• Biomechanics of ankle instability. Part 1: reaction time to simulated ankle sprain

      Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Dyson, Rosemary; Hale, Tudor; Abraham, Corinne (American College of Sports Medicine, 2008)
      The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that ankles with functional instability will demonstrate slower muscular reaction times than their contralateral stable ankle (SA) and stable healthy controls to a simulated nonpathological ankle sprain mechanism. Results demonstrate a deficit (slower reaction time) in ankles with FAI when acting in support and when exposed to a simulated sprain compared to stable healthy controls. As a result of slower reaction times, acting to support the UA may put the contralateral SA at an increased risk of ankle sprain. This suggests that rehabilitation of a lateral ankle sprain should include strengthening the evertors (peroneals and EDL) at the subtalar joint and the dorsiflexors (TA and EDL) at the talocrural joint.
    • Biomechanics of ankle instability. Part 2: postural sway-reaction time relationship

      Mitchell, Andrew C.S.; Dyson, Rosemary; Hale, Tudor; Abraham, Corinne (American College of Sports Medicine, 2008)
      The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ankles with functional instability will demonstrate greater single-limb postural sway (PS) than their contralateral stable joint and stable healthy controls and to examine the relationship between single-limb postural sway and muscular reaction time to a simulated ankle sprain mechanism. Results reveal postural sway deficits in ankles with FAI. They also demonstrate a significant relationship between PL and PB reaction times and postural sway in UA. Individuals who sustain an acute ankle sprain and those with FAI require rehabilitation that improves proprioception, strengthens the evertors and dorsiflexors, and restores peroneal reaction time.
    • Breakfast, glycaemic index and health in young people

      Tolfrey, Keith; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K. (Elsevier, 2012)
      The purpose of this paper was to extend previous reviews on breakfast consumption and health to provide a greater understanding of the role of breakfast composition, particularly breakfast GI. Unlike the evidence on breakfast consumption, which has often been based on large cross-sectional studies, the evidence on breakfast GI is based primarily on controlled experimental studies, often with relatively small samples. At times, it was necessary to refer to the adult-based literature in this review to support findings from young people or to highlight areas that are particularly lacking in empirical evidence in this population. Since breakfast consumption has declined in young people and also decreases from childhood to adolescence, strategies to promote regular consumption of a healthy breakfast in young people are warranted. Future research in young people should place greater emphasis on breakfast composition, consider the mechanisms controlling relationships between breakfast consumption and health, and investigate the benefits of habitual consumption of LGI compared with HGI breakfasts.
    • Breakfast, metabolism, health and cognitive function in young people

      Tolfrey, Keith; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Cooper, Simon B.; Nevill, Mary E. (Nova Publishers Inc, 2012)
    • Breaking up prolonged sitting time with walking does not affect appetite or gut hormone concentrations but does induce an energy deficit and suppresses postprandial glycaemia in sedentary adults

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Broom, David R.; Chrismas, Bryna C.; Taylor, Lee; Flynn, Edward; Hough, John (NRC Research Press, 2015-12-14)
      Background: Breaking up periods of prolonged sitting can negate harmful metabolic effects but the influence on appetite and gut hormones is not understood and is investigated in this study. Methods: Thirteen sedentary (7 female) participants undertook three, 5 h trials in random order: 1) uninterrupted sitting (SIT), 2) seated with 2 min bouts of light-intensity walking every 20 min (SIT+LA), and 3) seated with 2 min bouts of moderate-intensity walking every 20 min (SIT+MA). A standardised test drink was provided at the start and an ad libitum pasta test meal provided at the end of each trial. Subjective appetite ratings and plasma acylated ghrelin, peptide YY, insulin, and glucose were measured at regular intervals. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each variable. Results: AUC values for appetite and gut hormone concentrations were unaffected in the activity breaks conditions compared to uninterrupted sitting (linear mixed modelling: p>0.05). Glucose AUC was lower in SIT+MA than SIT+LA (p=0.004) and SIT (p=0.055). There was no difference in absolute ad libitum energy intake between conditions (p>0.05), however, relative energy intake was lower in SIT+LA (39%; p=0.011) and SIT+MA (120%; p<0.001) than SIT. Conclusion: Breaking up prolonged sitting does not alter appetite and gut hormone responses to a meal over a 5 h period. Increased energy expenditure from activity breaks could promote an energy deficit that is not compensated for in a subsequent meal.
    • Breaking up prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking improves postprandial glycemia, but breaking up sitting with standing does not

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Locke, Christopher D.; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2015-05)
      Objectives: To explore the effects of breaking up prolonged sitting time with standing or light-intensity walking on a range of cardiometabolic risk markers. Design: A randomised three-period, three-treatment acute crossover trial. Methods: Ten non-obese adults took part in three trials: (1) uninterrupted sitting; (2) seated with 2-min bouts of standing every 20 min; and (3) seated with 2-min bouts of light-intensity walking every 20 min. Two standardised test drinks (total 80.3 carbohydrate, 50 g fat) were provided after an initial 1-h period of uninterrupted sitting. Plasma glucose and blood pressure were assessed hourly to calculate area under the curve. Total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and 5-h. ANOVAs were used to explore between-trial differences. Results: Glucose area under the curve was lower in the activity-break condition compared to the uninterrupted sitting and standing-break conditions: mean area under the curve 18.5 (95% CI 17, 20), 22.0 (20.5, 23.5), and 22.2 (20.7, 23.7) mmol L/5-h, respectively, p < 0.001; no difference between uninterrupted sitting and standing-break conditions (p > 0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure area under the curve did not differ significantly between conditions, nor did responses in lipid parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggests that interrupting sitting time with frequent brief bouts of light-intensity activity, but not standing, imparts beneficial postprandial responses that may enhance cardiometabolic health. These findings may have importance in the design of effective interventions to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk.
    • C2 and C2C12 murine skeletal myoblast models of atrophic and hypertrophic potential: relevance to disease and ageing?

      Sharples, Adam P.; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Stewart, Claire E.; Manchester Metropolitan University (2010-10)
      Reduced muscle mass and increased susceptibility to TNF-induced degradation accompany inflamed ageing and chronic diseases. Furthermore, C(2) myoblasts display diminished differentiation and increased susceptibility to TNF-alpha-induced cell death versus subcloned C(2)C(12) cells, providing relevant models to assess: differentiation (creatine kinase), growth (protein), death (trypan-blue) and anabolic/catabolic parameters (RT-PCR) over 72 h +/- TNF-alpha (20 ng ml(-1)). At 48 and 72 h, respectively, larger myotubes and significantly higher CK activity (320.26 +/- 6.82 vs. 30.71 +/- 2.5, P < 0.05; 544.94 +/- 27.7 vs. 39.4 +/- 3.37 mU mg ml(-1), P < 0.05), fold increases in myoD (21.45 +/- 3.12 vs. 3.97 +/- 1.76, P < 0.05; 31.07 +/- 3.1 vs. 6.82 +/- 1.93, P < 0.05) and myogenin mRNA (241.8 +/- 40 vs. 36.80 +/- 19.3, P < 0.05; 440 +/- 100.5 vs. 201.1 +/- 86, P < 0.05) were detected in C(2)C(12) versus C(2). C(2)C(12) showed significant increases in IGF-I mRNA (243.05 +/- 3.87 vs. 105.75 +/- 21.95, P < 0.05), reduced proliferation and significantly lower protein expression (1.21 +/- 0.28 vs. 1.79 +/- 0.29 mg ml(-1), P < 0.05) at 72 h versus C(2) cells. Significant temporal reductions in C(2)C(12) IGFBP2 mRNA (28.02 +/- 15.44, 13.82 +/- 8.07, 6.92 +/- 4.37, P < 0.05) contrasted increases in C(2)s (4.31 +/- 3.31, 13.02 +/- 9.92, 82.9 +/- 58.9, P < 0.05) at 0, 48 and 72 h, respectively. TNF-alpha increased cell death in C(2)s (2.67 +/- 1.54%, 34.42 +/- 5.39%, 29.71 +/- 5.79% (0, 48, 72 h), P < 0.05), yet was without effect in C(2)C(12)s at 48 h but caused a small significant increase at 72 h (9.88 +/- 4.02% (TNF-alpha) vs. 6.17 +/- 0.749% (DM), 72 h). TNF-alpha and TNFRI mRNA were unchanged; however, larger reductions in IGF-I (8.2- and 7.5-fold vs. 4.5- and 4.1-fold (48, 72 h)), IGF-IR (2-fold vs. no-significant reduction (72 h)) and IGFBP5 (3.24 vs. 1.38 (48 h) and 2.21 vs. 1.71 (72 h), P < 0.05) mRNA were observed in C(2) versus C(2)C(12) with TNF-alpha. This investigation provides insight into regulators of altered basal hypertrophy and TNF-induced atrophy, providing a model for future investigation into therapeutic initiatives for ageing/wasting disorders.
    • Can high group cohesion be harmful?: a case study of a junior ice-hockey team

      Rovio, E.; Eskola, J.; Kozub, Stephen A.; Duda, J.L.; Lintunen, T. (2009)
    • Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with hard and light intensity physical activity but not time spent sedentary in 10–14 year old schoolchildren: the HAPPY study

      Denton, Sarah J.; Trenell, Michael I.; Plötz, Thomas; Savory, Louise A.; Bailey, Daniel Paul; Kerr, Catherine J.; Broyles, Stephanie T. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Sedentary behaviour is a major risk factor for developing chronic diseases and is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. It remains unclear how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are related to cardiorespiratory fitness in children. The purpose of this study was to assess how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are associated with 10–14 year-old schoolchildren's cardiorespiratory fitness.
    • A case study of wikis and student‐designed games in physical education

      Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley; Tarter, Anne‐Marie (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This paper reports on the incorporation of wiki technology within physical education. Boys from two classes at a school in the United Kingdom were divided into small teams and given the task of creating a new game in a same genre as football, hockey, netball or rugby. Each team had a wiki on which were recorded all the plans and developments of this game as it was being devised and refined. The teacher, an outside games expert and the school’s librarian also had access to the wikis, which allowed for constant interaction between the participants outside class time. Interviews with the teacher, the librarian and the students revealed that the 24/7 classroom enabled by the ICT, together with an extended community of practice, resulted in a higher quality learning experience in physical education for the participants. Indeed, it was the belief of all concerned that the quality of the end game products would not have been possible without the ICT component.
    • Children's experiences of fun and enjoyment during a season of sport education

      MacPhail, Ann; Gorely, Trish; Kirk, David; Kinchin, Gary (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2008-09-01)
    • Choice of activity-intensity classification thresholds impacts upon accelerometer-assessed physical activity-health relationships in children

      Bailey, Daniel Paul; Boddy, Lynne M.; Savory, Louise A.; Denton, Sarah J.; Kerr, Catherine J.; Earnest, Conrad P. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      It is unknown whether using different published thresholds (PTs) for classifying physical activity (PA) impacts upon activity-health relationships. This study explored whether relationships between PA (sedentary [SED], light PA [LPA], moderate PA [MPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA, vigorous PA [VPA]) and health markers differed in children when classified using three different PTs.
    • Comparison of fat oxidation over a range of intensities during treadmill and cycling exercise in children

      Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Tolfrey, Keith (Springer, 2011)
      Substrate metabolism differs between children and adults and is important for weight management during childhood. A direct comparison of fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities and the estimation of Fatmax (exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation (MFO)) during treadmill (TM) and cycling exercise (CE) does not appear to be available in children. Fat oxidation and Fatmax were compared during TM and CE in 22 pre- to early pubertal children (9 girls and 13 boys). Fat oxidation was higher for TM compared with CE over a range of absolute and relative exercise intensities and this difference was more pronounced at higher intensities (P ≤ 0.05). Fat oxidation was higher in boys compared with girls at similar relative, but not absolute intensities (P ≤ 0.05). Fatmax was higher during TM compared with CE and higher in boys compared with girls (P ≤ 0.05). The 5% Fatmax zone (range of exercise intensities where fat oxidation was within 5% of MFO) spanned a wider range of intensities for TM compared with CE (P ≤ 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that exercise programmes aimed at promoting high rates of fat oxidation in pre- to early pubertal children should include TM rather than CE regardless of exercise intensity. Furthermore, Fatmax values indicate that brisk walking or slow running promotes MFO rates in this population.
    • Conclusion: Cooperative Learning in physical education

      Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben (Routledge, 2012)
    • Cooperation and confrontation: a macro analysis of the MediaSport institution in contemporary China

      Wu, Ping; University of Bedfordshire (Hong Kong Shue Yan University., 2012)
    • Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical practice for learning in Physical Education

      Dyson, Ben; Casey, Ashley (Association for Physical Education, 2012)
    • Cooperative learning in physical education: a research-based approach

      Dyson, Ben; Casey, Ashley (Routledge, 2012)
      This book defines Cooperative Learning in physical education and examines how to implement Cooperative Learning in a variety of educational settings. It explores Cooperative Learning in physical education from three main perspectives. The first, context of learning, provides descriptions of Cooperative Learning in different levels of education (elementary school, secondary school, and university physical education). The second, Cooperative Learning in the curriculum, offers case studies from teachers and researchers of their experiences of implementing Cooperative Learning within their own national context. The third perspective, key aspects of Cooperative Learning, examines how the different elements of the model have been foregrounded in efforts to enhance learning in physical education.