• C2 and C2C12 murine skeletal myoblast models of atrophic and hypertrophic potential: relevance to disease and ageing?

      Sharples, Adam P.; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Stewart, Claire E.; Manchester Metropolitan University (2010-10)
      Reduced muscle mass and increased susceptibility to TNF-induced degradation accompany inflamed ageing and chronic diseases. Furthermore, C(2) myoblasts display diminished differentiation and increased susceptibility to TNF-alpha-induced cell death versus subcloned C(2)C(12) cells, providing relevant models to assess: differentiation (creatine kinase), growth (protein), death (trypan-blue) and anabolic/catabolic parameters (RT-PCR) over 72 h +/- TNF-alpha (20 ng ml(-1)). At 48 and 72 h, respectively, larger myotubes and significantly higher CK activity (320.26 +/- 6.82 vs. 30.71 +/- 2.5, P < 0.05; 544.94 +/- 27.7 vs. 39.4 +/- 3.37 mU mg ml(-1), P < 0.05), fold increases in myoD (21.45 +/- 3.12 vs. 3.97 +/- 1.76, P < 0.05; 31.07 +/- 3.1 vs. 6.82 +/- 1.93, P < 0.05) and myogenin mRNA (241.8 +/- 40 vs. 36.80 +/- 19.3, P < 0.05; 440 +/- 100.5 vs. 201.1 +/- 86, P < 0.05) were detected in C(2)C(12) versus C(2). C(2)C(12) showed significant increases in IGF-I mRNA (243.05 +/- 3.87 vs. 105.75 +/- 21.95, P < 0.05), reduced proliferation and significantly lower protein expression (1.21 +/- 0.28 vs. 1.79 +/- 0.29 mg ml(-1), P < 0.05) at 72 h versus C(2) cells. Significant temporal reductions in C(2)C(12) IGFBP2 mRNA (28.02 +/- 15.44, 13.82 +/- 8.07, 6.92 +/- 4.37, P < 0.05) contrasted increases in C(2)s (4.31 +/- 3.31, 13.02 +/- 9.92, 82.9 +/- 58.9, P < 0.05) at 0, 48 and 72 h, respectively. TNF-alpha increased cell death in C(2)s (2.67 +/- 1.54%, 34.42 +/- 5.39%, 29.71 +/- 5.79% (0, 48, 72 h), P < 0.05), yet was without effect in C(2)C(12)s at 48 h but caused a small significant increase at 72 h (9.88 +/- 4.02% (TNF-alpha) vs. 6.17 +/- 0.749% (DM), 72 h). TNF-alpha and TNFRI mRNA were unchanged; however, larger reductions in IGF-I (8.2- and 7.5-fold vs. 4.5- and 4.1-fold (48, 72 h)), IGF-IR (2-fold vs. no-significant reduction (72 h)) and IGFBP5 (3.24 vs. 1.38 (48 h) and 2.21 vs. 1.71 (72 h), P < 0.05) mRNA were observed in C(2) versus C(2)C(12) with TNF-alpha. This investigation provides insight into regulators of altered basal hypertrophy and TNF-induced atrophy, providing a model for future investigation into therapeutic initiatives for ageing/wasting disorders.
    • Can high group cohesion be harmful?: a case study of a junior ice-hockey team

      Rovio, E.; Eskola, J.; Kozub, Stephen A.; Duda, J.L.; Lintunen, T. (2009)
    • Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with hard and light intensity physical activity but not time spent sedentary in 10–14 year old schoolchildren: the HAPPY study

      Denton, Sarah J.; Trenell, Michael I.; Plötz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Kerr, Catherine J.; Broyles, Stephanie T. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Sedentary behaviour is a major risk factor for developing chronic diseases and is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. It remains unclear how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are related to cardiorespiratory fitness in children. The purpose of this study was to assess how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are associated with 10–14 year-old schoolchildren's cardiorespiratory fitness.
    • A case study of wikis and student‐designed games in physical education

      Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley; Tarter, Anne‐Marie (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This paper reports on the incorporation of wiki technology within physical education. Boys from two classes at a school in the United Kingdom were divided into small teams and given the task of creating a new game in a same genre as football, hockey, netball or rugby. Each team had a wiki on which were recorded all the plans and developments of this game as it was being devised and refined. The teacher, an outside games expert and the school’s librarian also had access to the wikis, which allowed for constant interaction between the participants outside class time. Interviews with the teacher, the librarian and the students revealed that the 24/7 classroom enabled by the ICT, together with an extended community of practice, resulted in a higher quality learning experience in physical education for the participants. Indeed, it was the belief of all concerned that the quality of the end game products would not have been possible without the ICT component.
    • Children's experiences of fun and enjoyment during a season of sport education

      MacPhail, Ann; Gorely, Trish; Kirk, David; Kinchin, Gary (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2008-09-01)
    • Choice of activity-intensity classification thresholds impacts upon accelerometer-assessed physical activity-health relationships in children

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Boddy, Lynne M.; Savory, Louise A.; Denton, Sarah J.; Kerr, Catherine J.; Earnest, Conrad P. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      It is unknown whether using different published thresholds (PTs) for classifying physical activity (PA) impacts upon activity-health relationships. This study explored whether relationships between PA (sedentary [SED], light PA [LPA], moderate PA [MPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA, vigorous PA [VPA]) and health markers differed in children when classified using three different PTs.
    • Comparison of fat oxidation over a range of intensities during treadmill and cycling exercise in children

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith (Springer, 2011)
      Substrate metabolism differs between children and adults and is important for weight management during childhood. A direct comparison of fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities and the estimation of Fatmax (exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation (MFO)) during treadmill (TM) and cycling exercise (CE) does not appear to be available in children. Fat oxidation and Fatmax were compared during TM and CE in 22 pre- to early pubertal children (9 girls and 13 boys). Fat oxidation was higher for TM compared with CE over a range of absolute and relative exercise intensities and this difference was more pronounced at higher intensities (P ≤ 0.05). Fat oxidation was higher in boys compared with girls at similar relative, but not absolute intensities (P ≤ 0.05). Fatmax was higher during TM compared with CE and higher in boys compared with girls (P ≤ 0.05). The 5% Fatmax zone (range of exercise intensities where fat oxidation was within 5% of MFO) spanned a wider range of intensities for TM compared with CE (P ≤ 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that exercise programmes aimed at promoting high rates of fat oxidation in pre- to early pubertal children should include TM rather than CE regardless of exercise intensity. Furthermore, Fatmax values indicate that brisk walking or slow running promotes MFO rates in this population.
    • Conclusion: Cooperative Learning in physical education

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben (Routledge, 2012)
    • Cooperation and confrontation: a macro analysis of the MediaSport institution in contemporary China

      Wu, Ping; University of Bedfordshire (Hong Kong Shue Yan University., 2012)
    • Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical practice for learning in Physical Education

      Dyson, Ben; Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2012)
    • Cooperative learning in physical education: a research-based approach

      Dyson, Ben; Casey, Ashley (Routledge, 2012)
      This book defines Cooperative Learning in physical education and examines how to implement Cooperative Learning in a variety of educational settings. It explores Cooperative Learning in physical education from three main perspectives. The first, context of learning, provides descriptions of Cooperative Learning in different levels of education (elementary school, secondary school, and university physical education). The second, Cooperative Learning in the curriculum, offers case studies from teachers and researchers of their experiences of implementing Cooperative Learning within their own national context. The third perspective, key aspects of Cooperative Learning, examines how the different elements of the model have been foregrounded in efforts to enhance learning in physical education.
    • Daily hypoxia increases basal monocyte HSP72 expression in healthy human subjects

      Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Hilman, Angela R.; Madden, Leigh A.; Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R.; University of Bedfordshire (2011-02)
      Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) performs vital roles within the body at rest and during periods of stress. In vitro, research demonstrates HSP72 induction in response to hypoxia. Recently, in vivo, an acute hypoxic exposure (75 min at 2,980 m) was sufficient to induce significant increases in monocyte expressed HSP72 (mHSP72) and a marker of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects. The purpose of the current study was to identify the impact of 10 consecutive days of hypoxic exposures (75 min at 2,980 m) on mHSP72 and erythropoietin (EPO) expression, markers of oxidative stress, and maximal oxygen consumption in graded incremental aerobic exercise. Eight male subjects were exposed to daily normobaric hypoxic exposures for 75 min at 2,980 m for 10 consecutive days, commencing and ceasing at 0930 and 1045, respectively. This stressor was sufficient to induce significant increases in mHSP72, which was significantly elevated from day 2 of the hypoxic exposures until 48 h post-final exposure. Notably, this increase had an initial rapid (30% day on day compared to baseline) and final slow phase (16% day on day compared to baseline) of expression. The authors postulate that 7-day hypoxic exposure in this manner would be sufficient to induce near maximum hypoxia-mediated basal mHSP72 expression. Elevated levels of mHSP72 are associated with acquired thermotolerance and provide cross tolerance to non-related stressors in vivo, the protocol used here may provide a useful tool for elevating mHSP72 in vivo. Aside from these major findings, significant transient daily elevations were seen in a marker of oxidative stress, alongside sustained increases in EPO expression. However, no physiologically significant changes were seen in maximal oxygen consumption or time to exhaustion.
    • Daily quadratic trend in basal monocyte expressed HSP72 in healthy human subjects

      Taylor, Lee; Midgley, Adrian W.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V.; McNaughton, Lars R.; University of Hull (Springer, 2010-05)
      The inducible human stress protein heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) performs vital roles within the body at rest and during periods of stress. Recently it was shown over a 24 hour period that basal HSP72 followed a diurnal variation. However, these results and previous literature demonstrate noticeable inter-subject variation in basal HSP72 expression. The notion of intra/inter-day variation in basal HSP72 expression has not been explored in detail. Basal monocyte expressed HSP72 was determined every 3 hours, over a 9 hour period in 12 healthy male subjects (20.2 +/- 1.9 years, 178.7 +/- 5.6 cm, 75.1 +/- 6.0 kg) within a temperature controlled laboratory. A significant quadratic trend was observed for time (F = 26.0, P = 0.001, partial eta(2) = 0.74), where HSP72 decreased between 0800 and 1100 hours (P < 0.001) and then increased between 1100 and 1400 hours (P = 0.015). The main effect for day (F = 2.6, P = 0.14) and the day x time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = 0.08) were not significant. There was no correlation between serum and monocyte expressed HSP72, with no significant effect for time (F = 2.0, P = 0.21) in serum HSP72 expression. The results support findings by others that basal monocyte expressed HSP72 follows a diurnal variation which incorporates a quadratic trend, which is not compromised by any significant daily variation and that serum HSP72 expression has no endogenous circadian rhythm. The significant quadratic trend in basal monocyte HSP72 expression shown here highlights the need to tightly control variables, such as timing of sample collection, as it is known basal values influence the magnitude of HSP72 expression post-stressor/intervention.
    • Deception of ambient and body core temperature improves self paced cycling in hot, humid conditions

      Castle, Paul C.; Maxwell, Neil S.; Allchorn, Alan; Mauger, Alexis R.; White, Danny K.; University of Bedfordshire (2012-01)
      We used incorrect visual feedback of ambient and core temperature in the heat to test the hypothesis that deception would alleviate the decrement in cycling performance compared to a no deception trial. Seven males completed three 30 min cycling time trials in a randomised order on a Kingcycle ergometer. One time trial was in temperate, control conditions (CON: 21.8 ± 0.6°C; 43.3 ± 4.3%rh), the others in hot, humid conditions (HOT: 31.4 ± 0.3°C; 63.9 ± 4.5%rh). In one of the hot, humid conditions (31.6 ± 0.5°C; 65.4 ± 4.3%rh), participants were deceived (DEC) into thinking the ambient conditions were 26.0°C; 60.0%rh and their core temperature was 0.3°C lower than it really was. Compared to CON (16.63 ± 2.43 km) distance covered was lower in HOT (15.88 ± 2.75 km; P < 0.05), but DEC ameliorated this (16.74 ± 2.87 km; P < 0.05). Mean power output was greater in DEC (184.4 ± 60.4 W) than HOT (168.1 ± 54.1 W; P < 0.05) and no difference was observed between CON and DEC. Rectal temperature and iEMG of the vastus lateralis were not different, but RPE in the third minute was lower in DEC than HOT (P < 0.05). Deception improved performance in the heat by creating a lower RPE, evidence of a subtle mismatch between the subconscious expectation and conscious perception of the task demands.
    • Developing physical education in Malawi

      Sammon, Paul; Bowler, Mark (Association for Physical Education, 2009)
    • Developing the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS): establishing validity and reliability of a computerised systematic observation instrument

      Cushion, Christopher J.; Harvey, Stephen; Muir, Bob; Nelson, Lee; Loughborough University (2012)
      We outline the evolution of a computerised systematic observation tool and describe the process for establishing the validity and reliability of this new instrument. The Coach Analysis and Interventions System (CAIS) has 23 primary behaviours related to physical behaviour, feedback/reinforcement, instruction, verbal/non-verbal, questioning and management. The instrument also analyses secondary coach behaviour related to performance states, recipient, timing, content and questioning/silence. The CAIS is a multi-dimensional and multi-level mechanism able to provide detailed and contextualised data about specific coaching behaviours occurring in complex and nuanced coaching interventions and environments that can be applied to both practice sessions and competition.