. In light of the increased volume of discourse around the alleged obesity crisis (Gard & Wright 2005) we revisit and attempt to update Kirk’s thesis about the regulation of bodies in schools; is the widespread concern about an obesity crisis producing new ways of managing and disciplining children’s bodies? We explore in some detail a case study of curriculum development in Health and Physical Education in Ontario, Canada where we argue that the grades 1–8 syllabus trades the productive compliance and liberal individualism of previous eras for a new layering of physical education discourse and the production of cheerfully courteous and responsible individuals. We complete this analysis by asking whether this curriculum development in an era of obesity discourse signals a crisis of faith in disciplinary technology. We end by noting the need for the retention of spaces within school physical education where young people can question assumptions about corporeality
    • Oxidant stress in healthy normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals.

      Brown, Louise A.; Kerr, Catherine J.; Whiting, Paul; Finer, Nicholas; McEneny, Jane; Ashton, Tony; University of Bedfordshire (2009-03)
      This study was undertaken to investigate the association among BMI and lipid hydroperoxide (LH), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). Ninety (n = 90) healthy males and females (n = 23/67) (29 normal weight (BMI: 22.74 +/- 0.25 kg/m(2)), 36 overweight (BMI: 27.18 +/- 0.23 kg/m(2)), and 25 obese (33.78 +/- 0.48 kg/m(2))) participated in the study. Data collected included anthropometric measures, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, LH, TAS, and enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, and reduced GSH). The results of the study showed that obese individuals had significantly increased LH levels compared to normal-weight individuals (obese vs. normal weight (0.88 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.67 +/- 0.03 micromol/l, P < 0.01)) but the increased levels were not significantly different when compared to the overweight group (obese vs. overweight (0.88 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.05 micromol/l)). No other consistent significant differences in TAS, SOD, and GSH were identified between groups. This study concluded that only obesity and not moderate overweight elevates LH levels. Furthermore, the levels of TAS, SOD, and GSH in obesity do not explain the increased LH levels observed in obesity.
    • The oxygen uptake kinetic response to moderate intensity exercise in overweight and non-overweight children

      Potter, C.R.; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Draper, S.B.; Unnithan, V.B. (Nature Publishing Group, 2012)
      The aim of the study was to compare the phase II oxygen uptake time constant (τV'O(2)) and V'O(2) mean response time (V'O(2)MRT) in overweight (OW) and non-OW (NO) children during moderate intensity exercise. The findings demonstrate impairment in the factors determining V'O(2) kinetics in OW children at a relatively young age. Furthermore, assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using peak exercise values is likely to be misleading and not useful when designing exercise programmes for OW children.
    • The parental antagonism theory of language evolution: preliminary evidence for the proposal.

      Brown, William Michael; Queen Mary University of London (2011-04)
      Language--as with most communication systems--likely evolved by means of natural selection. Accounts for the genetical selection of language can usually be divided into two scenarios, either of which used in isolation of the other appear insufficient to explain the phenomena: (1) there are group benefits from communicating, and (2) there are individual benefits from being a better communicator. In contrast, it is hypothesized that language phenotypes emerged during a coevolutionary struggle between parental genomes via genomic imprinting, which is differential gene expression depending on parental origin of the genetic element. It is hypothesized that relatedness asymmetries differentially selected for patrigene-caused language phenotypes to extract resources from mother (early in development) and matrigene-caused language phenotypes to influence degree of cooperativeness among asymmetric kin (later in development). This paper reports that imprinted genes have a high frequency of involvement in language phenotypes (~36%), considering their presumed rarity in the human genome (~2%). For example, two well-studied genes associated with language impairments (FOXP2 and UBE3A) exhibit parent-of- origin effects. Specifically, FOXP2 is putatively paternally expressed, whereas UBE3A is a maternally expressed imprinted gene. It is also hypothesized that the more unique and cooperative aspects of human language emerged to the benefit of matrilineal inclusive fitness. Consistent with this perspective, it is reported here that the X-chromosome has higher involvement in loci that have associations with language than would be expected by chance. It is also reported, for the first time, that human and chimpanzee maternally expressed overlapping imprinted genes exhibit greater evolutionary divergence (in terms of the degree of overlapping transcripts) than paternally expressed overlapping imprinted genes. Finally, an analysis of global language patterns reveals that paternally but not maternally silenced Alu elements are positively correlated with language diversity. Furthermore, there is a much higher than expected frequency of Alu elements inserted into the protein-coding machinery of imprinted and X-chromosomal language loci compared with nonimprinted language loci. Taken together these findings provide some support for parental antagonism theory. Unlike previous theories for language evolution, parental antagonism theory generates testable predictions at the proximate (e.g., neurocognitive areas important for social transmission and language capacities), ontogenetic (e.g., the function of language at different points of development), ultimate (e.g., inclusive fitness), and phylogenetic levels (e.g., the spread of maternally derived brain components in mammals, particularly in the hominin lineage), thus making human capacities for culture more tractable than previously thought.