• Daily hypoxia increases basal monocyte HSP72 expression in healthy human subjects

      Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Hilman, Angela R.; Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R.; University of Bedfordshire (2011-02)
      Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) performs vital roles within the body at rest and during periods of stress. In vitro, research demonstrates HSP72 induction in response to hypoxia. Recently, in vivo, an acute hypoxic exposure (75 min at 2,980 m) was sufficient to induce significant increases in monocyte expressed HSP72 (mHSP72) and a marker of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects. The purpose of the current study was to identify the impact of 10 consecutive days of hypoxic exposures (75 min at 2,980 m) on mHSP72 and erythropoietin (EPO) expression, markers of oxidative stress, and maximal oxygen consumption in graded incremental aerobic exercise. Eight male subjects were exposed to daily normobaric hypoxic exposures for 75 min at 2,980 m for 10 consecutive days, commencing and ceasing at 0930 and 1045, respectively. This stressor was sufficient to induce significant increases in mHSP72, which was significantly elevated from day 2 of the hypoxic exposures until 48 h post-final exposure. Notably, this increase had an initial rapid (30% day on day compared to baseline) and final slow phase (16% day on day compared to baseline) of expression. The authors postulate that 7-day hypoxic exposure in this manner would be sufficient to induce near maximum hypoxia-mediated basal mHSP72 expression. Elevated levels of mHSP72 are associated with acquired thermotolerance and provide cross tolerance to non-related stressors in vivo, the protocol used here may provide a useful tool for elevating mHSP72 in vivo. Aside from these major findings, significant transient daily elevations were seen in a marker of oxidative stress, alongside sustained increases in EPO expression. However, no physiologically significant changes were seen in maximal oxygen consumption or time to exhaustion.
    • Daily quadratic trend in basal monocyte expressed HSP72 in healthy human subjects

      Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R.; University of Hull (Springer, 2010-05)
      The inducible human stress protein heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) performs vital roles within the body at rest and during periods of stress. Recently it was shown over a 24 hour period that basal HSP72 followed a diurnal variation. However, these results and previous literature demonstrate noticeable inter-subject variation in basal HSP72 expression. The notion of intra/inter-day variation in basal HSP72 expression has not been explored in detail. Basal monocyte expressed HSP72 was determined every 3 hours, over a 9 hour period in 12 healthy male subjects (20.2 +/- 1.9 years, 178.7 +/- 5.6 cm, 75.1 +/- 6.0 kg) within a temperature controlled laboratory. A significant quadratic trend was observed for time (F = 26.0, P = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.74), where HSP72 decreased between 0800 and 1100 hours (P < 0.001) and then increased between 1100 and 1400 hours (P = 0.015). The main effect for day (F = 2.6, P = 0.14) and the day x time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = 0.08) were not significant. There was no correlation between serum and monocyte expressed HSP72, with no significant effect for time (F = 2.0, P = 0.21) in serum HSP72 expression. The results support findings by others that basal monocyte expressed HSP72 follows a diurnal variation which incorporates a quadratic trend, which is not compromised by any significant daily variation and that serum HSP72 expression has no endogenous circadian rhythm. The significant quadratic trend in basal monocyte HSP72 expression shown here highlights the need to tightly control variables, such as timing of sample collection, as it is known basal values influence the magnitude of HSP72 expression post-stressor/intervention.
    • Deception of ambient and body core temperature improves self paced cycling in hot, humid conditions

      Castle, Paul C.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Allchorn, Alan; Mauger, Alexis R.; White, Danny K.; University of Bedfordshire (2012-01)
      We used incorrect visual feedback of ambient and core temperature in the heat to test the hypothesis that deception would alleviate the decrement in cycling performance compared to a no deception trial. Seven males completed three 30 min cycling time trials in a randomised order on a Kingcycle ergometer. One time trial was in temperate, control conditions (CON: 21.8 ± 0.6°C; 43.3 ± 4.3%rh), the others in hot, humid conditions (HOT: 31.4 ± 0.3°C; 63.9 ± 4.5%rh). In one of the hot, humid conditions (31.6 ± 0.5°C; 65.4 ± 4.3%rh), participants were deceived (DEC) into thinking the ambient conditions were 26.0°C; 60.0%rh and their core temperature was 0.3°C lower than it really was. Compared to CON (16.63 ± 2.43 km) distance covered was lower in HOT (15.88 ± 2.75 km; P < 0.05), but DEC ameliorated this (16.74 ± 2.87 km; P < 0.05). Mean power output was greater in DEC (184.4 ± 60.4 W) than HOT (168.1 ± 54.1 W; P < 0.05) and no difference was observed between CON and DEC. Rectal temperature and iEMG of the vastus lateralis were not different, but RPE in the third minute was lower in DEC than HOT (P < 0.05). Deception improved performance in the heat by creating a lower RPE, evidence of a subtle mismatch between the subconscious expectation and conscious perception of the task demands.
    • Developing physical education in Malawi

      Sammon, Paul; Bowler, Mark (Association for Physical Education, 2009)
    • Developing the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS): establishing validity and reliability of a computerised systematic observation instrument

      Cushion, Christopher J.; Harvey, Stephen; Muir, Bob; Nelson, Lee; Loughborough University (2012)
      We outline the evolution of a computerised systematic observation tool and describe the process for establishing the validity and reliability of this new instrument. The Coach Analysis and Interventions System (CAIS) has 23 primary behaviours related to physical behaviour, feedback/reinforcement, instruction, verbal/non-verbal, questioning and management. The instrument also analyses secondary coach behaviour related to performance states, recipient, timing, content and questioning/silence. The CAIS is a multi-dimensional and multi-level mechanism able to provide detailed and contextualised data about specific coaching behaviours occurring in complex and nuanced coaching interventions and environments that can be applied to both practice sessions and competition.
    • A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship

      Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E. (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2008)
      Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill competence plays in the initiation, maintenance, or decline of physical activity and how this role might change across developmental time. In this article, we present a conceptual model hypothesizing the relationships among physical activity, motor skill competence, perceived motor skill competence, health-related physical fitness, and obesity. We contend that the development of motor skill competence is a primary underlying mechanism that promotes engagement in physical activity.
    • The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: an academic review

      Bailey, Richard; Armour, Kathleen; Kirk, David; Jess, Mike; Pickup, Ian; Sandford, Rachel (Routledge, 2009-03)
      This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport (PESS). An historical overview of the development of PESS points to the origins of claims made in four broad domains: physical, social, affective and cognitive. Analysis of the evidence suggests that PESS has the potential to make contributions to young people's development in each of these domains. Unsurprisingly, perhaps, there is suggestive evidence of a distinctive role for PESS in the acquisition and development of children's movement skills and physical competence. It can be argued that these are necessary, if not deterministic conditions of engagement in lifelong physical activity. In the social domain, there is sufficient evidence to support claims of positive benefits for young people. Importantly, benefits are mediated by environmental and contextual factors such as leadership, the involvement of young people in decision-making, an emphasis on social relationships, and an explicit focus on learning processes. In the affective domain, too, engagement in physical activity has been positively associated with numerous dimensions of psychological and emotional development, yet the mechanisms through which these benefits occur are less clear. Likewise, the mechanisms by which PESS might contribute to cognitive and academic developments are barely understood. There is, however, some persuasive evidence to suggest that physical activity can improve children's concentration and arousal, which might indirectly benefit academic performance. In can be concluded that many of the educational benefits claimed for PESS are highly dependent on contextual and pedagogic variables, which leads us to question any simple equations of participation and beneficial outcomes for young people. In the final section, therefore, the review raises questions about whether PESS should be held accountable for claims made for educational benefits, and about the implications of accountability.
    • Educational value and models-based practice in physical education

      Kirk, David; University of Bedfordshire; University of Queensland (Routledge, 2013-04-19)
      A models-based approach has been advocated as a means of overcoming the serious limitations of the traditional approach to physical education. One of the difficulties with this approach is that physical educators have sought to use it to achieve diverse and sometimes competing educational benefits, and these wide-ranging aspirations are rarely if ever achieved. Models-based practice offers a possible resolution to these problems by limiting the range of learning outcomes, subject matter and teaching strategies appropriate to each pedagogical model and thus the arguments that can be used for educational value. In this article, two examples are provided to support a case for educational value. This case is built on an examination of one established pedagogical model, Sport Education, which is informed by a perspective on ethics. Next, I consider Physical Literacy which, I suggest, is an existentialist philosophical perspective that could form the basis of a new pedagogical model. It is argued, in conclusion, that a models-based approach along with a reconstructed notion of educational value may offer a possible future for physical education that is well grounded in various philosophical arguments and the means to facilitate a wide range of diverse individual and social educational ‘goods’.
    • The effect of acute hypoxia on heat shock protein 72 expression and oxidative stress in vivo

      Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R. (Springer, 2010)
      The inducible human stress protein HSP72 performs vital roles within the body at rest and during periods of stress. Recently, a previously disclosed quadratic trend in basal HSP72 expression was shown to be reliable and repeatable. The notion of a physiological stressor such as hypoxia disrupting this basal quadratic trend is an interesting one. Monocyte-expressed HSP72 and TBARS were determined every 3 h, over a 12-h period in 12 healthy male subjects on two separate days, with trial day one ascertaining control values. A hypoxic intervention consisting of 75 min at a simulated altitude of 2,980 m, commencing and ceasing at 0930 and 1045, respectively, was incorporated on trail day 2. The hypoxic condition induced significantly (elevated) HSP72 values at 1100 (P = 0.002), 1400 (P < 0.001), 1700 (P = 0.034) and 2000 (P = 0.041) compared to control. Significant increases in plasma TBARS were seen in the hypoxic condition compared to control at 1100 (P = 0.006) and 1400 (P = 0.032). The results demonstrate that a 75-min bout of normobaric hypoxia is sufficient to induce significant increases in HSP72 expression, which disrupts the basal quadratic trend shown by others and here in the control condition. This increase may be linked to the observed changes in oxidative stress. These results may provide a tool for manipulating basal monocyte HSP72 expression within human heat acclimation exercise protocols.
    • Effect of breakfast glycemic index on metabolic responses during rest and exercise in overweight and non-overweight adolescent girls

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Stevenson, E.J.; Tolfrey, Keith (Nature Publishing Group, 2011)
      The metabolic responses to mixed breakfast meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and their effects on substrate metabolism during exercise in adolescent girls have not been examined. The interaction with weight status also warrants investigation. This study investigated the effect of mixed breakfast meals containing high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI) carbohydrates on metabolic responses and fat oxidation during rest and exercise in overweight (OW) and non-overweight (NO) adolescent girls.
    • The effect of different dynamic stretch velocities on jump performance.

      Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-06)
      Dynamic stretching has gained popularity, due to a number of studies showing an increase in high intensity performance compared to static stretch modalities. Twenty-four males (age mean 21 +/- 0.3 years) performed a standardised 10 min jogging warm-up followed by either; no stretching (NS), slow dynamic stretching at 50 b/min (SDS) or fast dynamic stretching at 100 b/min (FDS). Post-warm-up, squat, countermovement and depth jumps were performed. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data (100 Hz) were collected during each jump. Results indicated that the FDS condition showed significantly greater jump height in all tests compared to the SDS and NS conditions. Further, the SDS trial resulted in significantly greater performance in the drop and squat jump compared to the NS condition. The reasons behind these performance changes are multi-faceted, but appear to be related to increases in heart rate and core temperature with slow dynamic stretches, while the greater increase in performance for the fast dynamic stretch intervention is linked to greater nervous system activation, shown by significant increases in EMG. In conclusion, a faster dynamic stretch component appears to prepare an athlete for a more optimum performance.
    • The effect of isokinetic testing speed on the reliability of muscle fatigue indicators during a hip abductor-adductor fatigue protocol

      Gautrey, Charlotte N.; Watson, T.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S. (Thieme Publishing, 2013)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of fatigue indicators calculated from peak torque and total work during isokinetic speeds of 60, 90, 120 and 180° · s-1 during a hip fatigue protocol.
    • The effect of short-term creatine loading on active range of movement

      Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal; Jones, Peter; Fletcher, Iain M.; University of Bedfordshire (2010-08)
      During high-intensity exercise, intracellular creatine phosphate (PCr) is rapidly broken down to maintain adenosine triphosphate turnover. This has lead to the widespread use of creatine monohydrate as a nutritional ergogenic aid. However, the increase in intracellular PCr and the concomitant increase in intracellular water have not been investigated with regard to their effect on active range of movement (ROM). Forty male subjects (age, 24+/-3.2 years) underwent restricted randomization into 2 equal groups, either an intervention group (CS) or a control group (C). The CS group ingested 25 g.day(-1) of creatine monohydrate for 5 days, followed by 5 g.day(-1) for a further 3 days. Before (24 h before starting supplementation (PRE) and after (on the 8th day of supplementation (POST)) this loading phase, both groups underwent goniometry measurement of the shoulder, elbow, hip, and ankle. Data indicated significant reductions in active ROM in 3 movements: shoulder extension (57+/-11.3 degrees PRE vs. 48+/-11.2 degrees POST, p<0.01), shoulder abduction (183.4+/-6.8 degrees PRE vs. 180.3+/-5.1 degrees POST, p<0.05), and ankle dorsiflexion (14.2+/-4.7 degrees PRE vs. 12.1+/-6.4 degrees POST, p<0.01). There was also a significant increase in body mass for the CS group (83.6+/-6.2 kg vs. 85.2+/-6.3 kg, p<0.05). The results suggest that short-term supplementation with creatine monohydrate reduces the active ROM of shoulder extension and abduction and of ankle dorsiflexion. Although the mechanism for this is not fully understood, it may be related to the asymmetrical distribution of muscle mass around those joints.
    • The effect of the hyperbaric environment on heat shock protein 72 expression in vivo

      Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Sandström, Marie E.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; McNaughton, Lars R. (Taylor and Francis, 2012-04)
      Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is expressed in response to stress and has been demonstrated to follow a diurnal expression pattern within monocytes and is sensitive to changes in core temperature. Numerous studies have shown changes in HSP72 expression within cell lines exposed to hyperbaric conditions. No studies have investigated changes in HSP72 expression in vivo. Six males participated in the study and were exposed to hyperbaric air and hyperbaric oxygen a week apart. Monocyte HSP72 was analyzed by flow cytometry at 09:00, 13:00, 17:00, 21:00 with hyperbaric oxygen or hyperbaric air breathing commencing at 15:00 for 78 min at a pressure of 2.8 ATA. HSP72 under normoxia followed the established trend; however, following the hyperbaric air or oxygen exposure a reduction in detectable HSP72 was observed at 17:00 and 21:00. No changes in core temperature were observed between 13:00 and 21:00 for any condition. The data show that HSP72 expression is impaired following hyperbaric air (HA) exposure, when compared with control or hyperbaric oxygen (HO) exposure.
    • The effect of velocity on load range during isokinetic hip abduction and adduction exercise

      Gautrey, Charlotte N.; Watson, T.; Mitchell, Andrew C.S. (Thieme Publishing, 2013)
      The purpose of this study was to quantify the components of acceleration, load range and deceleration through a velocity spectrum during concentric hip abduction and adduction isokinetic exercise, and to investigate the effect of load range on peak torque and work done.
    • Effective research writing

      Kirk, David; Casey, Ashley (Routledge, 2011)
    • The effectiveness of aligned developmental feedback on the overhand throw in third-grade students

      Cohen, Rona; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Lidor, Ronnie (Taylor and Francis, 2012)
      To improve student performance, teachers need to evaluate the developmental level of the child and to deliver feedback statements that correspond with the student’s ability to process the information delivered. Therefore, feedback aligned with the developmental level of the child (aligned developmental feedback – ADF) is sometimes considered to be the most appropriate type of feedback for improving student learning. It is assumed that the provision of ADF is beneficial in bringing about improvement in the learning of motor skills and subsequently in performance. However, the extent of the influence of ADF on motor performance remains unclear. This study examined the influence of ADF on students’ performance of the overhand throw for force in a naturalistic physical education setting.