• Media in Saudi Arabia: the challenge for female journalists

      Aljuaid, Kholoud (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-07)
      This study explores the role of women journalists in Saudi Arabia and provides more understanding of the challenges and barriers that working in the media presents for them. There are also a number of opportunities that may not have been fully recognised and where these women can make a difference. Against a background of reforms in Saudi Arabia, resulting from measures being put in place to comply with international human rights laws as well as a need for the country to utilise the economic benefits of a female workforce, the role of women in the media is increasing. The social changes that are taking place may not fit well with a more conservative society but female journalists are showing that they have been facing up to these challenges. Using a qualitative approach, this study sought to elicit the perceptions of a range of women working in the media and also interviewed male editors to gain their perspective on females working in their domain. The study revealed that the women chose journalism as a career because it was an area in which they excelled and which they very much enjoyed, despite numerous challenges they encountered. Although they had faced disapproval from family initially, they managed to win over parents and husbands once they started to have their work published. In more recent years the universities have been establishing media and communication courses for women and this is giving more support to journalism being a career choice. Nevertheless, it was clear that women were restricted by their gender in having access to influential chief editor positions, which were reserved for males. It was also found that the male editors approved of women working in journalism and spoke highly of the quality of their work. However, this may also be because the women open up the readership of newspapers by writing articles targeting other women and thus increase sales. In addition, some newspapers are found to be paying much lower rates to women than to their male counterparts. Reasons for this were given as being the costs of employing women, who often need drivers, cannot interview males, are not permitted to go unescorted, need a separate workplace environment, and who have maternity rights.
    • Changing sedentary behaviour in the workplace

      Brierley, Marsha Lynn (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-06)
      Sedentary behaviour is independently related to the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and their risk markers. The office workplace is a major contributor to daily sedentary behaviour (sitting); however, it also offers the opportunity to intervene with a large population. Desk-based police staff make up at least a third of UK police employees and experience poorer cardiometabolic health profiles than higher ranked police employees. The purpose of this thesis was to develop and assess the feasibility of delivering a tailored intervention to reduce prolonged sitting in police staff. The first aim of the thesis was to determine the effects of sedentary workplace interventions on cardiometabolic risk markers and ascertain the ‘active ingredients’ in promising studies (Study 1). The second aim was to gather qualitative insights into the acceptability of a theory-based workplace intervention using the APEASE framework (Study 2). The third aim was to interview police staff to understand their barriers and facilitators for reducing sedentary time (Study 3). The fourth aim was to assess the feasibility of conducting a multi-component intervention in police staff (Study 4). The systematic review (Study 1, Chapter 4) found that interventions show promise for improving cardiometabolic health. However, individual studies were at risk of allocation and performance bias. The behaviour change techniques of social comparison, problem solving, demonstration of the behaviour, goal setting, behaviour substitution, and habit reversal were frequently observed in promising interventions. In Study 2 (Chapter 5), a theory-derived sedentary behaviour office worker intervention comprising individual, organisational/social, and environmental modifications was acceptable and practicable. Productivity concerns and cost (of sit-stand desks) were barriers to organisational buy-in. Preference and work tasks influenced engagement with intervention resources. Police staff would benefit from a low cost intervention targeting social influences, education/skills training, and habit reinforcement (Study 3, Chapter 6). In Study 4 (Chapter 8), a tailored intervention was found to be feasible and acceptable for reducing prolonged sitting in police staff. This thesis provides a ‘roadmap’ for the development of interventions using the Behaviour Change Wheel. Findings from the feasibility trial identified key indicators of successful implementation regarding participant recruitment and retention, which should be considered should the intervention go to a full trial. Future research should investigate the long term behavioural and health effects of this intervention in police staff and other office-based occupations with the aim of improving public health.
    • The impact of gendered content in printed health advertisements on attitudes and behavioural intentions: a mixed methods study in a social marketing campaign

      Baxter, Katherine (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-06)
      The aim of this study is to contribute to the Marketing field examining whether the use of gendered content in leaflets promoting physical activity has an impact on attitudes and behavioural intentions of the UK general public. Drawing on elements of social role theory and homophily theory for its theoretical background, this study adopts an explanatory mixed methods approach for the data collection. Firstly, through a quantitative phase and quasi-experimental research design, 247 individuals from the general public were surveyed to examine the impact of the use of communal (i.e. feminine) and masculine (i.e. agentic) wording and endorser gender in a marketing campaign. This was followed up through qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 20 participants from the general public to gain further insights on the communicative elements of the leaflets and some insights into the participants’ existing behaviour and attitudes. The study indicates that gendered wording is effective in combination with certain gendered content when targeted at a specific sex. This work adds to the knowledge in the field of health marketing communications originally combining in an integrated framework of social role theory and homophily theory. Results from this study suggest that the theory is still relevant for males, as agentic communications and a male endorser showed a significant result for males. On the other hand, the results for females were more complex regarding social role theory and homophily theory, as neither communal nor agentic communications nor male or female endorser were significant, therefore other theories may be more useful for communications. The implications for knowledge and practice from this study provide a contribution as to which gendered combinations should and should not be used in the context of health promotion. This has not been considered previously, giving significant findings for future research directions and practical implementation in health communications.
    • Social work and poverty: an exploration of social workers’ attitudes and understanding

      Nyamtowo, Milton (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-05)
      The context of this study is the dilemma that most service users of social interventions and practice are poor and yet poverty is marginalised within social work practice. The study therefore set out to explore social work practitioners’ understanding of poverty, attitudes towards poverty and social work and poverty relationship. A qualitative methodology was adopted, involving five focus group discussions and twenty-eight semi-structured interviews within three Local Authorities referred to as research sites. This was more than the originally anticipated sample. A narrative literature review undertaken concluded that social work definitions are contested and this, coupled with regulation of social work, limits social work effectiveness in addressing poverty as it is not one of its major remits. The review identified that poverty is a significant issue affecting most service users and associated with most social problems involved in social work interventions and practice. The review discovered that social work practice pathologizes poverty and generally attributes causation of poverty to service users’ lack of capacity to take advantage of opportunities within the market and provided by the state and a lack of motivation to overcome their problems at the expense of structural factors that either cause or exacerbate poverty. This resonates with individualistic social work frameworks which are risk-averse, reactive, punitive, authoritative, and ineffective given the scale and impact of poverty which seems to be increasing. This is aggravated by the neo-liberal socio-political environment and managerialist social work environment characterised by low morale, high caseloads, paucity of much needed resource for social work interventions. The literature review established that social workers’ attitudes towards poor service users are largely ambivalent and negative. The research data reveals that poverty is a significant and prevalent issue amongst most service users and associated with most social problems handled by social workers. Research participants expressed that there is no shared understanding of poverty, that definition of poverty is important in how it is understood and influencing how poverty is addressed. It emerged that poverty is marginalised in social work education and practice. Research data revealed that poverty is taken as background music and normal. It emerged that poverty is not viewed as a risk factor on its own. Participants revealed that social work lacks capacity, knowledge, and skills to address poverty. Social work education and training does not equip social workers with functional knowledge and skills to address poverty in practice. The research revealed social work professionals’ attitudes are generally negative, stereotypical, and judgemental towards service users. Government policies aggravate service users’ experiences and circumstances. The participants expressed an understanding that thresholds of social work interventions are high and therefore act as barriers. Participants expressed that poverty is an uncomfortable subject to discuss with service users given stigmatisation associated with being poor. This therefore results in service users hiding their financial struggles. It emerged that service users who are poor are discriminated against and punished to experiencing poverty and that this goes against main social work values. The findings echo findings undertaken by many academics and researchers in social work poverty and therefore add to the body of knowledge in social work and poverty The study recommends that that consideration should be made that poverty is taught as a main course in social work education and as a post-graduate course for social work in practice. It is also recommended that social work should promote poverty discourse at the policy level with a view to influencing structural change. It is also recommended that adequate funding be provided for poverty practice, family support and early intervention and prevention. It is also recommended that that government policies that impact negatively on service users be evaluated. Service users should play an integral role in all these recommendations.
    • The associations between clubhead velocity and kinetic variables during vertical jumps and an isometric mid-thigh pull in golfers

      Wells, Jack E.T. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-04)
      A greater number of golfers are devoting time engaging in strength and conditioning due to the associated competitive advantages through increased clubhead velocity. Strength and conditioning coaches are able to support golfers through physical profiling in order to highlight areas of improvement. Based on the results from physical profiling, strength and conditioning coaches can implement interventions targeted at increasing clubhead velocity. However, there is currently a paucity of research that has sought to assess the relationship between clubhead velocity and kinetic mechanisms in commonly used strength and conditioning tests such as vertical jumps and isometric mid-thigh pulls. This thesis had two aims which were to 1) investigate the relationships between clubhead velocity and kinetic mechanisms in vertically oriented tasks and 2) identify optimal training modalities that enhance clubhead velocity along with the kinetic mechanisms associated with these changes. The findings within Chapter three highlighted that the TrackMan and Bel SwingMate had high inter-session reliability when measuring clubhead velocity in an applied range setting. The smallest detectable change indicated that practitioners can be 95% confident an increase in clubhead velocity of 0.76 m.s-1 (TrackMan) and 1.42 m.s-1 (Bel SwingMate) represents a ‘real’ change. The TrackMan had the highest reliability and the smallest detectable change; therefore, this launch monitor was utilised to assess clubhead velocity within this thesis. It was observed in Chapter four that positive impulse during a countermovement jump, squat jump and drop jump, along with peak force during an isometric mid-thigh pull significantly related to highly skilled golfers’ (n = 27) clubhead velocity. Furthermore, results highlighted that activities less constrained by time held the strongest relationships. These findings were further supported by Chapter five when assessing elite golfers. Specifically, European Challenge Tour golfers’ (n = 31) countermovement jump positive impulse significantly predicted 37.9% of the variance in clubhead velocity. Further analysis highlighted that if a European Challenge Tour golfer were to increase their countermovement jump positive impulse by 46.85 N.s, this should elicit an increase in clubhead velocity of 1.69 m.s-1. The golf swing is considered to be an asymmetrical action due to the vertical ground reaction forces and the nature of the swing. Chapter six therefore assessed the relationships between highly skilled golfers’ clubhead velocity and inter-limb asymmetries during bilateral countermovement jumps, squat jumps, drop jumps and isometric mid-thigh pulls. Inter-limb difference for the entire cohort (n = 50) and golfers with ‘real’ asymmetries had no significant relationship with clubhead velocity. There was also limited agreement between limbs for different tests. For instance, if an asymmetry favoured the trail leg for a countermovement jump, this limb was unlikely to present the same dominance within other tests. Therefore, it is the magnitude rather than the inter-limb differences that relate to clubhead velocity in highly skilled golfers. Chapter seven assessed the effects two different 8-week interventions (back squat vs. vertical jump) had on vertical ground reaction force variables and clubhead velocity when compared to a control group. Findings indicated that both the back squat group (n = 9) and vertical jump group (n = 9) significantly increased clubhead velocity, with no observed change in the control group (n = 8). Isometric mid-thigh pull peak force significantly increased in the back squat and jump groups and was the mechanism associated with these changes in clubhead velocity. For golfers who are seeking to increase their clubhead velocity, resistance training should form an integral part of their annual programme.
    • Understanding the professional identity development of undergraduate osteopathic students in the UK

      McKenna, Brian (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-04)
      Professional identity formation is a process that happens simultaneously at the level of the individual (which involves their internal cognitive development), at the interactive level (which involves socialisation through participation) and at the institutional level (which involves being subject to institutional processes). Having a well-developed professional identity is important, as it helps professionals to practise with confidence, provides a sense of belonging, aids normative behaviours and has been linked to better quality care. Whilst research has highlighted the factors that support professional identity development in other professions, there is limited understanding of the factors that student osteopaths use to construct their professional identity. The aim of this study was to construct a theory of how undergraduate osteopaths in the UK construct their professional identity and to determine whether undergraduate osteopathic students have conceptions of an osteopathic identity. A qualitative study was undertaken within a constructivist paradigm. A total of seven UK undergraduate osteopathic students were purposively sampled. Data was collected through all seven participants keeping a diary for one month. Following this, individual interviews were undertaken with all participants. Participant diaries acted both as data and as a reflective prompt for the individual interviews. Subsequent theoretical sampling informed the data analysis. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Towards the end of the study, one participant was selected for a second interview. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to code and analyse the data and to construct the grounded theory of how undergraduate osteopathic students in the UK construct their professional identity. The data resulted in the construction of a theory that encompasses three interrelated levels. At the individual level, students held a conception of their future self as an osteopath, which they used to motivate themselves and measure their progress. They constructed this future self as an osteopath by the interactive process which became known as ‘Magpieing’. This involved the collection of identity contents from tutors, peers and documentation. Students then experimented with these identity contents with either patients or peers before making the decision to integrate the content, continue to experiment with it in other situations or discard it. This was underpinned by institutional level processes that constituted providing students with role models and mentors, clinical encounters and safe spaces where they could collect and experiment with identity contents. Students held a conception of an osteopathic identity base on three levels: ways of interacting with patients, professionalism, and knowledge and ways of using it. They associated most strongly with ways of interacting with patients and least strongly with knowledge and ways of using it. The findings indicate that undergraduate osteopathic students in the UK construct their professional identity on an individual, an interactional and an institutional level, and that these levels are interrelated. Undergraduate osteopathic students in the UK have a conception of the professional identity of osteopaths based on three levels, with which they strongly or weakly associated. These findings provide the first theory of how student osteopaths construct their professional identity.
    • Feature learning for EEG-based person identification

      Nyah, Ndifreke Okon (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-04)
      Evoked potentials recorded on a multielectrode EEG device are known to be a ected by volume conductance and functional connectivity while a task is performed by a person. Modelling functional connectivity represents neural interactions between electrodes which are distinguishable and genetically identical. However, the representations that are caused by volume conductance are not distinguishable because of unwanted correlations of the signal. Orthogonalisation using autoregressive modelling minimises the conductance component, and the connectivity features can be then extracted from the residuals. The proposed method shows it is possible to reduce the multidimensionality of the predicted AR model coe cients by modelling the residual from the EEG electrode channel baseline, which makes an important contribution to the functional connectivity. The results show that the required models can be learnt by Machine Learning techniques which are capable of providing the maximal performance in the case of multidimensional EEG data. The proposed method was able to learn accurate identification with few EEG recording channels, especially when the channel that is used has a functional connectivity with the interactive task. The study, which has been conducted on a EEG benchmark including 109 participants, shows a signi cant improvement of the identi cation accuracy.
    • An ethnographic study of a group photography and digital storytelling project for young people accessing a child sexual exploitation service

      Cody, Claire (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-04)
      This thesis is based on a case study of a group photography and digital storytelling project for young people accessing a specialist child sexual exploitation (CSE) service in the UK. The research aimed to fill current gaps in the evidence base by exploring how young people accessing specialist CSE services experienced working in a group setting and utilised arts-based methods to share their experiences. The study explored the benefits and challenges associated with such projects, and the similarities and differences between group arts-based projects and traditional forms of support, which predominantly involve one-to-one support with a key worker. In striving to understand the potential power and purpose of ‘the group’, the study was informed by theories of feminism, trauma and empowerment. The primary research method was participant observation of the group sessions and this was supplemented by interviews with those involved; young people, project facilitators and CSE support workers. A thematic analysis of the data, informed by Braun and Clarke’s (2006) methodology, was undertaken. As the first study exploring a group arts-based project with young people accessing a specialist CSE service in the UK, this research provides new insights into a number of areas. This study highlights the benefits, practical challenges and considerations required in developing group work with this population. In exploring these complexities, the findings offer a new perspective on the current dominant narrative that group work may exacerbate young people’s risk to CSE. The findings instead highlight important factors to consider in creating a safe space. This includes reflecting on: the diversity of service-users; where ‘common ground’ may be established; the criteria and selection of young people; and what, and how, information about young people is shared with project facilitators. The study illustrates how the structure of a group can enhance a sense of normality for young people. This offers a new perspective to the literature on therapeutic group work which focusses on how the group can normalise specific ‘symptoms’ of trauma rather than how it can promote a general sense of normality for young people. In this study, the structure of the project and the use of photography and digital storytelling appeared to add value in a number of ways. Arts-based methods: helped young people engage in the project; supported group members to get to know each other; allowed others to ‘see’ young people’s identities that went beyond that of victim-survivor; and provided a sense of control and achievement for young people. From the data, I argue that given how past experiences of talking about one’s experience may impact on a young person’s confidence and comfort in sharing information related to their experiences, photography and digital storytelling play an important role in supporting young people to reflect, explore and communicate their emotions and experiences in a different way. This is significant, as the majority of literature on the use of photography in research has focussed on it as a method of inquiry rather than as a supportive tool for the individuals involved. Such methods can provide a mechanism to respond to young people in a strengths-based, trauma-informed way, and add value to traditional forms of support. However, the study also identified a number of challenges and risks that are inherent in working in this way that also need to be acknowledged and considered.
    • The impact of time allowances in an EAP reading-to-write argumentative essay assessment

      Bruce, Emma Louise (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-03)
      The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of time allowances on students’ source use, composing behaviour and performance, in a second language reading-to-write assessment context. Set within a language centre in a large Hong Kong university, this mixed-methods study incorporates quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative aspect focuses on an analysis of essay scores and lengths as well as reference types and uses, while the qualitative aspect incorporates retrospective questionnaires and discourse-based interviews to gain an understanding of students’ intentions, views and approach to composing. The synthesis of the countable data with students’ personal insights facilitated an understanding of the ways in which differences in source use and composing behaviour in the timed and extended conditions affected performance. The findings show that the majority of students preferred the extended condition as they valued the time to read the sources, think and reflect in a relaxed environment. Conversely, some students felt the time pressure elicited a heightened cognitive state, which enhanced their performance. Students tended to write over multiple sessions, engage more with the source texts and adopt a more recursive approach in the extended condition. In contrast, when composing under time pressure, students tended to reduce their engagement with the source texts in order to complete their essay. This rush to write the essay resulted in different reading strategies and a more knowledge-telling approach to composing. When students were given more time to write, mean word counts and mean essay scores were significantly higher. The top-performing students seemed to benefit most from the extra time. These writers experienced the biggest positive difference in essay length and scores, and displayed more instances of source-text use, but perhaps surprisingly they were more likely to embed their understanding of what they read into their own text without referencing the source material. The data suggest that, for higher-achieving students, the extra time resulted in an increased interaction with the source texts, which allowed them to take a more expert persona in their writing, impressing raters and leading to higher overall scores. The results have important implications for language teachers and test developers in EAP programmes. In particular, they demonstrate the paradox of implementing reading-to-write task types in an attempt to simulate the target language use context while failing to take account of the time required to engage in the appropriate academic literacy skills. Importantly, EAP curriculum and assessment designers should recognise that genuine academic writing requires time for students to engage with sources, to reflect and to construct new knowledge. This study suggests that essays produced in timed and extended conditions are two different manifestations of the dynamic reading-to-write construct and that, if both types of writing are indeed demanded in the wider university, EAP programmes should support students in acquiring the most appropriate and effective skills for achieving success in both contexts.
    • Creating eWoM: perceived factors of celebrity chefs in the context of personal branding in the UK

      Halder, Andrina Nila (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-03)
      Electronic word of mouth (eWoM hereafter) represents a low-cost and powerful tool for companies to attract new customers. Despite the challenge in creating positive eWoM, celebrity chefs, as representative of personal branding, generate a significant amount of eWoM within their social media brand communities. Two recognised spectra of consumers’ brand-associated communications—eWoM and celebrity chefs in the perspective of personal branding—are the interest of this academic research. Up to now, these streams of literature have seen little intersection, as they typically take their distinct individual research directions. Regardless of frequent occurrence within the celebrity chef’s social media page (Relling et al., 2016) little is identified regarding eWoM triggered by the perceived factors of celebrity chefs. Nevertheless, as there is a non-existing connection in literature and a consequent lack of academic research linking celebrity chefs (in the perspective of personal branding) and eWoM, there is also inadequate understanding of what are the eWoM motivations triggered by celebrity chefs’ perceived factors. Moreover, as per the knowledge of the researcher, this is the first research which investigates why eWoM motivation does not lead to creating actual eWoM, or the intervening factors. This study follows a multi method qualitative approach and is in two segments. The first segment of the research conducts a Netnography study involving non-participant observation within the celebrity chefs’ social media brand communities. The second segment of the research has adopted a semi-structured interview method to explore the eWoM motivations for the generation of eWoM. Moreover, the interviews also explore the factors that intervene in the transformation of eWoM motivation to eWoM messages. The findings of this research highlight key perceived factors of celebrity chefs which trigger eWoM motivation. Moreover, the interview phase reveals eWoM motivations triggered by these factors. Some of the eWoM motivations identified will be a new contribution to the literature. Furthermore, the factors are explored in relation to why eWoM motivations do not create actual eWoM. As per the knowledge of the researcher, this is the first time intervening factors which do not lead eWoM motivation to create eWoM messages have been considered and researched in the context of celebrity chefs’ social media brand communities. At present, social media is an effective tool to attract customers by generating eWoM messages. This research has the potential to address celebrity chefs, or those who are interested in personal branding, social media regulators, social media strategists who can gain a profound understanding of which factors influence the social media participants in terms of creating positive and negative eWoM messages, and why the paticipants do so. Keywords: eWoM, celebrity chefs, social media marketing, personal branding, social media brand communities.
    • The relationship between attention and consciousness: evidence for phenomenal overflow

      Baldwin, Michael (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-03)
      There is an ongoing debate in the study of consciousness regarding the relationship between consciousness and attention. While it is widely accepted that attention and consciousness are two distinct processes, the debate is over the nature of the relationship, does consciousness overflow attention? Four experiments were carried out to investigate the relationship between consciousness and attention, using a modification of the visual search paradigm, searching for a target in a display of non-targets and pressing a key to indicate whether the target was present or not present. The same Methodology was used in all for experiments with eye tracking, to monitor the direction of the gaze. A gaze contingent display was used to disrupt the allocation of attention under two of the experimental conditions. Participants were instructed to search for a given target under three conditions, Constant, Variable and Moveable. In the Constant condition, the target remained when a fixation was made. In the Variable condition, the target changed to a non-target just prior to fixation, changing back to the target when the gaze moved away. In the third, Moveable condition, the target moved to another part of the display when an attempt was made at fixation, with further relocations on subsequent attempts at fixation. It was hypothesised that under the Variable and Moveable conditions increased levels of cognitive engagement as measured by fixation and fixation durations would indicate awareness of the target while still resulting in a failure to report. Study One, involved a feature search, searching for a target that differed from the background by colour, looking for a light red block in a display of dark red blocks. Participants failed to report the presence of the target on around 50% of the trials. The results suggested that participants were making more effort to determine that the target was not present than correctly reporting the presence of the target. Study Two involved s second feature search for orientation. The target was an angled bar in a display of vertical bars. Findings were consistent with Study One, failure to report occurring on around 50% of the trials. Again, failure to report was accompanied by more fixations on the target than correct report, indicating that participants were aware of the target, but were unable to focus attention. Study Three involved a search for higher order properties in terms of shape or form. In this case, looking for an oval in a display of circles. The findings supported those of the first two studies. Failure to report on around 50% of the trials, with a failure to report being accompanied by more fixations of the target than correct report Study four employed a conjunction search, looking for a green circle in a display of yellow circles and green squares. While there were less failures to report than the previous studies, overall findings were the same. Participants were fixating on the target more times before deciding it was not there than correct report. Overall, the findings from all four experiments were broadly similar. Increased levels of engagement in the Variable and Moveable conditions than the Constant condition, for both correct and incorrect report. Further, incorrect report was associated with higher levels of engagement than correct report. This was interpreted as evidence that awareness can occur outside of focal attention, supporting the consciousness first position. Further, that a failure to report does not necessarily been a lack of awareness. This interpretation is open to possible alternative explanations, which are discussed.
    • The impact of time allowances in an EAP reading-to-write argumentative essay assessment

      Bruce, Emma Louise (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-03)
      The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of time allowances on students’ source use, composing behaviour and performance, in a second language reading-to-write assessment context. Set within a language centre in a large Hong Kong university, this mixed-methods study incorporates quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative aspect focuses on an analysis of essay scores and lengths as well as reference types and uses, while the qualitative aspect incorporates retrospective questionnaires and discourse-based interviews to gain an understanding of students’ intentions, views and approach to composing. The synthesis of the countable data with students’ personal insights facilitated an understanding of the ways in which differences in source use and composing behaviour in the timed and extended conditions affected performance. The findings show that the majority of students preferred the extended condition as they valued the time to read the sources, think and reflect in a relaxed environment. Conversely, some students felt the time pressure elicited a heightened cognitive state, which enhanced their performance. Students tended to write over multiple sessions, engage more with the source texts and adopt a more recursive approach in the extended condition. In contrast, when composing under time pressure, students tended to reduce their engagement with the source texts in order to complete their essay. This rush to write the essay resulted in different reading strategies and a more knowledge-telling approach to composing. When students were given more time to write, mean word counts and mean essay scores were significantly higher. The top-performing students seemed to benefit most from the extra time. These writers experienced the biggest positive difference in essay length and scores, and displayed more instances of source-text use, but perhaps surprisingly they were more likely to embed their understanding of what they read into their own text without referencing the source material. The data suggest that, for higher-achieving students, the extra time resulted in an increased interaction with the source texts, which allowed them to take a more expert persona in their writing, impressing raters and leading to higher overall scores. The results have important implications for language teachers and test developers in EAP programmes. In particular, they demonstrate the paradox of implementing reading-to-write task types in an attempt to simulate the target language use context while failing to take account of the time required to engage in the appropriate academic literacy skills. Importantly, EAP curriculum and assessment designers should recognise that genuine academic writing requires time for students to engage with sources, to reflect and to construct new knowledge. This study suggests that essays produced in timed and extended conditions are two different manifestations of the dynamic reading-to-write construct and that, if both types of writing are indeed demanded in the wider university, EAP programmes should support students in acquiring the most appropriate and effective skills for achieving success in both contexts.
    • L2 writers' revisions in a computer-based academic English writing test task: a keystroke logging study

      Anbreen, Tanzeela (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020)
      This study investigated the revision patterns and purposes of forty native Urdu speaking English L2 writers in a computer-based academic English writing test task. The chosen writers were divided into a more successful and less successful group based on the score obtained in the given IELTS academic writing task 2. A keystroke logging program Inputlog recorded each writing session including all revisions, and it could be re-played after the session. From the recorded sessions, idea or meaning related revisions were further investigated. The writers were shown these revisions immediately after the session as a stimulus, and verbal protocols were obtained to investigate their revision purposes. The revisions obtained from keystroke logging program were analysed using a revision taxonomy based on Stevenson, Schoonen and Glopper (2006) and Lindgren and Sullivan (2006) studies. Findings suggested that in general, both groups focused on form revisions more than the concept revisions. But, more successful writers made conceptual revisions more than form revisions. Also, more successful writers revised larger text chunks, such as clause, sentence and paragraph. Both the groups reported seven revision purposes; however, eighth category 'writers did not remember' also emerged from the data. The seven revision purposes included clarity, explicitness or emphasis, coherence, hedging, modify an idea, eliminate an idea, creating a new global content unit and making text reader-friendly. However, more successful writers expressed more awareness of their revision purposes than less successful writers. The findings of this study have theoretical, pedagogical and methodological implications, particularly in the Urdu L1 context. These findings provide empirical evidence about the revision patterns and purposes of L2 writers which may be useful for the teachers or instructors teaching English writing to L2 writers, particularly to the Urdu speaking English L2 writers. They can use these findings to help them improve their writing skills by focusing on the revisions. However, future research in this area is suggested.
    • The effects of deductive, inductive and a combination of both types of grammar instruction in pre-sessional classes in higher education

      Giorgou Tzampazi, Stella (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-12)
      In recent years, debates continue about the efficiency of using different types of grammar instruction in language teaching contexts (Alzu‟ bi, 2015; Mahjoob, 2015; Brown, 2000; Ellis, 1997; Celce-Murcia, 1991; Krashen, 1982). Existing research is rather controversial and inconclusive and furthermore there is not any general agreement on how to approach grammar instruction: one basic dichotomy is connected with the processes of teaching grammar inductively (Krashen, 1985; Ke, 2008; Kuder, 2009; Scheffler, 2010; Gorat and Prijambodo, 2013; Alzu‟bi, 2015; Anani, 2017) versus deductively (Younie, 1974; Selinger, 1975; Pienemann, 1988; Anderson, 1990; Lee and VanPatten, 1995; Schmidt, 2001; Mountone, 2004; Nazari, 2012; Mallia, 2014; Sik, 2015; Amirghassemi, 2016). Some educators are in favour of the inductive grammar approach whereas others prefer the deductive approach (Ibid). University L2 pre-sessional students need to develop their understanding of EAP grammar which is essential for producing academic texts required for their studies and improve their score in ELAS writing exam. Having said that, which type of grammar instruction works better for university L2 students enrolled in pre-sessional classes: deductive, inductive, or combination of both? This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using deductive and inductive teaching models in teaching grammar needed for academic writing in terms of L2 pre-sessional students‟ grammar academic achievement. The current study, also, investigates university L2 pre-sessional students‟ perceptions and attitudes towards teaching grammar deductively and inductively. A quasi-experimental design and an ethnographic approach were used to collect data through the use of interviews, observations, questionnaires and diaries. Data analysis was performed using t-tests in order to analyse the relationship between different types of grammar instruction based on pre-post-tests. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the performances of each group in favour of the deductive approach. The results, also, revealed that university L2 pre-sessional students who were taught deductively or through the combination of the two types of grammar instruction performed slightly better as compared to those who were taught inductively. The study also contributed to the fact that teaching grammar through the use of both cognitive and prescriptive grammar may be the best solution in teaching contexts in higher education in EAP contexts.
    • The effect of breaking up sitting time on health markers and its implication for the workplace

      Maylor, Benjamin D. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-12)
      The primary aim of the work included in this thesis was to investigate the effects of breaking up sitting time on cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite. The three acute experimental chapters in this thesis sought to do this by examining postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, acylated ghrelin and total peptide YY. Additionally, subjective appetite, physical activity energy expenditure and energy intake were investigated. In study one, postprandial glycaemia was attenuated in young, healthy adult men when breaking up sitting every 20 min with 2 min moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) following a high glycaemic index breakfast, compared with an uninterrupted sitting condition. There was no attenuation in glucose observed if a low glycaemic index breakfast had been consumed, suggesting that in a metabolically healthy sample, breaking up sitting may only be beneficial when high glycaemic index meals are consumed. In study two, postprandial lipaemia was improved across an 8 h period when breaking up sitting every hour with a short, high-intensity PA bout compared with uninterrupted sitting. This strengthens the efficacy of short bouts of PA of a high-intensity as strategy to improve postprandial lipaemia. However, data from study one and three suggests that attenuating postprandial glucose or insulin may require more frequent breaks in sitting than hourly PA bouts. Studies two and three observed no changes in appetite regulating hormones. Despite this, there was a suppression in subjective appetite when participants engaged in hourly high-intensity PA bouts, suggesting that a minimum threshold of PA intensity is required to elicit these effects. However, despite moderate-intensity PA breaks in sitting not suppressing appetite, no compensatory responses were observed in appetite or energy intake, resulting in an acute relative energy deficit. These findings suggest that this type of activity regime could assist in weight management programmes. Study four sought to investigate the efficacy of a workplace cluster randomised controlled trial at reducing workplace sitting. The multicomponent intervention did not reduce workplace sitting time. However, time spent in prolonged sitting bouts (> 30 min) was reduced and stepping time increased. This was concomitant with reductions in waist circumference and an increase in fat-free mass, demonstrating that a low-cost, short-duration, multicomponent intervention can be effective in changing sedentary behaviour patterns in the workplace. Overall, this thesis adds to the current evidence examining the effects of breaking up sitting on postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite, in addition to demonstrating the efficacy of a short-term low-cost multicomponent intervention at reducing prolonged sitting in the workplace by using strategies similar to those examined in studies one and three. Chapter eight summarises the significance of the findings from all four experimental studies whilst synonymously highlighting future directions for research in this area of the field.
    • History assisted energy efficient spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks

      Syed, Tazeen Shabana (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-11-28)
      The ever-increasing wireless applications and services has generated a huge demand for the RF spectrum. The strict and rigid policy of spectrum management by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has rendered spectrum a valuable resource. The disproportion in the usage of spectrum between the licensed primary users (PUs) and the enormous unlicensed secondary users (SUs) in the band has created spectrum scarcity. This imbalance can be alleviated by the Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) based on Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) paradigm by significantly improving the efficiency of spectrum utilisation of the wireless networking systems. DSA enables unlicensed secondary users (SUs) also known as cognitive radios (CRs) to sense the spectral environment and access the licensed spectrum opportunistically without causing any interference to the licensed primary users (PUs). Spectrum sensing is the most prominent capability of CRs to effectively detect the presence or absence of licensed primary users (PUs) in the band. Sensing provides protection to primary users (PUs) from interference and creates opportunities of spectrum access to secondary users (SUs). However, scanning the spectrum continuously is critical and power intensive. The high-power consumption in battery operated CR devices reduces device lifetime thereby affecting the network performance. Research is being carried out to improve energy efficiency and offer viable solutions for extending lifetime for wireless devices. In this thesis, the work focuses on the energy efficient spectrum sensing of CR networks. The main aim is to reduce the percentage of energy consumption in the CR system in possible ways. Primarily, the conventional energy detection (ED) and the cyclostationary feature detection (CFD) spectrum sensing mechanisms were employed to sense the spectrum. Aiming on energy efficiency, a novel history assisted spectrum sensing scheme has been proposed which utilises an analytical engine database (AED). It generates a rich data set of spectrum usage history that can be used by CRs to make efficient sensing decisions modelled using Markov chain model. The usage of sensing history in decision making, results in decreasing the frequency of spectrum scanning by the CRs thereby reducing the processing cost and the sensing related energy consumption. It shows 17% improvement in energy saving compared to the conventional sensing scheme. The key performance parameters such as probability of miss detection (PMD), probability of false alarm (PF) and probability of detection (PD) were investigated using ROC curves. Extensive performance analysis is carried out by implementing two traditional sensing schemes ED and CFD in terms of computational cost and energy consumption and shows 50% improvement in effective energy saved by using history assisted spectrum sensing mechanism. Further, to address the high energy consumption during communication between CRs / stations (STAs) and the base station (BS), a novel energy efficient Group Control Slot allocation (GCSA) mac protocol has been proposed. Publish/Subscribe (PUB-SUB) and point-to-point messaging models have been implemented for data communication between BS, STAs and AED. The proposed mac protocol increases the number of STAs to enter in to sleep mode thereby conserving the energy consumed during idle state. Furthermore, cluster based co-operative spectrum sensing (CSS) is considered for reducing the energy utilised for data communication between CRs and BS by electing a cluster head (CH) using fuzzy logic-based clustering algorithm. The cluster head (CH) collects, aggregates data from cluster members and it is only the CHs that communicate to the BS. Thus, there is no communication between individual non-CH CRs and BS, thereby significantly reducing the energy consumption and improving the network lifetime of the CR system. Extensive simulations were performed in MATLAB and results are presented for all the proposed schemes.
    • Prediction of a water quality index using online sensor data

      Anyachebelu, Tochukwu Kene (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-11)
      Surface water quality is a dynamic quantity to deal with. There are factors which affect the surface water quality. These factors include weather changes, anthropogenic activities and urbanization. There is an underlying problem with water quality monitoring and management around the world especially in developing countries. Pollution outbreak in a Luton town lake in 2012 which killed a lot of fishes is one instance of such devastating outbreak and the underlying effects. This thesis is aimed at utilising measured data values for certain physico chemical parameters in the determination of surface water quality through analysis, indexing and model prediction. The physical parameters measured are temperature, conductivity and turbidity while the chemical parameters are dissolved oxygen, pH and ammonium. These parameters are measured at two locations on the Luton Hoo Lake which is used as our research study site to monitor the water quality and possible sources of contamination. Data with regards to the values of the different parameters is collected with the help of multi parameter probe sensors that were installed at the site in form of a remote monitoring station. Manual sampling of the water and collection of parameter value readings is also used to substantiate the values derived from the remote monitoring stations. A preliminary analysis is carried out using descriptive Statistics and correlation analysis to determine the dependencies between the various parameters measured for water quality monitoring. We evaluate the relationship of the measured parameters to contamination sources and its impact on the water quality as it affects aquatic life. With the correlation analysis, it is discovered that some of the parameters exhibited the expected relationship whereas some could not relatively show any dependence. This led to the need for further analysis to help in the parameter selection since the aim of this work is to use minimal parameters to establish the water quality status. It is determined that dissolved oxygen is the most important parameter compared to other measured parameters. This was actualized through the use of principal component analysis to identified the major components. Multiple linear regression is used to establish the relationship between Dissolved oxygen and the other measured parameters. The two locations being monitored exhibit the same trend from the results of the box plot analysis that was carried out. Dissolved oxygen is inversely proportional to Temperature which confirms the same trend pattern as exhibited by the correlation analysis. Principal component analysis helps in the establishment of the hierarchy of the parameters measured and the level of importance which determines the input parameters for the water quality index. This research work looked at various water quality indices developed by various researchers and discovered that most available indices were limited by the fact that the data collection was done manually. This work adopted the use of a tailored Water quality index with three parameters which are Dissolved oxygen, Conductivity and Turbidity. These parameters were selected based on the results derived from the Principal components analysis. Water quality index is a good way of uniquely rating the overall water quality status of a water body using a single term. In this research study, we utilised available water quality indices that have been developed through expert opinions and modified them to suit our requirements. The results obtained were satisfactory and proved that the use of minimal parameters can give a good indication of the water quality in same way as the use of many parameters. The minimal Water Quality Index is recommended where faster and more economical approach is needed in decision making with regards to water quality monitoring. A hybrid neural network is finally proposed for the prediction of parameters for water quality index which can be tailored based on the location of the surface water and the primary use of the surface water for the end users. The major problem of identifying a low cost way of monitoring surface waters for developing countries is achieved through the use of minimal parameters and the availability of the sensor probes in the market is of great importance to the work.
    • History assisted energy efficient spectrum sensing In cognitive radio networks

      Syed, Tazeen Shabana (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-11)
      The ever-increasing wireless applications and services has generated a huge demand for the RF spectrum. The strict and rigid policy of spectrum management by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has rendered spectrum a valuable resource. The disproportion in the usage of spectrum between the licensed primary users (PUs) and the enormous unlicensed secondary users (SUs) in the band has created spectrum scarcity. This imbalance can be alleviated by the Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) based on Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) paradigm by significantly improving the efficiency of spectrum utilisation of the wireless networking systems. DSA enables unlicensed secondary users (SUs) also known as cognitive radios (CRs) to sense the spectral environment and access the licensed spectrum opportunistically without causing any interference to the licensed primary users (PUs). Spectrum sensing is the most prominent capability of CRs to effectively detect the presence or absence of licensed primary users (PUs) in the band. Sensing provides protection to primary users (PUs) from interference and creates opportunities of spectrum access to secondary users (SUs). However, scanning the spectrum continuously is critical and power intensive. The high-power consumption in battery operated CR devices reduces device lifetime thereby affecting the network performance. Research is being carried out to improve energy efficiency and offer viable solutions for extending lifetime for wireless devices. In this thesis, the work focuses on the energy efficient spectrum sensing of CR networks. The main aim is to reduce the percentage of energy consumption in the CR system in possible ways. Primarily, the conventional energy detection (ED) and the cyclostationary feature detection (CFD) spectrum sensing mechanisms were employed to sense the spectrum. Aiming on energy efficiency, a novel history assisted spectrum sensing scheme has been proposed which utilises an analytical engine database (AED). It generates a rich data set of spectrum usage history that can be used by CRs to make efficient sensing decisions modelled using Markov chain model. The usage of sensing history in decision making, results in decreasing the frequency of spectrum scanning by the CRs thereby reducing the processing cost and the sensing related energy consumption. It shows 17% improvement in energy saving compared to the conventional sensing scheme. The key performance parameters such as probability of miss detection (PMD), probability of false alarm (PF) and probability of detection (PD) were investigated using ROC curves. Extensive performance analysis is carried out by implementing two traditional sensing schemes ED and CFD in terms of computational cost and energy consumption and shows 50% improvement in effective energy saved by using history assisted spectrum sensing mechanism. Further, to address the high energy consumption during communication between CRs / stations (STAs) and the base station (BS), a novel energy efficient Group Control Slot allocation (GCSA) mac protocol has been proposed. Publish/Subscribe (PUB-SUB) and point-to-point messaging models have been implemented for data communication between BS, STAs and AED. The proposed mac protocol increases the number of STAs to enter in to sleep mode thereby conserving the energy consumed during idle state. Furthermore, cluster based co-operative spectrum sensing (CSS) is considered for reducing the energy utilised for data communication between CRs and BS by electing a cluster head (CH) using fuzzy logic-based clustering algorithm. The cluster head (CH) collects, aggregates data from cluster members and it is only the CHs that communicate to the BS. Thus, there is no communication between individual non-CH CRs and BS, thereby significantly reducing the energy consumption and improving the network lifetime of the CR system. Extensive simulations were performed in MATLAB and results are presented for all the proposed schemes.
    • Human systems in motion: exploring the application of systemic ideas in teams navigating change

      Rød, Anne (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-10-17)
      This thesis explores how teams can constructively lead, be in and with, emergence and change, given the challenges they are faced with in today’s complex environment. By helping teams view change and changing as something that naturally occurs in their environments, combined with their own experience of change, the teams may approach, and be with change, in different ways. The title, ‘Human Systems in Motion’ speaks to the very essence of human existence; the transformational, relational and emerging nature of our beings. The target audience is leaders, teams and other practitioners in the organisational field offering an alternative approach to emergence and change processes. The research is situated in a social constructionist perspective foregrounding the meaningmaking and sense-making activities in the teams engaged with, and what awareness and possible responses and actions emerge from these. Social constructionism depicts the relational, also known as systemic processes, where the co- creation of reality is taking place inside the human interaction. Through a parallel autoethnographical account, I share my ‘come from place’ that has shaped the lens through which I – as a long-standing practitioner in the field of organisational change – view, approach and explore change in teams and organisations. It provides an overview of some of the main contributors to the theories of change to create an understanding of how change is often conducted in organisations today. Emergent approaches to the topic are explored through perspectives on systems and systemic thinking. It investigates the relevance of these ideas to teams in change, and also looks into some of the obstacles encountered in the face of emergence. The result is a model: The Wheel of Systemic Ideas. I follow three different teams, operating in different contexts but facing some kind of emerging change. Through Participatory Action Research sessions, the teams’ perception of, engagement with, and responses to, change are explored. The main and final part of the research engages the teams with the Wheel of Systemic Ideas. Each team explores its focus points in the change process, and to what extent the systemic ideas can facilitate the emerging change process. The research indicate that the model can be applied to different change topics and contexts, enabling conversations which break up binary thinking and the questions preferences for linear and normative approaches to change.
    • A general practice intervention targeting registration on the NHS Organ Donor Register

      Penn-Jones, Catrin Pedder (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-10-15)
      Background: There is a shortage of organs for transplant in the UK. Family consent is a critical part of the organ donation pathway, and prior knowledge of a person’s wishes makes this decision easier for families. The most effective way to express organ donation wishes is through registration as an organ donor. General practice is an underutilised setting for organ donation interventions, and is the only NHS setting which can put people directly on the organ donor register. Therefore, interventions could be developed in this setting to maximise the opportunities for UK residents to register their request to donate their organs after death. This thesis aims to explore this by developing and evaluating the feasibility of a general practice intervention designed to increase organ donor register sign-up in the UK. Methods: A literature review, systematic review, and theoretical review were conducted to establish a basis for the intervention. Intervention Mapping was then used to develop it based on these empirical and theoretical findings. Based on the IIFF model of organ donation registration, the intervention consisted of three parts; staff training, asking patients in consultations if they wished to join the NHS Organ Donor Register (prompted choice) and the provision of leaflets and posters in the waiting room. A single practice feasibility study was conducted to assess five dimensions; recruitment, data collection materials, resources, acceptability, and intervention promise. Intervention mapping was revisited to refine the intervention based on the single practice study findings. Results: Staff conducted prompted choice on 12.4% of face to face consultations they had with patients over three months, with 214 patients joining the NHS ODR. Some staff found prompted choice both feasible and acceptable, with opinions dependent on staff professional role. Responses to the training sessions were positive; however, although leaflets and posters were found to be feasible and acceptable, the majority of patients did not notice them. Significant challenges to implementation were found with SystmONE the practice software, the NHS Ethics process (particularly the confidentiality advisory group) and recruitment of practices. These resulted in the ultimate abandonment of a planned multi-practice feasibility randomised controlled trial. Conclusion/Discussion: These findings were positive and indicated that general practice could be an acceptable location to provide the facility to join the NHS ODR in the UK verbally. However, due to implementation issues, consideration is required as to how best to test the intervention further for feasibility. Recommendations include conducting a larger feasibility randomised controlled trial with more resources (people and financial), to help aid recruitment and the implementation of the required SystmONE elements. Contribution to Knowledge: This is the first academically tested intervention allowing people to sign-up to the NHS ODR verbally, and one of the first organ donation interventions in UK general practice. It is also the second intervention internationally to use Intervention Mapping for organ donation behaviour, and this thesis adds to the evidence base in each of these areas.