• Identification of non-specific tactical tasks in invasion games

      Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen (2012-05-23)
    • Identity work: young disabled people, family and sport

      Fitzgerald, Hayley; Kirk, David; Leeds Metropolitan University; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2009-09)
      It has long been recognised that family is an important arena in which sporting tastes and interests are nurtured. Indeed, for many young people the family introduces them to and then provides ongoing support for engaging in sport. Research has also indicated that the family has a significant position in the lives of young disabled people. In this paper we explore the interrelationships between sport, family and disability. Like a number of writers within disability studies we see the benefits of moving beyond a structure/agency dichotomy that currently limits social and medical model understandings of disability. In particular, we draw on the work of Marcel Mauss and Pierre Bourdieu both of whom argued that social life can be better understood by considering the embodiment of individuals through their habitus. We draw on data generated in an interview-based study with 10 young disabled people to explore the ways in which family contributes to, and mediates, sporting tastes and interests. We consider two key questions: How do young disabled people negotiate relations within the family and in what ways do these relations influence sporting tastes and interests? To what extent are young disabled people able to use sport to generate and convert (valued) capital within the family and other related arenas?
    • The implementation of models-based practice in physical education through action research

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben (2012-05-15)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the use of action research as a framework to investigate cooperative learning and tactical games as instructional models in physical education (PE). The teacher/researcher taught a tennis unit using a combination of Cooperative Learning and Teaching Games for Understanding to three classes of boys aged 11—12. Data collection included: teacher and pupil evaluations of skill, pupil reflections on the lessons, pupil interviews, teacher field journal and the documentation and course materials from the unit of work. Data analysis was conducted using inductive analysis and constant comparison (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln and Guba, 1985). The results of this research reinforce the concept that the implementation of any new pedagogical approach is time-consuming and highly labour intensive (Fullan, 1999). The conceptual shift the teacher/researcher made to relinquish control to students was one of the most difficult, but important, outcomes of this action research process.
    • Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part I: object-control skill development

      Robinson, Leah E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D. (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2009-09)
      Part I of this study examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on object-control (OC) skill development in preschoolers (N = 117).
    • Intermittent exercise with and without hypoxia improves insulin sensitivity in individuals with type 2 diabetes

      Mackenzie, Richard W.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Castle, Paul C.; Elliott, B.; Brickley, Gary; Watt, Peter; University of Westminster (2012-04)
      Hypoxia and muscle contraction stimulate glucose transport activity in vitro. Exercise and hypoxia have additive effects on insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics (T2D).
    • An investigation into the effect of a pre-performance strategy on jump performance

      Fletcher, Iain M. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2013)
      The aim of this study was to explore the effect that different components, making up a commonly used pre-performance preparation strategy, have on jump height performance. Sixteen male collegiate athletes (age, 21.38 ± 0.52 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.07 m; and body mass, 75.1 ± 5.26 kg) performed a preparation strategy involving a cycle ergometer warm-up, followed by a dynamic stretch component, and finishing with heavy back squats. This intervention was repeated to test countermovement, squat or drop jump performance after each component of the preparation strategy, with electromyographic activity measured during each jump test. Significant increases (p < 0.05) in jump height and electromyographic activity were noted, with a stepwise increase in performance from pre- to post-warm-up, increased further by the dynamic stretch component and again increased after the back squat.
    • An investigation into the effects of different warm-up modalities on specific motor skills related to soccer performance.

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Monte-Colombo, Mathew M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-08)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different warm-up stretch modalities on specific high-speed motor capabilities important to soccer performance. Twenty-seven male soccer players performed 3 warm-up conditions, active warm-up (WU), WU with static stretching (SPS), and WU with dynamic stretching (ADS). Heart rate, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Balsom agility tests were performed after each intervention. Vertical jump heights were significantly greater (p < 0.01) in the WU and ADS conditions compared to those in the SPS trial. The 20-m sprint and agility times showed that the SPS condition was significantly slower (p < 0.01) than the WU and ADS conditions, with the ADS trial being significantly faster (p < 0.05) than the WU condition. Heart rate was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for participants post-WU and -ADS trials compared to the SPS condition. These findings suggest that the superior performance of the dynamic stretch and warm-up-only conditions compared to the static stretch condition may be linked to increases in heart rate. The reasons for the dynamic stretch trial superiority compared to the warm-up condition are less clear and as yet to be established. We recommend for optimal performance, specific dynamic stretches be employed as part of a warm-up, rather than the traditional static stretches.
    • An investigation into the possible physiological mechanisms associated with changes in performance related to acute responses to different preactivity stretch modalities.

      Fletcher, Iain M.; Monte-Colombo, Mathew M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-02)
      The aim of this study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying performance changes linked to different warm-up stretch modalities. Twenty-one male collegiate-semiprofessional soccer players (age, 20.8 +/- 2.3 years) performed under 3 different warm-up conditions: a no-stretch warm-up (WU), a warm-up including static passive stretches (SPS), and a warm-up incorporating static dynamic stretches (SDS). Countermovement jump, drop jump, peak torque, heart rate, core temperature, movement kinematics, and electromyography (EMG) were recorded for each intervention. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in performance were recorded for the countermovement, drop jump, and peak torque measures when the SDS was compared with the WU and SPS trials. When mechanism data were analysed, heart rate was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the SDS condition compared with the SPS and WU conditions (a pattern also shown with core temperature), whereas the WU condition heart rate was also significantly higher than the SPS condition heart rate. When EMG data were examined for the rectus femoris muscle, significantly greater (p < 0.01) muscle activity was observed in the SDS condition compared with the SPS condition. It seems the most likely mechanisms to explain the increase in performance in the SDS condition compared with the SPS condition are increased heart rate, greater muscle activity, and increased peak torque.
    • Junior sport as a moral practice

      Kirk, David; Loughborough University (Human Kinetics, 2002-07)
      Critiques Siedentop's keynote address, "Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures," reviewing and rationalizing Siedentop's four goals for junior sport (educative, public health, elite development, and preserving, protecting, and enhancing specific sport practices), discussing Siedentop's views on sport as a collective cultural and moral practice, and explaining the salience of Siedentop's views today and in the future.
    • Junior sport models representing best practice nationally and internationally.

      Kirk, David; Brettschneider, W.; Auld, C. (Canberra: Australian Sports Commission, 2007)
    • Just how happy is the happy puppet? An emotion signaling and kinship theory perspective on the behavioral phenotype of children with Angelman syndrome.

      Brown, William Michael; Consedine, Nathan S.; Long Island University (2004)
      The favored level of parental investment in a child may differ for genes of maternal and paternal origin in the child. This conflict can be expressed in the phenomenon of genomic imprinting that refers to situations in which the same gene is differentially expressed depending on its parent of origin. Two disorders that show the effects of genomic imprinting--both at 15q11-q13--are Angelman Syndrome (AS) which is due to the absence of expression of maternally-inherited genes and Prader-Willi syndromes (PWS) which is due to the absence of expression of paternally-inherited genes. However, although both disorders can arise from the deletion of the same genetic region, the gustatory, behavioral, and affective characteristics of AS and PWS children are remarkably distinct. Recent research inspired by kinship theory has suggested the origins of these phenotypic differences may lie in the differential investment of each parent's genome in the AS or PWS child. Specifically, it is thought that each set of parental genes have different 'ideas' regarding how the child should behave towards the mother and how much investment they should look to extract. In normal cases, the trade-off between the competing parental genomes produces a behavioral equilibrium in the child. However, in pathological instances, particularly where gene expression is one-sided, the evolved behavioral strategies favored by the contributing genome will dominate the child's behavior. To date, research in the area of genomic conflict in AS and PWS children has primarily focusing on differences in post-natal nutrition-related behaviors. The current paper extends this framework by offering an emotion and evolutionary signaling interpretation of the affective characteristics of AS children. A review of the affective characteristics of the two syndromes (PWS and AS) is presented before kinship and emotions theory are used to examine the functions that differential affect expression may serve in altering maternal investment. We expected that because the ultimate goal of paternal genes is to increase the child rearing burden of mothers, the Angelman behavioral phenotype should exhibit the emotion signaling characteristics that elicit levels of investment more consistent with paternal genetic interests. AS children display more positive, relative to negative, affect expressions (i.e. AS children laugh and smile more frequently than PWS children). In affect signaling theories, positive affect signals (i.e., smiling, laughing) have evolved to manipulate the sensory systems of receivers to increase social resources. In contrast, because the expression of some negative affects may indicate to the mother that the infant is not viable, negative affect expression is characteristically low among AS children. However, AS children may nonetheless have high levels of non-expressed anxiety because of its role in assisting the child (and its paternal genome) to maintain vigilance for changes in investment on the part of the mother. Overall, our kinship and emotion signaling analysis of AS children suggests that their global pattern of affect signaling represents one manifestation of an array of possible evolved strategies within the parental genome. Specifically, because AS exhibits the effects of paternally-inherited genes unhindered by the expression of maternally-inherited genes, the AS infant manifests a pattern of expression and non-expression that maximize maternal investment and thus paternal fitness. This theory is a significant departure from the standard but erroneous conjecture that a mother and child's inclusive fitness interests are one and the same.
    • Learning a new method: Teaching Games for Understanding in the coaches’ eyes

      Harvey, Stephen; Cushion, Christopher J.; Massa-Gonzalez, Ada N.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-10-11)
    • London 2012 training guide athletics - track events

      Brewer, John (Carlton Books Ltd, 2011)
      This training book is the perfect introduction to the Olympic Athletics track events and will prove an indispensable guide for both the keen beginner and club athlete. Written by a leading sports scientist and fully illustrated with over 50 specially commissioned diagrams, this official book gives an overview of each track event and covers training safety, tactics and techniques, and standards of performance to aim for. Whether you are a beginner who simply wants to try a new sport or a budding Olympian who dreams of one day winning a gold medal, this concise and easy-to-use book will take you to the next level.
    • Low calorie sweetness and hydration: applications in exercise and sport

      Brewer, John (Teknoscienze Srl, 2011)
      Loss of fluid and energy stores are key challenges faced during sport and exercise. Consumption of beverages containing optimal concentrations of fluid, energy and electrolytes are known to offer the best means of delivering fuel and energy to the body during exercise, with palatability a key factor in determining volitional fluid consumption. In certain cases, where weight loss is a primary goal for exercise, a low energy level in a beverage is of increased importance. Hence many manufacturers use low calorie sweeteners within a sports beverage to ensure that the product retains optimal scientific constituents, calorific content and palatability
    • Making cooperation a real part of your teaching

      Casey, Ashley (The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER), 2009)
    • Managing classroom entry: an ecological analysis of ritual interaction and negotiation in the changing room

      O'Donovan, Toni M.; Kirk, David (2012-05-15)
      The first interactions between teachers and pupils in physical education often take place in the changing rooms, and, as such, the changing rooms are a useful place to begin an exploration of the processes and practices of negotiation in physical education. Pupils are generally required to change their clothing for physical education lessons, an activity consistently identified as negatively experienced by many young people, and particularly girls (Kay, 1995; Flintoff & Scraton, 2001); hence the changing rooms are an important location to consider in determining young people’s engagement with physical education. Throughout this paper, I foreground the naturally occurring interaction between teachers and pupils in the changing rooms of one suburban UK secondary school. This is supplemented by interviews with three teachers and pupils in year 7 (aged 11 12 years) throughout the Spring term. The paper examines how the young people attempted to modify participation requirements in a way that allowed them to pursue their own agendas, and yet also comply with the school, department and teacher rules. Throughout the paper, a consideration of the way in which the teachers held the pupils accountable for their attendance and dress in physical education is present. The orderliness of interaction sequences highlights the ritual nature of pupil teacher talk in the changing room. The analysis of naturally occurring talk is interspersed with a consideration of how the teachers understood the young people’s changing room behaviour.