• Fatmax in children and adolescents: a review

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith (Taylor and Francis, 2011)
      The purpose of this review is to summarise and critically examine the literature that has determined Fatmax in children and adolescents (young people). Maximising fat oxidation during exercise may be beneficial for health, particularly in the management of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Exercise intensity largely determines fat oxidation during exercise. Fatmax is the relative exercise intensity that elicits the highest fat oxidation rate and has received increasing attention in recent years. Studies in young people have demonstrated that there is considerable inter-individual variation in Fatmax, which generally occurs between 30 and 60% of peak oxygen uptake. Factors that may influence Fatmax in young people include body composition, physical maturation, and exercise training. Several researchers have suggested that Fatmax and fat oxidation rates may be reduced in obese compared with non-obese young people.
    • Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics

      Brown, William Michael; Price, M.E.; Kang, J.; Pound, N.; Zhao, Y.; Yu, H.; Brunel University; Higher Education Funding Council; British Academy Grant (2012-05-23)
      Body size and shape seem to have been sexually selected in a variety of species, including humans, but little is known about what attractive bodies signal about underlying genotypic or phenotypic quality. A widely used indicator of phenotypic quality in evolutionary analyses is degree of symmetry (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry, FA) because it is a marker of developmental stability, which is defined as an organism's ability to develop toward an adaptive end-point despite perturbations during its ontogeny. Here we sought to establish whether attractive bodies signal low FA to observers, and, if so, which aspects of attractive bodies are most predictive of lower FA. We used a 3D optical body scanner to measure FA and to isolate size and shape characteristics in a sample of 77 individuals (40 males and 37 females). From the 3D body scan data, 360° videos were created that separated body shape from other aspects of visual appearance (e.g., skin color and facial features). These videos then were presented to 87 evaluators for attractiveness ratings. We found strong negative correlations between FA and bodily attractiveness in both sexes. Further, sex-typical body size and shape characteristics were rated as attractive and correlated negatively with FA. Finally, geometric morphometric analysis of joint configurations revealed that sex-typical joint configurations were associated with both perceived attractiveness and lower FA for male but not for female bodies. In sum, body size and shape seem to show evidence of sexual selection and indicate important information about the phenotypic quality of individuals.
    • Foot structure and muscle reaction time to a simulated ankle sprain

      Denyer, Joanna R.; Hewitt, Naomi L. A.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S. (The National Athletic Trainers' Association, 2013)
      The study was to determine whether pronated or supinated foot structures contribute to neuromuscular deficits as measured by muscle reaction time to a simulated ankle-sprain mechanism. Conclusions: Foot structure influenced peroneus longus reaction time. Further research is required to establish the consequences of slower peroneal reaction times in pronated and supinated foot structures. Researchers investigating lower limb muscle reaction time should control for foot structure because it may influence results.
    • From Iron Girl to Sexy Goddess

      Wu, Ping (Palgrave MacMillan, 2009)
    • Gender differences in fundamental motor skill development in disadvantaged preschoolers from two geographical regions

      Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Crowe, Heather (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 2010-03)
      This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross MotorDevelopment-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region (midwest, southwest) analyses of variance were conducted on OC and locomotor percentile rank. Both midwestern and southwestern preschoolers were developmentally delayed in locomotor and OC skills (< 30th percentile). There was a significant difference for gender (p < .0001) and Gender x Region interaction (p = .02) for OC skills. Boys outperformed girls in the midwestern and southwestern regions. For locomotor skills, there was a significant difference for region (p < .001), with midwestern preschoolers having better locomotor skills.
    • Girls looking for a ‘second home’: bodies, difference and places of inclusion

      Azzarito, Laura; Hill, Joanne (Taylor and Francis, 2012)
      This visual ethnographic research aimed to further understandings of ethnic-minority girls' emplaced embodiment by investigating the link between girls' physicality and their views of physical activity spaces in their communities. The research was conducted in a school located in an urban multicultural context in the Midlands region of the UK. Participants were 20 girls (19 ethnic-minority girls; 1 white girl) aged 14–15 from two single-sex physical education classes.
    • H55N polymorphism as a likely cause of variation in citrate synthase activity of mouse skeletal muscle

      Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Carroll, Andrew M.; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; McDermott, Kevin T.; Gray, Stuart R.; Wackerhage, Henning; Lionikas, Arimantas (American Physiological Society, 2010)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying low activity of citrate synthase (CS) in A/J mice compared with other inbred strains of mice. Enzyme activity, protein content, and mRNA levels of CS were studied in the quadriceps muscles of A/J, BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, DBA/2J, and PWD/PhJ strains of mice. Cytochrome c protein content was also measured. The results of the study indicate that A/J mice have a 50–65% reduction in CS activity compared with other strains despite similar levels of Cs mRNA and lack of differences in CS and cytochrome c protein content. CS from A/J mice also showed lower Michaelis constant (Km) for both acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate compared with the other strains of mice.
    • Has yin [female] got the upper hand over yang [male]?

      Wu, Ping (Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, 2010)
    • Helping pre-service and beginning teachers examine and reframe assumptions about themselves as teachers and change agents: “who is going to listen to you anyway?”

      MacPhail, Ann; Tannehill, Deborah (Taylor and Francis, 2012)
      The focus of this article is how to ensure (beginning) teachers’ needs as practitioners are part of the discursive dialogue in physical education teacher education programs. We consider the relationship between ‘structure’ and ‘agency,’ teachers as ‘change agents’ and refer to ‘workplace learning’ as we examine the extent to which the social structure of the school and the teaching profession, and / or the capacity of the individual to act independently, ultimately determines a teacher's behaviour in reaction to teaching expectations. We are interested as physical education teacher education faculty in how we (1) strive to help pre-service teachers examine and reframe assumptions about themselves as teachers and change agents, and (2) examine taken-for-granted school practices and processes. We share ways that physical education teacher education programs could encourage pre-service teachers agency and the relationship between initial teacher education and induction.
    • Hiding behind the camera: social learning within the Cooperative Learning Model to engage girls in physical education

      Goodyear, Victoria A.; Casey, Ashley; Kirk, David (Taylor and Francis, 2012)
      Research suggests that girls are disengaged in physical education due to the ‘traditional’ way that it is taught, i.e. teacher-centred approaches with a primary focus on motor performance. In contrast, Cooperative Learning, a student-centred pedagogy focusing on learning in multiple domains, has had success in engaging girls in physical education. Furthermore, when cooperative group work has been combined with technology, student engagement with learning is heightened. This article discusses the use of Cooperative Learning and video cameras to bring about a positive change to the learning environment for girls who were identified as being disengaged in physical education.
    • The human imprintome: regulatory mechanisms, methods of ascertainment, and roles in disease susceptibility

      Skaar, David A.; Li, Yue; Bernal, Autumn J.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Jirtle, Randy L. (National Academy of Sciences, 2012-12)
      Imprinted genes form a special subset of the genome, exhibiting monoallelic expression in a parent-of-origin-dependent fashion. This monoallelic expression is controlled by parental-specific epigenetic marks, which are established in gametogenesis and early embryonic development and are persistent in all somatic cells throughout life. We define this specific set of cis-acting epigenetic regulatory elements as the imprintome, a distinct and specially tasked subset of the epigenome. Imprintome elements contain DNA methylation and histone modifications that regulate monoallelic expression by affecting promoter accessibility, chromatin structure, and chromatin configuration. Understanding their regulation is critical because a significant proportion of human imprinted genes are implicated in complex diseases. Significant species variation in the repertoire of imprinted genes and their epigenetic regulation, however, will not allow model organisms solely to be used for this crucial purpose. Ultimately, only the human will suffice to accurately define the human imprintome.
    • The hypertriglyceridemic waist, waist-to-height ratio, and cardiometabolic risk

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Savory, Louise A.; Denton, Sarah J.; Davies, Ben Rhys; Kerr, Catherine J. (Elsevier, 2013)
      The aim of the study was to investigate whether the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders in children and adolescents.
    • Hypoxia mediated release of endothelial microparticles and increased association of S100A12 with circulating neutrophils

      Vince, Rebecca V.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Midgley, Adrian W.; McNaughton, Lars R.; Madden, Leigh A. (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2009)
      Microparticles are released from the endothelium under normal homeostatic conditions and have been shown elevated in disease states, most notably those characterised by endothelial dysfunction. The endothelium is sensitive to oxidative stress/status and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression is upregulated upon activated endothelium, furthermore the presence of VCAM-1 on microparticles is known. S100A12, a calcium binding protein part of the S100 family, is shown to be present on circulating leukocytes and is thought a sensitive marker to local inflammatory process, which may be driven by oxidative stress. Eight healthy males were subjected to breathing hypoxic air (15% O(2), approximately equivalent to 3000 metres altitude) for 80 minutes in a temperature controlled laboratory and venous blood samples were processed immediately for VCAM-1 microparticles (VCAM-1 MP) and S100A12 association with leukocytes by flow cytometry. A pre-hypoxic blood sample was used for comparison. Both VCAM-1 MP and S100A12 association with neutrophils were significantly elevated post hypoxic breathing later declining to levels observed in the pre-test samples. A similar trend was observed in both cases and a correlation may exist between these two markers in response to hypoxia. These data offer evidence using novel markers of endothelial and circulating blood responses to hypoxia.
    • Hypoxia-mediated prior induction of monocyte-expressed HSP72 and HSP32 provides protection to the disturbances to redox balance associated with human sub-maximal aerobic exercise.

      Taylor, Lee; Hillman, Angela R.; Midgley, Adrian W.; Peart, Daniel J.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; McNaughton, Lars R.; University of Bedfordshire (2012-03-23)
      HSP72 is rapidly expressed in response to a variety of stressors in vitro and in vivo (including hypoxia). This project sought a hypoxic stimulus to elicit increases in HSP72 and HSP32 in attempts to confer protection to the sub-maximal aerobic exercise-induced disturbances to redox balance. Eight healthy recreationally active male subjects were exposed to five consecutive days of once-daily hypoxia (2,980 m, 75 min). Seven days prior to the hypoxic acclimation period, subjects performed 60 min of cycling on a cycle ergometer (exercise bout 1-EXB1), and this exercise bout was repeated 1 day post-cessation of the hypoxic period (exercise bout 2-EXB2). Blood samples were taken immediately pre- and post-exercise and 1, 4 and 8 h post-exercise for HSP72 and immediately pre, post and 1 h post-exercise for HSP32, TBARS and glutathione [reduced (GSH), oxidised (GSSG) and total (TGSH)], with additional blood samples obtained immediately pre-day 1 and post-day 5 of the hypoxic acclimation period for the same indices. Monocyte-expressed HSP32 and HSP72 were analysed by flow cytometry, with measures of oxidative stress accessed by commercially available kits. There were significant increases in HSP72 (P < 0.001), HSP32 (P = 0.03), GSSG (t = 9.5, P < 0.001) and TBARS (t = 5.6, P = 0.001) in response to the 5-day hypoxic intervention, whereas no significant changes were observed for GSH (P = 0.22) and TGSH (P = 0.25). Exercise-induced significant increases in HSP72 (P < 0.001) and HSP32 (P = 0.003) post-exercise in EXB1; this response was absent for HSP72 (P ≥ 0.79) and HSP32 (P ≥ 0.99) post-EXB2. The hypoxia-mediated increased bio-available HSP32 and HSP72 and favourable alterations in glutathione redox, prior to exercise commencing in EXB2 compared to EXB1, may acquiesce the disturbances to redox balance encountered during the second physiologically identical exercise bout.
    • Identification of non-specific tactical tasks in invasion games

      Memmert, Daniel; Harvey, Stephen (2012-05-23)
    • Identity work: young disabled people, family and sport

      Fitzgerald, Hayley; Kirk, David; Leeds Metropolitan University; University of Bedfordshire (Routledge, 2009-09)
      It has long been recognised that family is an important arena in which sporting tastes and interests are nurtured. Indeed, for many young people the family introduces them to and then provides ongoing support for engaging in sport. Research has also indicated that the family has a significant position in the lives of young disabled people. In this paper we explore the interrelationships between sport, family and disability. Like a number of writers within disability studies we see the benefits of moving beyond a structure/agency dichotomy that currently limits social and medical model understandings of disability. In particular, we draw on the work of Marcel Mauss and Pierre Bourdieu both of whom argued that social life can be better understood by considering the embodiment of individuals through their habitus. We draw on data generated in an interview-based study with 10 young disabled people to explore the ways in which family contributes to, and mediates, sporting tastes and interests. We consider two key questions: How do young disabled people negotiate relations within the family and in what ways do these relations influence sporting tastes and interests? To what extent are young disabled people able to use sport to generate and convert (valued) capital within the family and other related arenas?
    • The implementation of models-based practice in physical education through action research

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben (2012-05-15)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the use of action research as a framework to investigate cooperative learning and tactical games as instructional models in physical education (PE). The teacher/researcher taught a tennis unit using a combination of Cooperative Learning and Teaching Games for Understanding to three classes of boys aged 11—12. Data collection included: teacher and pupil evaluations of skill, pupil reflections on the lessons, pupil interviews, teacher field journal and the documentation and course materials from the unit of work. Data analysis was conducted using inductive analysis and constant comparison (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994; Lincoln and Guba, 1985). The results of this research reinforce the concept that the implementation of any new pedagogical approach is time-consuming and highly labour intensive (Fullan, 1999). The conceptual shift the teacher/researcher made to relinquish control to students was one of the most difficult, but important, outcomes of this action research process.