• A psychophysiological investigation of laterality in human emotion elicited by pleasant and unpleasant film clips

      Kaviani, Hossein; Kumari, Veena; Wilson, Glenn D (2012-05-25)
      Background Research on laterality in emotion suggests a dichotomy between the brain hemispheres. The present study aimed to investigate this further using a modulated startle reflex paradigm. Methods We examined the effects of left and the right ear stimulation on the modulated startle reflex (as indexed by eyeblink magnitude, measured from the right eye) employing short (2 min) film clips to elicit emotions in 16 right-handed healthy participants. The experiment consisted of two consecutive sessions on a single occasion. The acoustic startle probes were presented monaurally to one of the ears in each session, counterbalanced across order, during the viewing of film clips. Results The findings showed that eyeblink amplitude in relation to acoustic startle probes varied linearly, as expected, from pleasant through neutral to unpleasant film clips, but there was no interaction between monaural probe side and foreground valence. Conclusions Our data indicate the involvement of both hemispheres when affective states, and associated startle modulations, are produced, using materials with both audio and visual properties. From a methodological viewpoint, the robustness of film clip material including audio properties might compensate for the insufficient information reaching the ipsilateral hemisphere when using static pictures. From a theoretical viewpoint, a right ear advantage for verbal processing may account for the failure to detect the expected hemispheric difference. The verbal component of the clips would have activated the left hemisphere, possibly resulting in an increased role for the left hemisphere in both positive and negative affect generation.
    • A-Z of attachment

      Wilkins, David; Shemmings, David; Shemmings, Yvonne (Palgrave MacMillan, 2015-07)
    • Academics' experiences of a respite from work: effects of self-critical perfectionism and perseverative cognition on postrespite well-being

      Flaxman, Paul E.; Ménard, Julie; Bond, Frank W.; Kinman, Gail (American Psychological Association, 2012-07)
      This longitudinal study examined relations between personality and cognitive vulnerabilities and the outcomes of a respite from work. A sample of 77 academic employees responded to week-level measures of affective well-being before, during, and on 2 occasions after an Easter respite. When academics were classified as being either high or low in a self-critical form of perfectionism (doubts about actions), a divergent pattern of respite to postrespite effects was revealed. Specifically, during the respite, the 2 groups of academics experienced similar levels of well-being. However, during postrespite working weeks, the more perfectionistic academics reported significantly higher levels of fatigue, emotional exhaustion, and anxiety. The greater deterioration in well-being experienced by perfectionist academics when first returning to work was mediated by their tendency for perseverative cognition (i.e., worry and rumination) about work during the respite itself. These findings support the view that the self-critical perfectionist vulnerability is activated by direct exposure to achievement-related stressors and manifested through perseverative modes of thinking.
    • Adolescents' experiences of the right to play and leisure in Northern Ireland

      Beckett, Helen (Taylor & Francis, 2010-07)
      Under Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, every child under the age of 18 has the right to engage in age-appropriate play and leisure activities. Drawing on the qualitative findings of a wider review of children's rights in Northern Ireland, this article examines the degree to which adolescents in Northern Ireland are currently able to enjoy this right. The data presented in the article are primarily based on the views of young people, as expressed in focus group discussions with their peers, although this is at times contextualised by the contributions of adult participants and the findings of an in-depth policy and literature review. The article argues that young people's right to play and leisure is not currently adequately recognised within Northern Ireland, noting the impact of the increasing demonisation and marginalisation of youth upon both this and their accompanying right to protection. The article concludes with a consideration of the potential implications of the current failure to afford young people adequate and appropriate play and leisure opportunities, calling on the State party to urgently deliver on the commitments it made in ratifying the Convention.
    • The adoption of children from public care: a prospective study of outcome in adolescence

      Dance, Cherilyn; Rushton, Alan; King's College, London; University of Luton (Williams & Wilkins, 2006)
      OBJECTIVE: To discover the outcomes for children placed late for adoption (between 5 and 11 years old) from public care and to establish which factors predict poorer outcome. METHOD: Data were collected prospectively (1993-2003) from a representative sample of domestic U.K. adoptive placements (N = 108) at the start of placement, at 1 year, and 6 years later. Most of the children entered care because of abuse and neglect. Outcome was assessed by the disruption rate, by a twofold classification of the character of continuing placements, and by an assessment of psychological well-being. RESULTS: At the adolescent follow-up, 23% of placements had disrupted, 49% were continuing positively, and 28% were continuing but with substantial ongoing difficulties. Four factors contributed independently to a higher risk of disruption: older age at placement (odds ratio = 1.07), having been singled out from siblings and rejected (5.87), time in care (1.04), and a high level of behavioral problems (1.25). Two factors predicted differences in continuing placements. CONCLUSIONS: Late adoption can be successful in that half the children made good progress, but the extent of disruptions and difficulties in continuing placements gives rise to concern. Knowledge of predictors will help in devising planning pre- and postplacement support services.
    • After MacPherson : policing after the Stephen Lawrence inquiry

      Loveday, Barry; Marlow, Alan (Russell House Publishing, 2000)
    • Alcohol screening in people with cognitive impairment: an exploratory study

      Randall-James, James; Wadd, Sarah; Edwards, Kim; Thake, Anna (Taylor & Francis, 2014-12)
      Objective: Alcohol misuse can coexist with and/or contribute to the development of cognitive impairment in the older adult population but continues to be underestimated and undetected in older people. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of routine screening for alcohol misuse in a small sample of older people with cognitive impairment receiving services in memory clinics. Methods: This study employed a qualitative and exploratory design, using a convenience sample of individuals attending a memory clinic in England. Ten service users older than 65 with a diagnosis of cognitive impairment (i.e., mild cognitive impairment or dementia) took part in the study. Individuals who met inclusion criteria were invited to take part in an hour-long interview, which included the interviewer administering the alcohol screening tools. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Participants were able to engage with the screening tools and could, with assistance, complete them in a collaborative and timely manner without distress. All participants reported that these tools were acceptable as part of the clinic assessment. Administering the screening tools was not time-consuming or difficult, making their use feasible within the memory clinic setting. While there were some challenges (e.g., arithmetic, recall, language problems), these challenges could be overcome with the aid of the person administering the screening tool using standardized techniques for assessment administration. Conclusions: Routine screening for alcohol misuse in older people with cognitive impairment receiving services in memory clinics is feasible and acceptable. The process of completing alcohol screening tools with older adults receiving services at memory clinics may increase awareness of the potential impact of alcohol on cognitive functioning and provide practitioners with an opportunity to educate service users about the ways that their drinking is affecting their memory. Several techniques to facilitate completion of screening tools were identified. Future research should evaluate the reliability and validity of alcohol screening tools with older people through corroborating screening results with other assessment methods.
    • Altered early visual processing components in hallucination-prone individuals

      Schwartzman, David; Maravic, Ksenija; Kranczioch, Cornelia; Barnes, Jim (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2008)
      Of the nonpathological general population, 0.5% experience one or more visual hallucinations on a regular basis without meeting the criteria for clinical psychosis. We investigated the relationship between a proneness to visual hallucinations in 'normal' individuals and early visual event-related potentials during the perception of faces, Mooney faces and scrambled Mooney faces. Findings indicated that individuals prone to visual hallucinations displayed significantly reduced early event-related potential components (P1, P2, but not N170) over parieto-temporal regions. These findings support previous suggestions that individuals who experience visual hallucinations exhibit abnormal early visual processing resulting from degraded visual input, in this case owing to disruption of low level visual processes.
    • Anchors in floating lives : interventions with young people sexually abused through prostitution

      Melrose, Margaret; Barrett, David (Russell House Publishing, 2004)
    • Applying social psychology to contemporary society

      Kinman, Gail (British Psychological Society, 2015)
    • Are we making the most of learning from the practice placement?

      Domakin, Alison (Taylor and Francis, 2013-12-12)
      It is almost universally accepted within social work education that placements are a defining feature of training and ‘… have a more profound and lasting impact than classroom teaching’. Consequently the placement is regarded as the signature pedagogy in social work education. However, it is also asserted that universities pay little attention to this aspect of teaching and concerns about a ‘significant level of disjunction between academic and practice learning’ are expressed. The development of a new distance learning MA social work programme in which units are studied alongside part-time placements afforded opportunities for innovation in curriculum delivery, alongside increasing connections with learning on placement. Practice educators were invited to respond to an online mixed methods survey exploring their perceptions of the programme and views as to how greater integration of academic and practice learning can be achieved in social work education generally. Analysis of the results identified the important role which supervision with the practice educator can play in integrating learning on placement with the academic curriculum. The paper concludes that a greater focus on learning from practice may offer opportunities to maximise the learning potential of the placement as social work's signature pedagogy.
    • The Barnardo's Safe Accommodation Project: consultation with young people

      Shuker, Lucie; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2012-04)
      This report presents the findings of a consultation with young people in the care system affected by sexual exploitation or trafficking, conducted as part of the Barnardo's Safe Accommodation project. The consultation focused on experiences of the care system and how these could be improved.
    • Be brave: psychology needs you!

      Kinman, Gail (British Psychological Society, 2015)
      Cary Cooper tells Gail Kinman about his efforts to change occupational culture through wide dissemination of psychological theory and research.
    • Behavioural coping patterns in Parkinson’s patients with Visual Hallucinations

      Barnes, Jim; Connelly, Vince; Boubert, Laura; Maravic, Ksenija (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013)
      Visual Hallucinations are considered to affect about 20%–40% of patients with Parkinson's disease. They are generally seen as a side effect of this long-term illness and can severely affect the daily quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the coping patterns or strategies used by patients and establish whether the phenomenology and behaviours used by patients enabled control of the phenomenon. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded, including motor measures, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms. Patient with hallucinations were at a more advance stage of the disease and displayed more depressive symptoms than their non-hallucinating counterparts. Most patients used more than one constructive coping strategy, the most common were simple behavioural strategies based around motor action or cognitive approaches resulting in visual modification. In addition, humour was a common technique used by the patients to deal with the phenomenon. Emotional responses varied between patients, but it was found that the actual content of the hallucination was not directly associated with whether it caused trouble to the patient, but perceived stress was strongly correlated with the subjective disturbing nature of visual hallucinations (VHs). This study gives insight into the role of cognitive-behavioural approaches when dealing with VHs and opens up avenues for future studies in helping patient to deal with hallucinations.
    • Beyond evidence-based policy and practice

      Fisher, Mike; University of Bedfordshire (PKP Publishing Services Network, 2013-01-01)
      This paper concerns the impact of social work research, particularly on practice and practitioners. It explores the politics of research and how this affects practice, the way that universitybased research understands practice, and some recent developments in establishing practice research as an integral and permanent part of the research landscape. While focusing on implications for the UK, it draws on developments in research across Europe, North America and Australasia to explore how we can improve the relationship between research and practice.