• Literature’s poor relation: history and identity in the writing and criticism of nineteen-fifties literature

      Brannigan, John Gerard (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1995-12)
      All the major critics of postwar literature regard the fifties as a period in which literature was inept, conservative and conformist. This thesis argues that fifties literature was instead an active and successful agent in problematising conservative political orthodoxies, and in articulating alternative identities and politics. The study is concerned with two major themes: the relationship between literature and history, and the critical reputation and location of literature in nineteen-fifties Britain. It begins from positions that are already evident in postwar literary criticism towards both of these themes. Literature is understood in much of the critical writing of postwar Britain to be representative of social trends and attitudes, and its meaning is determined largely according to particular understandings of postwar British history and society. The literary text, if understood as 'representative', is capable of offering the reader direct access to the society of its production, and of reflecting the dominant trends and attitudes in a given period. Because it is the most recent period of realism in the history of English literature, the fifties seem to be particularly susceptible to this view. Reading fifties literature in the light of poststructuralist thinking on textuality and representation, this study argues that literature is not representative bu negotiates identities and social experiences of the fifties in a much more diverse way. These negotiations are demonstrated in readings of the work of John Osborne, Brendan Behan and Sam Selvon, and elaborated theoretically in the concluding chapters of the study. Literature's Poor Relation demonstrates that fifties literature is able to manoeuvre into a space wherein it can articulate oppositional and critical stances towards power, by firstly, imitating social detail and literary traditions, and secondly, reading these details and traditions in such was as to deconstruct them. The appearance of representativeness serves to seduce the reader into desiring the text (the idea that Look Back in Anger was representative attracted many of its original audiences to see it), and its readings and interpretations of history and identity deflect the reader's desire towards oppositional and critical moments in the text.
    • Living in the shadows: street culture and its role in the development and maintenance of survival strategies of socially marginal young people

      Melrose, Margaret; University of Bedfordshire (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2005-11)
      This text demonstrates that my work on young people who are exploited through prostitution and young people involved in problematic drug use in Britain at the end ofthe twentieth and beginning ofthe twenty-first century constitutes a significant contribution to advancing our knowledge ofthese inter-related issues. The text demonstrates that, in Britain, at the end of the twentieth and beginning ofthe twenty-first century, young people exploited through prostitution and young people involved in problematic drug use share in common lived experiences in poverty at the margins of society. The common theme demonstrated here is that, as a result ofthe poverty generated by social and economic policies adopted in Britain in response to gIobalisation, 'street cultures' play an important role in the development and maintenance of survival strategies adopted by socially marginalised and economically disadvantaged young people. The discussion argues that these cultures perform important functions in time and space for socially and economically marginal young people. They do so in different ways for different young people. At the same time, however, they serve to further entrench their social and economic exclusion and disadvantage.
    • Local economic indicators: practitioners needs and associated issues of provision and use

      Cole, Denise (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1997-04)
      The local economic information base for the UK does not meet the demand for local economic indicators emerging from the private and public sectors. This thesis identifies an 'information gap' between the need for and provision of local economic indicators in the public and private sectors. The existence of this 'gap' emerges in the literature review. Empirical evidence of the gap is provided by the thesis' postal survey (which investigates the use of local economic information in forecasting). The dearth of local economic indicators is then confirmed in the analysis of guided interviews with practitioners. The literature review and practitioner interviews identify a rising need for local economic indicators over the last decade. The increased political significance of local space has led to a growth in the need for information at this scale from the public sector. Organisational restructuring and the privatisation of utilities has also led an increase in demand from the private sector for local economic information. This need has been compounded by deficiencies in those local economic indicators which are currently available, in terms of quality, organisation and accessibility. The literature suggests that standardisation of the criteria for organising local economic indicators into a database would greatly assist the organisations that seek this information. However, no such set of criteria has been forthcoming. The thesis therefore incorporates a feasibility study which focuses on the establishment of a standardised local economic database. The research findings steer suggestions for its development, and local economic indicators for the Local Authority District (LAD) ofLuton are collected and organised into a database as a case study. The methodology is documented, and can be reproduced to develop a similar database for any other LAD in the UK.
    • Localisation in wireless sensor networks for disaster recovery and rescuing in built environments

      Gu, Shuang (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-05)
      Progress in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and radio frequency (RF) technology has fostered the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Different from traditional networks, WSNs are data-centric, self-configuring and self-healing. Although WSNs have been successfully applied in built environments (e.g. security and services in smart homes), their applications and benefits have not been fully explored in areas such as disaster recovery and rescuing. There are issues related to self-localisation as well as practical constraints to be taken into account. The current state-of-the art communication technologies used in disaster scenarios are challenged by various limitations (e.g. the uncertainty of RSS). Localisation in WSNs (location sensing) is a challenging problem, especially in disaster environments and there is a need for technological developments in order to cater to disaster conditions. This research seeks to design and develop novel localisation algorithms using WSNs to overcome the limitations in existing techniques. A novel probabilistic fuzzy logic based range-free localisation algorithm (PFRL) is devised to solve localisation problems for WSNs. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than other range free localisation algorithms (namely DVhop localisation, Centroid localisation and Amorphous localisation) in terms of localisation accuracy by 15-30% with various numbers of anchors and degrees of radio propagation irregularity. In disaster scenarios, for example, if WSNs are applied to sense fire hazards in building, wireless sensor nodes will be equipped on different floors. To this end, PFRL has been extended to solve sensor localisation problems in 3D space. Computational results show that the 3D localisation algorithm provides better localisation accuracy when varying the system parameters with different communication/deployment models. PFRL is further developed by applying dynamic distance measurement updates among the moving sensors in a disaster environment. Simulation results indicate that the new method scales very well.
    • London government in transition : L.C.C. to G.L.C. 1962-1967

      Anderson, Colin Roy (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1996-06)
      This thesis concentrates upon a largely neglected subject wi thin contemporary political history, that is the transition in London government from the London County Council (L.C.C.) to the Greater London Council (G.L.C.). It is a study of the actions and reactions of poli tical parties at central government, county council, and district council level, and incorporates the role of non-political party pressure groups. The bulk of the thesis is concerned with the L.C.C. area. Consideration is, however, given to the non-L.C.C. area incorporated into the larger C.L.C. This work demonstrates that there was no consensus regarding the need for reform. It is argued that the lack of consensus led to compromises that failed to satisfy many interested groups and thus the C.L.C. was often perceived to be flawed. This thesis derives from an exhaustive literature search and extensive reading. The records of political parties were very useful. Newspapers and journals aided research, as did a series of interviews with key surviving individuals. A further source of information were the minutes of various local authorities and connected bodies. Previously unavailable records have been used, for example, Conservative Party and Government records. With the aid of these new sources this work uniquely concentrates on exposing the political constraints and biases that caused a flawed local government system to be introduced.
    • Loneliness and depression among informal caregivers of children with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

      Amaugo, Lucky Gospel (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-07)
      This research explores the experience of loneliness and depression among informal caregivers of children with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The study utilised semi-structured interviews involving eleven informal caregivers of children with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyse the account of participants, five superordinate themes were identified which are: ‘caregiving – a challenging experience’, ‘HIV medication – a solution and a problem’, ‘struggle with negative emotions’, ‘keeping it secret’ and ‘positive coping with caregiving’. These themes provided an overall account of the experience of caregiving among informal caregivers of children with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The study findings revealed there could be a relationship between informal caregiving and the experience of loneliness and depression. Participants described caregiving as emotionally distressing due to the challenges involved with their care recipient’s health condition, the management of HIV medication, the attitude of care recipients towards their medication, and perceived stigma and discrimination associated to HIV/AIDS. HIV medication was an important element that influenced informal caregivers’ approaches to coping with HIV caregiving, such as non-disclosure and secrecy, which limited their access to social support and intensified the feeling of loneliness. Furthermore, religious resources were highlighted as important part of participants’ coping strategies. Participants were also optimistic and hopeful for a lasting solution to HIV infection and its related problems. Based on the findings of the study, a new theoretical framework which explains the experience of informal caregivers in the context of paediatric HIV/AIDS, is proposed. The study makes recommendations for policy and practice and for future research.
    • Looking beyond eruptions for an explanation of volcanic disasters: vulnerability in volcanic environments

      Dibben, Christopher J.L. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1999-01)
      'Natural' disasters have traditionally been viewed as the result of an extreme physical environment. A radical backlash against this dominant view, in the nineteen seventies and eighties, moved the debate to the opposite extreme and in doing so replaced physical with social determinism. Vulnerability analysis is proposed as a methodology that bridges these extremes. It takes into account individual decision making, social milieu and physical hazard when describing human habitation in areas of volcanic activity. It is argued that vulnerability should be defined in terms of universal human needs in order to avoid it simply being a measure of the chance of death and injury or losing its meaning in the uncertainty of cultural relativism. Once vulnerability is identified it is important to explore why it has come to exist. A contextual theory of vulnerability change is presented. Vulnerability to volcanic activity was explored in the area around Mt. Etna in Sicily (Italy) and Furnas volcano San Miguel in the Azores (Portugal) using a case study methodology. This included: collecting data through interviews (semistructured and structured) and field surveying, utilising census and other secondary data sources, and examining historical documents and texts. The volcanic hazard on Mt. Etna is related to regular (4-7 years) effusive lava flows which threaten property and land rather than people. Living in a European state, it is likely that a victim of Mt. Etna will have their basic needs provided for in the long-term and therefore they are not vulnerable. In contrast the irregular explosive eruptions of Furnas, last eruption 1630, not only damage property and land but also endanger lives. The limited ability of individuals to protect themselves in the event of an eruption and organisations to aid them in this means that, in spite of state insurance, many around Furnas are vulnerable. The production of vulnerability around Etna and Furnas is strongly related to the socio-economic nature of the region and wider European and global contexts. Opportunities and constraints that exist across socio-physical space encourage behaviour and forms of life which, in tum, produce various levels of vulnerability. Individuals seem to cognitively diminish their perceptions of this threat within a context of social representations of low risk. They, and society as a whole, rarely seem to engage directly with the risk itself.
    • The loss of PI3K C2β is associated with a heightened immune response

      Buick, Emma K. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2016-12)
      The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) enzymes are well known for their regulation of pro-survival signalling cascades that result in increased cell survival and proliferation. However, most of what we understand is based on Class I PI3K enzymes and much less is understood about the Class II enzymes. Loss of PI3K C2α in mice results in embryonic lethality, or severe glomerular injury with increased morbidity. In contrast, PI3K C2β deficient mice display no apparent phenotype and are healthy and viable. Previous work in our laboratory revealed that administration of a sub-nephritogenic dose of nephrotoxic serum led to an augmented immune response resulting in glomerular damage and impaired renal function, which was associated with T-cell infiltration. Elucidating the immunological basis of this sensitivity was the basis of my project. In response to a subcutaneous injection of sheep IgG in complete Freund’s adjuvant, the spleens of PI3K C2β-/- mice showed prominent germinal centre associated cell proliferation that was absent in the controls. Analysis of splenocyte populations revealed that PI3K C2β-/- mice had an increased population of CD4+ T-cells and when cultured in vitro within a total splenocyte population, the increased CD4+ T-cell population was maintained. However, this effect was lost when T-cells were purified and maintained ex vivo. These data suggest that the increased PI3K C2β-/- CD4+ proliferation may be due to additional factors within the total splenocyte population. B-cell populations from the spleens of PI3K C2β-/- mice had higher CD19 expression compared to B-cells from control mice. Elevated levels of CD19 are associated with a reduced activation threshold. In response to stimulation with a sub-optimal dose of LPS and IL-4 PI3K C2β-/- B-cells underwent increased class switch recombination, displayed increased metabolic activity and remained viable for longer than B-cells from control mice. B-cell lysates from PI3K C2β-/- mice also revealed increased levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2. These data indicate that PI3K C2β may serve as a negative regulator of B-cell function and that loss of this PI3K enzyme isoform activity produces a heightened immune response which may lead to a predisposition to associated pathologies.
    • A lot going on: the links between going missing, forced marriage and child sexual exploitation

      Sharp-Jeffs, Nicola (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2016-10)
      An extensive review of research and policy literature revealed that links are made between: going missing and forced marriage; going missing and child sexual exploitation; and forced marriage and child sexual exploitation. However, despite these overlaps, no links are made between all three issues. Given that some South Asian young women will run away from home in order to avoid being forced into marriage and that young people who run away or go missing from home are at risk of, or abused, through child sexual exploitation a research proposition was developed on the basis that a three way link was theoretically possible. A case study methodology was developed to test the research proposition. Eight cases were identified in which South Asian young people (under 18 years of age) had experienced some combination of all three issues. However, the pattern identified within the research proposition was not the ‘final explanation’. Analysis of the research findings revealed that variation existed within the pattern proposed. Moreover, a second pattern was identified in which forced marriage emerged as a parental response to young people who were already being sexually exploited and going missing in this context. The patterns identified were confirmed through analysis of interviews undertaken with twelve subject experts (key informants) and resonated with a specifically selected group of nine young people who were presented with a composite case study during focus group discussion. I argue that awareness of patterns linking all three issues will help practitioners to identify and respond appropriately to cases where the issues of going missing, forced marriage and child sexual exploitation overlap. That said the complexity of the cases highlighted risks associated with overlooking diversities: social divisions related to age, gender, ethnicity, class, sexuality and disability were explored to see how they shaped the young people’s experiences. This process revealed that they were located within complex axes of power which then intersected with social systems, including family, community and public institutions. As a consequence, young people lacked relational support and had limited access to safe accommodation and economic resources. This resulted in some young people making attempts to try and self-manage the competing harms that they were facing. The practitioners who supported the young people highlighted the challenges involved in working with them. Analysis of practitioners’ accounts further revealed how power dynamics within multi-agency working arrangements also impacted their efforts to respond to the needs of young people. Through testing the research proposition, I addressed a recognised need for more focused research into the issue of going missing as it relates to young people from different ethnic backgrounds (Berelowitz et al. 2012; Berelowitz et al., 2013; OCC, 2012; Patel, 1994; Safe on the Streets Research Team, 1999; Stein et al. 1994) as well as furthering knowledge about how child sexual exploitation is experienced by young people from black and minority ethnic (BME) communities (Chase & Statham, 2004; CEOP, 2011b; Jago et al., 2011; Berelowitz et al., 2013; Thiara & Gill, 2010; Kelly, 2013; Ward & Patel, 2006). The development of a typology of patterns linking going missing, forced marriage and child sexual exploitation provides a unique contribution to the scholarly literature.
    • Low vision and diabetes in older people living in residential care homes

      Darwesh, Nizam Muhammad (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015-06)
      Background: Worldwide one in twelve people are living with diabetes and one in two people do not know they have diabetes. Currently large numbers of the older people live in residential care homes in the UK, and up to one in four older people living in residential care homes present with diabetes. Low vision is one of the complications associated with diabetes in older people. In those aged 75 and over, one in five, and in those aged over 90, one in two people are affected by low vision and they are at an increased risk of developing other eye diseases. Within 20 years of diagnosis nearly all people with Type 1 and almost two thirds of people with Type 2 diabetes (60%) have some degree of diabetic retinopathy. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the issues and problems faced by older people living in residential care homes with low vision and diabetes; to evaluate health professionals’ knowledge and understanding of the impact of low vision associated with diabetes in older people living in residential care homes; and to develop an educational toolkit which aimed to educate health care assistants about low vision and diabetes. Methods: This study is an exploratory investigation of older people living in residential care homes with low vision and diabetes. Adopting an open-ended qualitative approach using focus groups, interviews and a health professional’s survey, 116 participants were involved. These included GPs, ophthalmologists, nurses, optometrists, health care assistants and older people with low vision and diabetes. The data was analysed thematically. The educational toolkit was developed in the second part of this study, and 20 healthcare assistants were trained using this toolkit. Their knowledge was tested before the training, immediately after the training and one month after the initial training. Following Kirkpatrick’s model, the skills and practical use of the educational toolkit was assessed using an open-ended qualitative approach. Results: The results found that many older people and the health care assistants had the perception that low vision was a normal ageing process and could not be rectified. The study found that there was evidence to suggest that eye health was not considered to be a priority; instead, it was considered to be a natural part of the ageing process. The results found that 82% of the HCAs had not had any training in the area, and more than half of the nurses and GPs did not have sufficient knowledge of low vision and diabetes. After training, however, their knowledge was increased. This suggested that low vision and diabetes toolkit training could be used to educate healthcare assistants on a regular basis. The study also found that knowledge does decline over time, and therefore regular training for HCAs is required in order to maintain eye health and diabetes in older people, as well as improving their quality of life. Conclusion: In the research findings it was found that 50% to 70% of low vision was preventable or treatable if detected in its early stages and could be avoided by simply wearing appropriate spectacles, or possible surgery. However, in order to identify these 50% to 70% with low vision, everyone concerned should be able to recognise the signs and symptoms of preventable low vision, particularly health care assistants, as according to this study, health care assistants spent large amount of time in the residential care homes compared to the other health professionals.
    • Magnetic and sedimentological analyses of quaternary lake sediments from the English Lake District

      McLean, Donald C.H. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1991-03)
      Results of mineral magnetic, mobile clement, and granulometric analyses of Holocene sediments from Buttermere and Crummock Water (two closely-linked lakes in the north-west of the English Lake District) are presented. These are used to: (1) identify effects of internal (lacustrine) and external (catchment) controls on sedimentation; (2) establish catchment source-lake sediment linkages and assess the value of mineral magnetic techniques in palaeolimnological studies; (3) identify major catchment environmental changes. Analyses of lake sediment fabrics (using sediment thin sections, SEM clay flake analysis, standard granulometric analysis, and mineral magnetic indicators of grain size change) indicate that river plume sedimentation is the normal sediment dispersal mechanism in these lakes. Thin (<= 3.0 mm) chlorite-rich laminae, found at intervals in the otherwise homogeneous Holocene sediment sequence, are probably formed by trapping and concentration of fine, platy particles within lake waters. They are subsequently deposited during lake overturn. This represents an "internal" control on sedimentation. A model of sedimentation processes operating in these lakes is developed, incorporating river plume sedimentation, episodic density surges, and lake thermal structure. Mineral magnetic measurements allow the objective subdivision of the lacustrine lithostratigraphy, identifying broad changes in lake sediment characteristics. Samples from both lake catchments are clustered into six magnetically distinct groups - despite the lithological complexity of the catchment. Comparison of these with the lake sediments has enabled identification of major sources during the Holocene. Following deposition of relatively unaltered bedrock-derived material during the Late-glacial ("primary" sources), secondary sources (which may include glacial diamicts, soils and stream sediments) dominate the lake sediments. Direct input of topsoil-derived sediment from circa 1000 A.D. onwards (during and following the main period of Norse settlement of the Lake District) is identified by its distinctive mineral magnetic characteristics, (high Xfd% values, >-4%). Industrially-derived magnetic spherules contribute significantly to the mineral magnetic characteristics of the more recent sediments, (mainly those post-dating circa 1900 A.D.). These are used to construct a proxy chronology for recent sediments. Catchment environmental changes arc mainly related to stabilisation of vegetation following deglaciation and, from circa 2,000 B.P., anthropogenic effects of deforestation and land disturbance, thus increasing lake sediment accumulation rates. These findings are broadly consistent with the interpretation of the Lake District Post-glacial sediment sequence presented in studies by Mackereth, (1966a), and Pennington, (1981), demonstrating a uniformity of lake and catchment development within the Lake District. A prominent minerogenic layer present in the Buttermere and Crummock Water sediment sequence however broadly correlates with similar horizons deposited in other Lake District lakes from circa 7,400 - 5,000 B.P. These have been previously interpreted as composed of topsoil-derived material derived from human actions, (Pennington 1973, 1981). In the Buttermere and Crummock Water sediments, this layer is best interpreted as derived from glaciogenic sediment') reworked from within the lake basins, probably following lowered lake water levels during the period circa 7,300 - 5,300 B.P. Thus it is suggested that a reinterpretation of similar Lake District lacustrine sediments using the methods employed in this study would be appropriate.
    • Magnetic force imaging and handling of cancer cells on the nanoscale

      Liu, Jinyun (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2017-11)
      Cancer treatment has become one of the top priorities in health. Great efforts have been devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of cancers. Culturing cells with drugs is a common method used to investigate cancer therapy in experiments. However, this method has limitations in cancer treatment because of the lack of capabilities of handling cells, targeting specific cells and measuring the nanoscale changes in cell structures. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetic force microscopes (MFMs) have been used to study biological samples due to their advantages in tracing, manipulating and measuring, which has motivated to research the method for implanting MNPs into cancer cells, to target the cancer cells and to measure their changes during the treatment. Research reported in this thesis focuses on magnetic force imaging and handling of targeted cancer cells on the nanoscale for possible new cancer therapies. A new differential MFM imaging method and a new compensation MFM imaging method were developed in this research to improve the MFM imaging quality. The former reverses the magnetized direction of probe from upward to downward and the latter scans the samples with three scanning directions of 0°, 45° and 90°. With these methods, the obtained MFM images achieve a high resolution, SNR, image contrast and accuracy. A pair of innovative MNPs picking up method and MNPs releasing method were developed in this research to achieve flexible MNPs picking up and releasing. The picking up method handles the magnetic tip following a helical structure as the capture path when approaching to the target MNPs. The MNPs releasing method uses a biaxiably-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film together with a magnet allowing MNPs to separate from the MFM tip surface. With these methods, the target MNPs can be picked up by the MFM tip and released from the tip surface successfully. This research discovered, for the first time in the world to the author knowledge, the differences in morphological features (height, length, width and roughness) and mechanical properties (adhesive force and Young‟s modulus) between multinuclear and mononuclear colon cancer cells after treating the cells with fullerenol. This discovery provides guidance to the selection of cells for target treatment. The results indicate that the mononuclear SW480 cells are more sensitive to fullerenol than the multinuclear SW480 cells and the multinuclear SW480 cells exhibit a stronger drug-resistance than the mononuclear SW480 cells. A new MNPs implantation method was developed in this research, which enables the FITC-MNPs functioned tip to insert into cells so that MNPs are implanted into the target cells. Fluorescence microscope images show that the FITC-MNPs are released into the cells successfully. Cells being treated with MNPs (Cell-MNPs) manipulation III methods are explored by magnet and controllable electromagnets to manipulate the target cancer cells. The results show that the cell-MNPs have magnetic force manipulated capability and they can be manipulated to have the leftward, rightward, upward and downward flexibilities.
    • Making sense of cranial osteopathy: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Banton, Amanda Louise (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-02)
      Purpose: This study arose from a praxial problem: how best to communicate with patients about the mechanism of cranial osteopathy. The problem was explored in a way that presented cranial osteopathy as a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon in the domain of healthcare practice. The resulting research question was phenomenologically inflected and was articulated as ‘What sense do osteopaths and their patients make of the phenomenon of cranial osteopathy?’ The concept of ‘sense-making’ was applied to both the manner in which osteopaths and their patients experience and understand cranial osteopathy and also the meaning that emerges in the course of giving or receiving cranial osteopathic treatment. Method: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to explore cranial osteopaths’ understanding and lived experience of their practice and to simultaneously explore patients’ understanding and lived experience of cranial osteopathy. Four cranial osteopaths who were Fellows of the Sutherland Cranial College of Osteopathy participated, as did a patient each of theirs. The cranial osteopath participants were experienced practitioners and the patient participants were people who had had positive experiences of cranial osteopathy. The participants were interviewed about their lived experience and understanding of the phenomenon of cranial osteopathy. The semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed by the researcher. The researcher kept a reflexive diary and an account of her theoretical fore-structure, in order to understand and audit the influences on her hermeneutic analysis of the data. From the data analysis, ongoing reflexion on praxis and a reading of the theoretical literature emerged three Super-Ordinate Themes and a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy. Findings: The IPA revealed that both patients and practitioners establish epistemological grounds for their sense-making about their embodied experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 1: Making sense of sense-making), that they use embodied metaphor and linguistic meta-metaphor to understand their lived experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 2: Metaphors for mechanisms), and that the mechanism of cranial osteopathy is considered by both patients and practitioners to arise from the therapeutic relationship (Super-Ordinate Theme 3: The meaningful osteopathic relationship). Conclusions: The main outcome of the study is a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy, which posits that the shared, embodied therapeutic relationship facilitates a collaborative rapport which enables the osteopath and the patient to come to an understanding of the source of the patient’s malady, and that furthermore this understanding supports the mobilisation of the physiological mechanisms of healing to ‘unconceal’ health. iv ongoing reflexion on praxis and a reading of the theoretical literature emerged three Super- Ordinate Themes and a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy. Findings: The IPA revealed that both patients and practitioners establish epistemological grounds for their sense-making about their embodied experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 1: Making sense of sense-making), that they use embodied metaphor and linguistic meta-metaphor to understand their lived experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 2: Metaphors for mechanisms), and that the mechanism of cranial osteopathy is considered by both patients and practitioners to arise from the therapeutic relationship (Super-Ordinate Theme 3: The meaningful osteopathic relationship). Conclusions: The main outcome of the study is a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy, which posits that the shared, embodied therapeutic relationship facilitates a collaborative rapport which enables the osteopath and the patient to come to an understanding of the source of the patient’s malady, and that furthermore this understanding supports the mobilisation of the physiological mechanisms of healing to ‘unconceal’ health.
    • Managing in the middle, the practice of managing change in English Universities

      Sarchet, Christopher (University of Bedfordshire, 2009-04-30)
      Higher Education Institutions are worth £45 billion to the UK economy, according to a report published in 2006 by Universities UK (UUK), the representative organization of the United Kingdom’s universities. The higher education sector has undergone considerable change with the introduction of the marketplace, tuition fees and business management structures and methods. Managing change as a middle manager is acknowledged to be important activity (see for example, Beer, Eisenstat and Spector, 1990) and yet there is a limited amount of empirically research that has been conducted to discover how change is managed in the higher education sector in England by these staff. This study explores the perceptions of higher education managers about their role in managing change in the higher education sector. It is an exploratory study based on thirty-one interviews with managers in nine universities from across the higher education sector in England. The universities were chosen to ensure there was a representative sample from the main groups within the sector and a geographical spread across the country’s regions. The literature review found a wide range of contrasting viewpoints that provided a myriad of support and confusing messages. There was a lack of information about how higher education managers manage and, in particular, how they manage change. Managers, and those who seek to help them, face challenges in seeking and providing guidance and improving practice. The middle manager has to manage change and use a variety of means to achieve it. They are caught in the middle between senior managers and staff and other stakeholders. They have primarily learned from experience but need support and guidance when they come across change projects of which they have no knowledge. This can be provided by access to case based practice and a network of experienced experts. This research recommends the creation of such support using new media available via the internet provided through professional associations such as the Association of University Administrators (AUA).
    • Managing risks in virtual-agile IT projects: the paradigm of responsiveness

      Amar, Hassan (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-02)
      Managing risks in IT projects has always been a critical area of study for many researchers and practitioners. Due to the rapid advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs), there is an increasing number of challenges and issues for the IT organisations. Virtual-Agile IT projects being virtually operated and based on Agile methodology principles are facilitating IT industry having their main application in the software development industry, where entities from diverse backgrounds have varied working practices, languages and culture, and works together for achieving common aims. There have been several benefits integrated with the application of Virtual-Agile IT projects but the intersection of these two unique working concepts (Virtual-Agile) gives rise to several risks and uncertainties which have now become a point of concern for these organisations. The need for minimising the possibility of such evolving risks and uncertainties became the foundation of conducting this study from a theoretical viewpoint, where the researcher aimed to propose a conceptual framework helping organisations meet their business objectives constructively. The study is exploratory in nature which discovers all those appropriate practices, strategies and guidelines which support reducing risk and uncertainties between the distributed stakeholders during the product development phase. The research methodology used is primarily dependent on qualitative methods combined with the grounded theory methodology to gather rich and rigorous information from experienced and professional personnel from different geographical regions. Depending upon the procedures of grounded theory methodology, the data were collected and analysed simultaneously under the principles of constant comparison and theoretical sampling. The procedures helped to determine thought-provoking results and highlighted various dimensions of the phenomenon under investigation.Responsiveness which emerged as the central phenomenon to overcome risks and uncertainties in Virtual-Agile IT project environments proposes for a proactive system which could be able to deal with project uncertainties, thus reducing the likelihood of potential risks, and enhancing opportunities for the organisations. Responsiveness, which is an ability of the system to perceive, reflect and adapt changes in the project environments is dependent upon efficiently management of three major components, i.e. technology, timeliness and communication. Technology which is the most critical element when operating in virtual environments requires standardization and should be extensively used to develop strong networks and integration between various locations around the world. Timeliness is elementary and a pre-requisite for completion of on-going multiple projects in IT organisations Communication which is the utmost component, is required at various levels for evolving synchronisation in the overall system, such as when developing correlation and satisfaction among distributed stakeholders, estimating the level of required competency and ensuring an efficient knowledge transfer process. Responsiveness, which is required throughout the development cycle, also further influences formal risk management practices undertaken at various levels of the project. Risk management planning and implementation of the response strategies are dependent upon Responsiveness i.e. how well, timely and using technical resources the entities communicate for determining a solution to a problem. The paradigm developed, thus reflects industrial practices undertaken in the software development industry to meet project objectives and would support organisations and their prominent stakeholders to overcome risks and uncertainties in the future Virtual-Agile IT projects.
    • Managing Tourism Destination Reputation in the Era of Online Marketing: A Case Study of Egypt

      Darwish, Alyaa (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2021)
      Tourism destination marketing has been significantly influenced by the developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Online marketing has been a focus of most destinations since the Internet became the primary information source for travel marketing and purchasing. Tourism is a reputation-dependent sector. An accurate perception of the destination’s reputation helps minimize the risk of unsatisfactory experiences of travellers. A favourable tourist destination reputation also enhances the destination’s competitive advantage. Despite the importance of tourism destination reputation, attempts at developing a better understanding through defining and assessing it have been limited due to an over-reliance on theories of corporate reputation. To address this research gap, this study aims to understand the concept of tourism destination reputation, and explore how to manage destination reputation using online marketing channels through achieving a number of specific objectives: 1. To improve the current understanding of the tourism destination reputation by developing a comprehensive definition of tourism destination reputation, 2. To develop a framework to assess the tourism destination reputation, 3. To assess the effectiveness of tourism destination approaches towards online marketing channels, 4. To understand the mechanisms of the online marketing channels, and to assess the potential for using online marketing channels to manage the destination’s online reputation, 5. To develop a conceptual framework that enables the destination marketers to better understand the tourism destination reputation concept, effective online marketing strategies, channels and online reputation management. To achieve the research objectives, a qualitative research methodology is employed. The methodology includes three main data collection methods: the Delphi technique, focus groups, and interviews. Two rounds of Delphi were used among reputation and tourism experts to define the destination reputation and identify the main drivers which contribute to forming the tourism destination reputation. Four focus groups were used to identify the respondents’ points of view about the main drivers that contribute to forming destination reputation. The results of Delphi technique and the focus groups were integrated to develop the Tourism Destination Reputation Framework (TDRF). While two sets of interviews were applied among two different groups; the first in-depth interviews were carried out in Egypt, with the online marketers at the Egyptian Tourism Authority (ETA) who are responsible for the marketing of the Egyptian destination. The second in-depth interviews set were applied with a sample of marketers from different digital marketing agencies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms of online marketing channels; their impact on the reputation and the possibility of using these channels to manage the online reputation. The main outcomes, and the original contribution of this research include 1. A new empirically based definition for the tourism destination reputation concept. 2. A framework to assess the tourism destination reputation. The framework includes ten themes: products and services, culture, people, destination management, environment, safety and security, competitiveness, country stability, place identity, media, marketing and communication. 3. Insights into the ETA online performance and the Egyptian tourism destination reputation. 4. A strategy to manage the destination online reputation. The research proposes a strategy to manage the online tourism destination reputation. This strategy includes two different pathways: handling normal situations, and detecting reputation crises. Finally, the research suggests a comprehensive framework to have a favourable tourist destination reputation. This framework consists of three main stages: building reputation, marketing reputation, and finally, managing reputation.
    • Materiality in accounting and auditing in the UK

      Chong, Hock Gin (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1998-06)
      The Statement of Auditing Standards 220 (Materiality and the audit, 1995) requires auditors to assess both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of materiality. However, the SAS has not specified the quantitative measurement of materiality. This research assesses the need in the UK for having a specific mathematical guideline in addition to the qualitative aspect of materiality. It evaluates the outcomes of legal cases in both the UK and the US, looks at the accounting statements issued by accounting bodies in other countries on materiality, and responses to the then exposure draft of the SAS 220. Questionnaires were sent in the UK to 1000 auditors (25.6% responded) and 1000 non auditors (26.4% responded), and telephone surveys followed with non respondents and selected individuals. The case studies contained in the questionnaires are materiality impact on losses on discontinuation of a production line, changes in accounting policies, contingent liabilities, and cash defaulcation. Results showed that there are inconsistencies in legal decisions on materiality. Countries having materiality guidelines adopted 10% net profit before tax as the norm. The 10% of net profit before tax is the favourite guideline for materiality from questionnaire respondents and telephone interviewees. Consistency in the results suggest the need for having a standard mathematical measurement of materiality in the UK.
    • The mathematical modelling of the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS and the impact of antiviral therapies

      Hajian, Emad (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2000-04)
      This thesis is concerned with the structure, analysis and numerical solution of the mathematical models used to estimate the transmission dynamics of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)) the causative agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Investigations show that the devised deterministic mathematical models in term of system of first-order non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) follow the stochastic nature of the problem at any time. In this thesis a generic form of the deterministic mathematical models is introduced which mirrors the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS in populations with different states of affairs, which leads to the division of large-scale and complex mathematical models. When analysing and;or solving a large-scale system of ODEs numerically, the key element in speeding up the process is selecting the maximum possible time step. This work introduces some new techniques used to estimate the maximum possible time step, avoiding the appearance of chaos and divergence in the solution when they are not features of the system. The solution to these mathematical models are presented graphically and numerically, aiming to identify the effect of the anti-HIV therapies and sex education in controlling the disease. The numerical results presented in this thesis indicate that lowering the average number of sexual partners per year is more effective in controlling the disease than the current anti-HIV treatments. For the purpose of this study the mathematical software 'Mathematica 3.0' was used to solve the system of differential equations, modelling HIV/AIDS propagation. This package also provided the graphical detail incorporated in the thesis.
    • A matter of confidence : an exploration of how magistrates' confidence in youth offending team service provision can make a difference to decision-making in the youth courts

      Ivankovic, Lucy (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2011)
      The vast majority of children and young people appearing in criminal courts in England and Wales are sentenced through a youth court by lay magistrates. The magistrates court deals with 96% of all criminal cases in England and Wales and it is lay magistrates who decide on questions of fact, and sentence those convicted in 91% of these cases. Therefore, how Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) and magistrates work together is a matter of interest. This research explores the extent to which magistrates' confidence in the YOT's service provision can make a difference to the decisions made with regards to bail/remand, sentencing, enforcement and revocation on grounds of good progress. Furthermore, the research considers how YOTs might improve the confidence of magistrates in their service provision and makes recommendations for practice in this regard.