• An analysis of the mandatory admission criterion within youth justice diversionary processes

      Cushing, Karen (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2016-08)
      ‘To require old heads upon young shoulders is inconsistent with the law’s compassion to human infirmity’ (Lord Diplock in Director of Public Prosecutions v Camplin Appellant [1978] AC 717)’. For young people in England and Wales who offend, diversion from formal proceedings has historically been a principle constituent of youth justice policy and practice, and presently accounts for over a third of all outcomes for detected youth offending (Youth Justice Board for England and Wales, 2015). Although attitudes concerning diversion have often oscillated between favour and criticism, and there has rarely been a period of sustained consensus or constancy of processes (Bernard, 1992; Goldson, 2010), eligibility for an out of court disposal has traditionally been dependent on an admission of some form being made by a young person. This thesis seeks to place the evolution of diversionary measures for young people who commit low level offences or engage in nuisance behaviours into a contextual and historical context, and explore why an admission has become, in the absence of any discernible political, academic or professional considerations, a central tenet of diversionary policies in England and Wales. Potential barriers which may prevent some young people making an admission and unnecessarily losing eligibility for an out of court disposal are considered, as well as the nature and standard of admission expected from young people, and the circumstances in which admissions are usually sought from them. This thesis also explores whether the mandatory admission criterion is compatible with other statutory and international obligations to consider the welfare of a young person when determining a suitable disposal, and whether it sufficiently distinguishes between young people unwilling to make an admission and those who may feel unable to. The thesis seeks to identify the gaps in current academic and professional knowledge concerning whether some young people may unnecessarily forfeit eligibility for a diversionary outcome for the sole reason that they do not make an admission. The research undertaken with relevant professionals’ endeavours to fill these gaps by exploring the practical application of the admission criterion, as well considering any suitable alternatives within the existing statutory regime.
    • An analysis of the narratives of Omani women entrepreneurs

      Al-Moosa, Hadil (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-03)
      This is a study of 29 Omani women entrepreneurs’ narratives in Oman. Entrepreneurship has been officially sanctioned as an activity since January 2013 in Oman; thus the concept of being an entrepreneur is still is very new. Based on my experience, I realised the way Omani women understand and practise entrepreneurship is quite different to the Western understanding of the concept. Indeed, more critical entrepreneurship research has recognised that the Western literature of entrepreneurship is inadequate to represent the experience of non-Western women entrepreneurs; and this research calls for more culturally relevant studies. Therefore, this study takes a social constructionist narrative approach to exploring first, to explore how the concept of entrepreneurship is understood by these women; and second, to explore their practices and their understanding of the perceived contextual influences that shape their doings of entrepreneur-ing. Interviews with 29 women were carried out and analysed using narrative approach and the results supported the view that Western literature is inadequate to represent the experience of Omani women entrepreneurs. Key findings were that understandings of the concept of entrepreneurship are rather confused and contradictory; which reinforces the idea of newness. However, the newness seems to be in the term, but not the activity. Thus, entrepreneurship is perceived as equivalent to traditional home-business, which reinforces gender stereotypes; and although entrepreneurship is perceived as gender-neutral, it is not so in practice. Also, the perceived key contextual influences that are identified are: first, tribalism, which seems to overshadow gender and qualification; second, government interventions, which have shaped how entrepreneurship is practised; third, family, which evolves around the male relatives’ involvement in women’s entrepreneurship; and finally, religion/culture, which are embodied mainly in terms of fate and appearance (attire). The conclusions are: the areas that are identified in this study are mostly new insights and have not been recognised in the current mainstream Western literature, such as tribalism. Some areas contradict the Western studies, such as the notion of fatalism; while some areas are recognised in the current mainstream literature, such as family – but the way in which it plays out in Omani women entrepreneurs’ experience differs from the Western women’s entrepreneurship in the mainstream literature.
    • An analysis of the practice and theory of the advertising of consumer services: creation of a framework for effective advertising

      Mortimer, Kathleen (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2003-06)
      The objective of this study was to establish whether consumer services need to be advertised differently from goods and, if so, in what way. A review of the services advertising and the general advertising literature revealed discrepancies between not only the services advertising theory and generic advertising theory but also between services advertising theory and services advertising practice. Exploratory research and a further literature review were undertaken to investigate the rationale and any justification for these inconsistencies. The programme of research culminated into a services consumer behaviour and advertising framework that was tested and verified. Phase one of the empirical research consisted of two pieces of exploratory analysis, which examined the UK advertising industry from different angles to establish how consumer services are advertised. Firstly, a content analysis of 270 service and goods advertisements was performed to compare the amount and type of information they contained. Secondly, nine in-depth personal interviews with advertising practitioners were conducted to explore their views on how services should be advertised. A discussion of the findings from the exploratory research and a further literature review led to the development of fourteen hypotheses. Phase two also comprised of two pieces of empirical research. Firstly, the hypotheses were tested by undertaking a questionnaire survey, which explored the buying behaviour of 400 consumers who had recently purchased a variety of different consumer services. The results from the survey were then utilised, alongside further advertising literature, to create advertising guidelines which were compared with the executional tools utilised in a selection of award winning, successful service advertisements. The final framework classifies services into four groups: high involvement utilitarian, high involvement experiential, low involvement utilitarian and low involvement experiential. The buying behaviour relevant to each category in terms of information search and evaluation is provided. In addition, the influences of motivation and opportunity as well as the involvement dimensions i.e. importance and interest, are included. The framework also contains appropriate advertising appeals and specific executional guidelines for each classification.
    • Antireflection and self‐cleaning structures for solar cells using laser interference nanolithography

      Zhao, Le (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015-09)
      This research comprehensively reviews the properties of regular micro and nano structures fabricated by laser interference lithography and reports on their applications in the antireflection and self‐cleaning surface. The research systematically investigates the laser interference lithography technology taking into account its advantages and abilities to realize various potential applications. Multiple‐beam interference lithography systems are constructed. Laser interference interaction with silicon wafer is analysed and the optical and hydrophobic properties are obtained via measurements. In order to fabricate the extremely low reflection and very large contact angle for solar cells, fabrication methods of antireflection and self‐cleaning are surveyed and their advantages and disadvantages compared. The research investigates the effect of heat transfer and the radiation of laser interference plasma on silicon wafer surfaces and proposes equations of heat flow and radiation effects of laser plasma of interfering patterns in a four‐beam laser interference distribution. Following the irradiation, the silicon wafer surface is covered with a periodic array of micrometer and nanometer‐sized structures, which have the shape of grating, cone and hole. The research also investigates the effect of different laser parameters on the optical and hydrophobic properties of the structured silicon wafer surface. The results of periodic hexagonally‐distributed hole structures fabricated by three‐beam laser interference reveals excellent design guidelines for obtaining an extremely low solar‐weighted reflection, (SWR, 1.86%) and relatively large contact angle (140°) which can provide a strong self‐cleaning capability on the solar cell surface. In addition, the research creates a novel dual structure with antireflection and superhydrophobic properties fabricated by three‐beam laser interference lithography. The fabrication method is three‐beam laser interference combined with focused laser processing interacting on the silicon wafer surface. This kind of structure has a very low SWR (3.6 %) and extremely large contact angle which is more than 150° in the wavelength range from 380 nm to 780 nm. The research shows that the laser interference lithography technology can be employed and further developed to fabricate micro and nano structures of strong antireflection and self‐cleaning functions for applications in solar cells.
    • The Apothecary's Tales: a game of language in a language of games

      Robinson, Nigel John (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2009-08)
      The thesis shows how the novel The Apothecary's Tales manipulates narrative frames to create a 'simulachron', an unreliable virtual world, which problematises the reader's conceptions of the past. The novel transgresses the generic rules of 'historical fiction' to create a quality of 'historicity' located in the affect of alterity. This is argued to be a somatic response to peril deferred. The novel seeks to evoke alterity by defamiliarising linguistic norms. It does this principally through the use of 'diachronic polysemia' (lexical 'false friends') and intertexts to syncopate the reader continually between the disparate sensibilities of the 1ih and 21 st centuries. These sensibilities are simulated in the novel by the imbedment of sociolects and 'hypomemes', the tacit thoughtways supposed peculiar to a given milieu. To self-authenticate its fictions, the novel employs the 'parafictive' devices of a testamentary found artifact, an unreliable narrator and editor, plausible sociologuemes (social conventions) and ideologuemes (ideologies that inform behaviour), along with a density of period minutiae putatively grounded in the record. Any truth effects achieved are then ludically subverted by a process of critique in which structural units of the novel systematically parody the other. The novel is patterned in the structure of a nested diptych, of expositions contra posed in a mutual commentary, which extends from the defining templates of plot and episode to the micro levels of morphemes in polysemic wordplay. The tropes of nested framing and repetition of form and syntagm are defined in the thesis, respectively, as encubi/atio and 'emblematic resonance'. It is argued that these tropes, encoded in a fictive discourse that defies closure, provide a simulation of hermetic form that -when mapped upon the aleatory life world -can be productive of aesthetic affect. The agonistic elements of plot and incident in the novel are figured within the tapas of theatre, foregrounded by the duplicitous self-fashioning of the characters, and by the continual metaleptic shifts or 'frame syncopation' of narrative viewpoint, both intra and extra-diegetic. Frame syncopation is used advisedly to dilemmatise significations at both the structural and syntagmatic levels. The thesis contends that such contrived collisions of narrative interpretation may be the dynamic of affectivity in all aesthetic discourse.
    • The application of traditional Chinese aesthetic principles to contemporary international design

      Dong, Ren Wen (University of Bedfordshire, 2006-02)
      The Application of Traditional Chinese Aesthetic Principles to Contemporary International Design. This is a submission by publication consisting of 13 major design projects and an accompanying research report. China is undergoing phenomenal economic growth that is having a major impact on the social and cultural development of the Republic. Accompanying the growth is an unprecedented urbanisation of the population and expansion of the cities. This has meant an explosion in the building industries. At the same time China is moving towards the central position in the global economy that also has huge cultural implications. This is the context in which I have pursued my professional practice as an interior and architectural designer. Some of the questions I have been attempting to address through my practice arise directly out of this context. In the fast expansion of the field of interior design that has accompanied this growth it is vital that Chinese designers are aware of the cultural context of their work. Is it possible for Chinese designers working in the developing international context of contemporary design projects in China to make a unique contribution to the field that is specifically Chinese? This presentation of my practice will provide a cohesive argument for an approach to design in the international arena that remains specific to the cultural and temporal context of its origins. I will specifically demonstrate solutions I have found to the application of ancient Chinese aesthetic principles to contemporary international design problems. As practice-based research I have given much thought to the methodologies I have employed. I will provide a detailed outline of these 'action' research methodologies and definitions of the types of knowledge employed in the following report. The visual evidence is also accompanied by descriptions of the projects including the briefs, design solutions and specific Chinese characteristics. The presentation of my practice in this form provides evidence of the ways in which cultural specificity can be maintained within the international design arena and makes a meaningful contribution to debates and knowledge in the area of cultural diversity and design.
    • Applying the finite-difference time-domain to the modelling of large-scale radio channels

      Rial, Alvaro Valcarce (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2010-08-24)
      Finite-difference models have been used for nearly 40 years to solve electromagnetic problems of heterogeneous nature. Further, these techniques are well known for being computationally expensive, as well as subject to various numerical artifacts. However, little is yet understood about the errors arising in the simulation of wideband sources with the finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) method. Within this context, the focus of this thesis is on two different problems. On the one hand, the speed and accuracy of current FDTD implementations is analysed and increased. On the other hand, the distortion of numerical pulses is characterised and mitigation techniques proposed. In addition, recent developments in general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) have unveiled new methods for the efficient implementation of FDTD algorithms. Therefore, this thesis proposes specific GPU-based guidelines for the implementation of the standard FDTD. Then, metaheuristics are used for the calibration of a FDTD-based narrowband simulator. Regarding the simulation of wideband sources, this thesis uses first Lagrange multipliers to characterise the extrema of the numerical group velocity. Then, the spread of numerical Gaussian pulses is characterised analytically in terms of the FDTD grid parameters. The usefulness of the proposed solutions to the previously described problems is illustrated in this thesis using coverage and wideband predictions in large-scale scenarios. In particular, the indoor-to-outdoor radio channel in residential areas is studied. Furthermore, coverage and wideband measurements have also been used to validate the predictions. As a result of all the above, this thesis introduces first an efficient and accurate FDTD simulator. Then, it characterises analytically the propagation of numerical pulses. Finally, the narrowband and wideband indoorto-outdoor channels are modeled using the developed techniques.
    • An appreciative inquiry into leadership sense-making and possibilities: a story of values in action

      Oljemark, Kicki (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-05)
      The first question you might ask yourself when you start reading this thesis could possibly be: what is it that makes this research important, interesting, and worth reading? The answer could only be found in the eyes of the beholder and when you join in on the journey you will discover your own meaning. My wish is to contribute with views and a space for reflection that can inspire leaders to look at and act on possibilities within leadership. In many ways this research might challenge traditional ways of thinking and doing research with its aim to contribute with the uniqueness of how sense-making can be developed through the perspective of systemic practice research. In systemic practice research my own practice and development becomes very important. This includes how I understand and interpret issues related to the research question and how my understanding emerges during the research process. Ways to develop systemic practice in general for the future also becomes important. The thesis explores stories leaders tell about how they make sense of leadership and possibilities they see. This also includes me and how I have made sense. Systemic practice could be described as a reflexive and reflecting practice. This means that I will share my own reflections through the whole thesis. My learnings from this research journey could also be seen as emerging through the reflections I have made during the process. The method is inspired by systemic and social constructionist perspectives related to practice research and also grounded theory. The sense I have made and express in this thesis is inevitably intertwined with experiences from past and present but also with hopes for the future, issues I would like to address for the future. The learning is partly influenced by interviews with leaders from different fields. Their sense-making has been summarised in themes that are explored and connected with and complemented with theoretical perspectives. The thesis highlights leaders’ personal and professional development as intertwined in an infinite process. The research also casts light on exploring aspects connected to values and ethics. From this journey a conceptualising of a leadership relational ethical compass and an organisational relational ethical compass has been developed. It shows that if we are grounded in values we also can be guided by these values in our leadership. But our values also need to be transformed in a meaningful and useful way to our employees and in relation to the mission we have. Leadership possibilities that arise could be seen as the aesthetics of leadership and how leadership is noticed and experienced. Often, small actions make a huge difference; how we think, communicate, and the words we use all create worlds and invite people into different patterns and meaning making conversations that are more or less helpful. The thesis highlights the importance of being comfortable with oneself and the mission as a leader. The thesis pays interest to how leaders’ self-development is intertwined with the potential of the organisation. Leaders can always increase their ability to interact with others in a meaningful and constructive way. This also shows that the mind-set we have as leaders plays an important role in how we experience our mission and the possibilities we see. The thesis is built on the idea of different domains. The introduction and methodology part represents what we can call the production domain. After this you will be invited to my personal domain and stories from my life that has influenced my sense-making. The next part will show some of the results and reflections that have arisen from interviews and will from this view take part of the production domain combined with reflections. The last chapter could be seen as my reflexive domain; how I have interwoven learning from the whole and come to certain hypotheses. The aesthetical domain could be seen as the overall how; how I have put it all together, the language and approach I have used, and how I have lived my values. This thesis and the research could also be seen as built on four parts: My professional development which is my systemic leadership practice. Developing systemic leadership practice in general. Focus on conducting systemic practice research which could be seen as in its birth. Interviews with leaders and connection to their understanding to increase aspects of leadership, sense-making and possibilities.
    • Aspects of the biology of polar pycnogonids

      Richards, Peter Robin (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1976-10)
      The internal morphology of fixed specimens of Antarctic pycnogonids WDS examined. Theories postulated during the course of these histological studies were then tested and modified by observations on live material and specimens fixed specially for histochemistry on visits both to the Arctic and d Antarctic. Live material was also transported back to Britain from these regions and cultured in refrigerated marine aquaria. The digestive system was studied in considerable detail. It is suggested that digestion is intracellular with gut cells changing their morphology during their lifetime. Embryo cells develop into Absorptive cells which at some stage take up a glandular appearance but not a glandular function. There are therefore two gut cell types, 'Embryo' and 'Absorptive/glandular'; this is in disagreement with some previous authors who separate the latter. The rele of the gut cell in the light of present day lysosome theory is discussed and a re-interpretation of work by previous authors suggested. It is found that the digestive process is slow and the prey tastes of the species studied, catholic. Furthermore, it is found that some species can survive for long periods without appearing to feed. Suggestions are made as to the significance and mechanisms of these phenomena. Mass transport in the body cavities is considered flnd compared with that of Hydra, an animal with which previous authors have made comparisons; - their philosophy is questioned. Blood flow, heartbeat and intestine movements are also considered and suggestions for future studies made. The role of blood itself is studied a possible clotting system described. Preliminary experiments on blood electrophoresis and chromatography indicate that such techniques may be useful in clarifying some complexities of pycnogonid classification and might provide a means by which future workers in the field might better link nutritional state, mass transport, digestion and external environment conditions.
    • Aspects of the population biology of the cyst nematode parasites of oilseed rape

      Bowen, Simon Andrew; University of Bedfordshire; Luton College of Higher Education (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1988)
      Investigation of the host-parasite relationship between oilseed rape, Heterodera cruciferae and H. schachtii has shown that the rate of hatching, development and reproduction is strongly influenced by temperature, two possible generations occurring on an autumn-sown crop. H.schachtii preferred warmer temperatures, hatched and reproduced more than H. cruciferae. Comparisons between newly-formed eggs in cysts and egg sacs showed that their different hatching responses were related to their physiology; cyst-bound eggs hatched poorly whereas juveniles hatched readily from egg sacs and facilitated the early establishment of a second generation. Multiplication of both species varied greatly between cultivars and differences in hatching and multiplication were attributed to the effects of plant growth and intrinsic differences between cultivars. Plant age influenced the hatching activity of root diffusates and nematode development. Multiplication rates of single and mixed species populations declined with increaSing initial population density indicating that intraspecific competition and root damage limited population growth. Nematodes multiplied synergistically in concomitant infestations suggesting that interspecific competition was less important. In a damage assessment test, root and shoot growth of nematodeinfested plants was reduced and the increased accumulation of calcium in their shoots indicated that they used water less efficiently than uninfested plants. These effects were density-dependent and H.schachtii was more damaging than H.cruciferae. Tolerance to nematode attack was attributed to good root establishment. The rate of decline of H.cruciferae populations varied with time, soil depth and between populations; low soil moisture and temperature favouring nematode survival. The role of weeds as ~maintainer hosts' of H.cruciferae was assessed but considered negligible. Nematode population dynamics were simulated using a computer model. Population densities fluctuated considerably under typical crop rotations but large populations had generally declined to less damaging levels before a host was cropped again. It was indicated that a long run of non-hosts or nematicide use would achieve better control of H.schachtii than H.cruciferae.
    • Assessing the feasibility of using system dynamics in the evaluation of shared service centres

      Asante, Gregory Nathaniel Sekyi (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-01)
      In order to make businesses more effective and efficient, various approaches have been proposed to improve business structures and processes so as to better support corporate objectives. From the 1990’s onwards, enabled by advances in computer technology, one popular approach has been to develop a Shared Service Centre (SSC), whereby various (mostly back office) activities previously organised and attached to separate business units (often) on a national / regional basis, have been consolidated into a single SSC. In common with other business process improvement / re-engineering projects, the success of these transformations have been varied with both successes and failures reported. From the available literature, it was determined that the SSC transformation process especially with regards to the use of a decision support system such as System Dynamics (SD), that will allow for experimentation by SSC implementers has not been rigorously researched or published and thus this is the gap in knowledge that this research seeks to address. This research uses a multiple paradigm / mixed method (exploratory sequential) research approach (Case Study and System Dynamics). This research contends that, given the patchy outcomes, significant cost implications and the adverse impact on organisations when the SSC Transition / Transformation process fails, the current SSC Transition approaches (methodology) have not been effective. Given that the objective of the SSC Transition approach is to ensure a smooth implementation of the proposed Shared Service Centre, this research argues that a simulation approach, grounded in systems thinking, is a credible way of examining the transformation process and evaluating both the transition methodology and the potential outcomes from that process. This research therefore proposes the use of a decision support system (System Dynamics / Simulation) perspective as a credible way of evaluating Shared Service Centres prior to designing and building them and to enhance the project management methodology for SSCs. Furthermore, the research depicts the cause / effect relationship among the SSC Critical Success Factors. Policy intervention tools can then be generated to mitigate against any adverse findings. The research findings showed that, the proposed Shared Service Centre is impacted by three main factors, the selection of a service delivery model, SSC Critical Success Factors and the SSC Phases; and that there is a cause / effect relationship among the SSC Critical Success Factors. In addition, the motives and critical success factors for organisational change were also found to be applicable to SSCs; and that during the SSC Transition phase, SSC Critical Success Factors, Staff Management and the Management of Transactional Activities were found to be important for a successful transition. A further contribution to knowledge is that the use of SD enables the testing of the SSC phenomenon in a new setting. For future research, the constructed SD model can be used as a basis for future organisational SSC Transitions and policy development.
    • Assessing the harm inside: a study contextualising boys' self-harm in custody

      Harrison, Poppy (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2016-12)
      Concerns about suicide and self-harm in English prisons are not new (Third report of the commissioners of prisons, 1880, cited in Liebling, 1992). However, a distinct system of intervention and custody for children (as established by the Crime and Disorder Act 1998) is relatively modern, and as such contextual studies about self-harm have largely, to date, overlooked children as a discrete group existing within a separate framework from adults. Similarly, large-scale research exploring self-harm among children in community settings has largely excluded the group of marginalised young people who come to the attention of youth justice services. This study presents a unique analysis of 181 youth justice assessments (‘Assets’) for boys who were remanded or sentenced to custody in under-18 Young Offender Institutions during 2014-15, tracing the subjects of the assessments from the communities they offended in through to a period in custody, using incident reports completed whilst they were there. What results is a contextual study examining the characteristics of the boys and their behaviour in custody. The study considers two central hypotheses: first, that to result in meaningful and supportive interventions, a definition of self-harm among the boys in the research sample often needs to include the harm they have done to their own lives (what the middle classes might call their ‘prospects’) through offending, and, second, that children who display the common traits of self-harming behaviour in custody may be identifiable by a different set of characteristics and needs from those who self-harm in the community. The author concludes that there is a previously undefined set of risk factors which can be applied to children who self-harm in custody for the first time, moving beyond the known risks associated with adolescent self-harm in the general population. Furthermore, it is found that boys who self-harm in custody are often oing so to exercise agency in an environment where they have very limited power, in circumstances defined not only by the restriction of liberty they are experiencing, but by the difficulties they experienced before coming to custody. Recommendations are made as to how policy-makers, through the current reforms to the youth justice system and a revised approach to assessments upon entry to custody, and practitioners, through increased awareness and improved recording of children’s views can more appropriately intervene in these boys’ lives to benefit them and society more widely.
    • An assessment of the strategies guiding the role of the end-user in consumer durable new product development

      Denney, Fiona Claire (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2004-05)
      This study examines the strategies that guide the role of end-users in new product development (NPD) in UK consumer durable firms. NPD success factor literature identifies the involvement of the end-user and a focus on their needs as important contributors to product success. The predominantly scientific and industrial focus of these studies means that there is, however, little information on how companies in consumer markets involve users to achieve successful products. This study fills a gap by examining the role of product users in the development of successful consumer durable products in UK firms. The products were identified through the use of a success scale developed from Griffin and Page 1993, 1996, and the award of the Millennium Product marque. An inductive approach utilising both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed and the study identified discrete groups of users involved for specific purposes in the product development process. Two strategies were identified as guiding userinvolvement: in the Expediency strategy, employees or 'internal users' were involved for rapid testing of designs where speed-to-market was considered to be a key competitive factor. The Risk Reduction strategy involved both external and internal users when products were more complex and a focus on product quality and getting it 'right first time' were important. It was also found that the firms either developed products based on their own interpretation of the users' needs, 'consumer-driven', or driven by retailers' demands and suggestions, 'retailer-driven'. Following further testing with all sixty-five products, it was concluded that the perceived complexity of the product determined which strategy was chosen, and the level of market orientation in the firm established the driver. This thesis extends the NPD success-factor literature by establishing that the involvement of users is a contributor to successful consumer durable product development. It also identifies 'internal users' as a previously unrecognised group of users and relates the use of different groups of users to two distinct strategies. The Risk Reduction and Expediency strategies also extend the 'first-mover advantage' literature by concluding that products developed with the Risk Reduction Strategy were more successful than those that used an Expediency Strategy. Although these products were not usually first-to-market they benefited from being of superior quality.
    • The associations between clubhead velocity and kinetic variables during vertical jumps and an isometric mid-thigh pull in golfers

      Wells, Jack E.T. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-04)
      A greater number of golfers are devoting time engaging in strength and conditioning due to the associated competitive advantages through increased clubhead velocity. Strength and conditioning coaches are able to support golfers through physical profiling in order to highlight areas of improvement. Based on the results from physical profiling, strength and conditioning coaches can implement interventions targeted at increasing clubhead velocity. However, there is currently a paucity of research that has sought to assess the relationship between clubhead velocity and kinetic mechanisms in commonly used strength and conditioning tests such as vertical jumps and isometric mid-thigh pulls. This thesis had two aims which were to 1) investigate the relationships between clubhead velocity and kinetic mechanisms in vertically oriented tasks and 2) identify optimal training modalities that enhance clubhead velocity along with the kinetic mechanisms associated with these changes. The findings within Chapter three highlighted that the TrackMan and Bel SwingMate had high inter-session reliability when measuring clubhead velocity in an applied range setting. The smallest detectable change indicated that practitioners can be 95% confident an increase in clubhead velocity of 0.76 m.s-1 (TrackMan) and 1.42 m.s-1 (Bel SwingMate) represents a ‘real’ change. The TrackMan had the highest reliability and the smallest detectable change; therefore, this launch monitor was utilised to assess clubhead velocity within this thesis. It was observed in Chapter four that positive impulse during a countermovement jump, squat jump and drop jump, along with peak force during an isometric mid-thigh pull significantly related to highly skilled golfers’ (n = 27) clubhead velocity. Furthermore, results highlighted that activities less constrained by time held the strongest relationships. These findings were further supported by Chapter five when assessing elite golfers. Specifically, European Challenge Tour golfers’ (n = 31) countermovement jump positive impulse significantly predicted 37.9% of the variance in clubhead velocity. Further analysis highlighted that if a European Challenge Tour golfer were to increase their countermovement jump positive impulse by 46.85 N.s, this should elicit an increase in clubhead velocity of 1.69 m.s-1. The golf swing is considered to be an asymmetrical action due to the vertical ground reaction forces and the nature of the swing. Chapter six therefore assessed the relationships between highly skilled golfers’ clubhead velocity and inter-limb asymmetries during bilateral countermovement jumps, squat jumps, drop jumps and isometric mid-thigh pulls. Inter-limb difference for the entire cohort (n = 50) and golfers with ‘real’ asymmetries had no significant relationship with clubhead velocity. There was also limited agreement between limbs for different tests. For instance, if an asymmetry favoured the trail leg for a countermovement jump, this limb was unlikely to present the same dominance within other tests. Therefore, it is the magnitude rather than the inter-limb differences that relate to clubhead velocity in highly skilled golfers. Chapter seven assessed the effects two different 8-week interventions (back squat vs. vertical jump) had on vertical ground reaction force variables and clubhead velocity when compared to a control group. Findings indicated that both the back squat group (n = 9) and vertical jump group (n = 9) significantly increased clubhead velocity, with no observed change in the control group (n = 8). Isometric mid-thigh pull peak force significantly increased in the back squat and jump groups and was the mechanism associated with these changes in clubhead velocity. For golfers who are seeking to increase their clubhead velocity, resistance training should form an integral part of their annual programme.
    • Attack graph approach to dynamic network vulnerability analysis and countermeasures

      Hamid, Thaier K.A. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-03)
      It is widely accepted that modern computer networks (often presented as a heterogeneous collection of functioning organisations, applications, software, and hardware) contain vulnerabilities. This research proposes a new methodology to compute a dynamic severity cost for each state. Here a state refers to the behaviour of a system during an attack; an example of a state is where an attacker could influence the information on an application to alter the credentials. This is performed by utilising a modified variant of the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), referred to as a Dynamic Vulnerability Scoring System (DVSS). This calculates scores of intrinsic, time-based, and ecological metrics by combining related sub-scores and modelling the problem’s parameters into a mathematical framework to develop a unique severity cost. The individual static nature of CVSS affects the scoring value, so the author has adapted a novel model to produce a DVSS metric that is more precise and efficient. In this approach, different parameters are used to compute the final scores determined from a number of parameters including network architecture, device setting, and the impact of vulnerability interactions. An attack graph (AG) is a security model representing the chains of vulnerability exploits in a network. A number of researchers have acknowledged the attack graph visual complexity and a lack of in-depth understanding. Current attack graph tools are constrained to only limited attributes or even rely on hand-generated input. The automatic formation of vulnerability information has been troublesome and vulnerability descriptions are frequently created by hand, or based on limited data. The network architectures and configurations along with the interactions between the individual vulnerabilities are considered in the method of computing the Cost using the DVSS and a dynamic cost-centric framework. A new methodology was built up to present an attack graph with a dynamic cost metric based on DVSS and also a novel methodology to estimate and represent the cost-centric approach for each host’ states was followed out. A framework is carried out on a test network, using the Nessus scanner to detect known vulnerabilities, implement these results and to build and represent the dynamic cost centric attack graph using ranking algorithms (in a standardised fashion to Mehta et al. 2006 and Kijsanayothin, 2010). However, instead of using vulnerabilities for each host, a CostRank Markov Model has developed utilising a novel cost-centric approach, thereby reducing the complexity in the attack graph and reducing the problem of visibility. An analogous parallel algorithm is developed to implement CostRank. The reason for developing a parallel CostRank Algorithm is to expedite the states ranking calculations for the increasing number of hosts and/or vulnerabilities. In the same way, the author intends to secure large scale networks that require fast and reliable computing to calculate the ranking of enormous graphs with thousands of vertices (states) and millions of arcs (representing an action to move from one state to another). In this proposed approach, the focus on a parallel CostRank computational architecture to appraise the enhancement in CostRank calculations and scalability of of the algorithm. In particular, a partitioning of input data, graph files and ranking vectors with a load balancing technique can enhance the performance and scalability of CostRank computations in parallel. A practical model of analogous CostRank parallel calculation is undertaken, resulting in a substantial decrease in calculations communication levels and in iteration time. The results are presented in an analytical approach in terms of scalability, efficiency, memory usage, speed up and input/output rates. Finally, a countermeasures model is developed to protect against network attacks by using a Dynamic Countermeasures Attack Tree (DCAT). The following scheme is used to build DCAT tree (i) using scalable parallel CostRank Algorithm to determine the critical asset, that system administrators need to protect; (ii) Track the Nessus scanner to determine the vulnerabilities associated with the asset using the dynamic cost centric framework and DVSS; (iii) Check out all published mitigations for all vulnerabilities. (iv) Assess how well the security solution mitigates those risks; (v) Assess DCAT algorithm in terms of effective security cost, probability and cost/benefit analysis to reduce the total impact of a specific vulnerability.
    • Attitudes and perceptions of HIV-infected pregnant women towards the use of antiretroviral therapy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

      Major, Puremeluan Baldwin (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-02-20)
      Background Despite several initiatives, the number of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in Nigeria remains low. In 2016, only 32% of HIV-infected pregnant women received ART to prevent MTCT of HIV. Evidence suggests that attitudes and perceptions of pregnant women with HIV influence their use of ART. However, limited evidence exists about HIV-infected pregnant women’s attitudes and perceptions towards ART in Nigeria. Aim This study aims to improve the understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of HIV-infected pregnant women towards the use of antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Method The study utilises an exploratory sequential mixed methods design, consisting of qualitative and quantitative phases. In the first phase, 24 HIV-infected antenatal attendees were purposively selected. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted for all 24 participants. Interviews explored pregnant women’s attitudes and perceptions towards the use of ART for PMTCT. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. In the second phase, a sample size of 264 was statistically determined. Simple random sampling was used to select the 264 participants who attended antenatal clinics during the period the study was conducted. A survey questionnaire was administered, 260 participants responded to the questionnaire. The survey examined how pregnant women’s attitudes and perceptions influence their use of antiretroviral therapy, as well as the influence of socio-demographic factors on their attitudes towards ART. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS.
    • Attitudes towards food safety within selected countries of the European hotel industry

      Knowles, Timothy David (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1999-06)
      This thesis examines the important and topical issue of food safety among member states of the European Union. After tracing the development of related legislation, a review of the literature focuses on its management within the European hotel industry. In attempting to account for differences in attitudes and practice towards food safety, the study explores the respective application oftwo opposing theoretical positions. The first, known as divergence theory, which tends to equate culture with nationality, maintains that variation is attributable to inter-country differences in norms and values. The second, convergence theory, argues that culture is more appropriately understood in the organisational sense as functioning at the corporate level of the hotel. Hence, under the latter perspective, an explanation of variance is more likely to be derived from differences in type or ethos of hotel (whether chain or independent) and the ways that they are structured according to mode ofoperation, size and hierarchy. After outlining the methodological difficulties of carrying out a comparative study capable of resolving the foregoing dilemma, the empirical section takes place in two major stages: (1 ) a canvassing of expert opinion, with a view to filling gaps in knowledge of the legislation and its implementation; and (2) the conducting of a sample survey among hotel personnel in a number of EU member states (this stage being preceded by a small, two-phase pilot investigation). In order to contrast the rival theories statistically, the data from the survey are analysed by a series of relevant independent variables and tested for significance. Although there are acknowledged limitations on the degree of generalisation that can be claimed, by and large the convergence theory is upheld. A summary of the findings is provided and a number of implications for the future of food safety legislation in the EU are highlighted.
    • Automated processing and analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry screening data

      Hitchcock, Jonathan James (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2009-04)
      The work presented is a substantial addition to the established methods of analysing the data generated by gas chromatography and low-resolution mass spectrometry. It has applications where these techniques are used on a large scale for screening complex mixtures, including urine samples for sports drug surveillance. The analysis of such data is usually automated to detect peaks in the chromatograms and to search a library of mass spectra of banned or unwanted substances. The mass spectra are usually not exactly the same as those in the library, so to avoid false negatives the search must report many doubtful matches. Nearly all the samples in this type of screening are actually negative, so the process of checking the results is tedious and time-consuming. A novel method, called scaled subtraction, takes each scan from the test sample and subtracts a mass spectrum taken from a second similar sample. The aim is that the signal from any substance common to the two samples will be eliminated. Provided that the second sample does not contain the specified substances, any which are present in the first sample can be more easily detected in the subtracted data. The spectrum being subtracted is automatically scaled to allow for compounds that are common to both samples but with different concentrations. Scaled subtraction is implemented as part of a systematic approach to preprocessing the data. This includes a new spectrum-based alignment method that is able to precisely adjust the retention times so that corresponding scans of the second sample can be chosen for the subtraction. This approach includes the selection of samples based on their chromatograms. For this, new measures of similarity or dissimilarity are defined. The thesis presents the theoretical foundation for such measures based on mass spectral similarity. A new type of difference plot can highlight significant differences. The approach has been tested, with the encouraging result that there are less than half as many false matches compared with when the library search is applied to the original data. True matches of compounds of interest are still reported by the library search of the subtracted data.
    • Automated test of evolving software

      Shaw, Hazel Anne (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2005-10)
      Computers and the software they run are pervasive, yet released software is often unreliable, which has many consequences. Loss of time and earnings can be caused by application software (such as word processors) behaving incorrectly or crashing. Serious disruption can occur as in the l4th August 2003 blackouts in North East USA and Canadal, or serious injury or death can be caused as in the Therac-25 overdose incidents. One way to improve the quality of software is to test it thoroughly. However, software testing is time consuming, the resources, capabilities and skills needed to carry it out are often not available and the time required is often curtailed because of pressures to meet delivery deadlines3. Automation should allow more thorough testing in the time available and improve the quality of delivered software, but there are some problems with automation that this research addresses. Firstly, it is difficult to determine ifthe system under test (SUT) has passed or failed a test. This is known as the oracle problem4 and is often ignored in software testing research. Secondly, many software development organisations use an iterative and incremental process, known as evolutionary development, to write software. Following release, software continues evolving as customers demand new features and improvements to existing ones5. This evolution means that automated test suites must be maintained throughout the life ofthe software. A contribution of this research is a methodology that addresses automatic generation of the test cases, execution of the test cases and evaluation of the outcomes from running each test. "Predecessor" software is used to solve the oracle problem. This is software that already exists, such as a previous version of evolving software, or software from a different vendor that solves the same, or similar, problems. However, the resulting oracle is assumed not be perfect, so rules are defined in an interface, which are used by the evaluator in the test evaluation stage to handle the expected differences. The interface also specifies functional inputs and outputs to the SUT. An algorithm has been developed that creates a Markov Chain Transition Matrix (MCTM) model of the SUT from the interface. Tests are then generated automatically by making a random walk of the MCTM. This means that instead of maintaining a large suite of tests, or a large model of the SUT, only the interface needs to be maintained. 1) NERC Steering Group (2004). Technical Analysis ofthe August 14,2003, Blackout: What Happened, Why, and What Did We Learn? July 13th 2004. Available from: ftp:/ /www.nerc.com/pub/sys/all_ updl/docslblackoutINERC ]inatBlackout_Report _ 07_13_ 04.pdf 2) Leveson N. G., Turner C. S. (1993) An investigation of the Therac-25 accidents. IEEE Computer, Vo126, No 7, Pages 18-41. 3) LogicaCMG (2005) Testing Times for Board Rooms. Available from http://www.logicacmg.com/pdf/trackeditestingTimesBoardRooms.pdf 4) Bertolino, A. (2003) Software Testing Research and Practice, ASM 2003, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol 2589, Pages 1-21. 5) Sommerville, 1. (2004) Software Engineering, 7th Edition. Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-321-21026-3.
    • Auxiliary forces for the land defence of Great Britain, 1909-1919

      Mitchinson, Kevin William (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2002)
      A number of books in recent years have analysed the reasons behind R.B.Haldane's radical decision to create a home defence auxiliary designed to replace the Militia, Yeomanry and Rifle Volunteers. Rather than cover again material which has already been extensively examined, this study concentrates on the formation of the several auxiliary bodies which were intended to assist the new Territorial Force in its defence of mainland Britain. The thesis also looks at the dynamics which, in 1914, prompted the spontaneous emergence of another, unofficial auxiliary, the Volunteer Training Corps. Regarded with disdain and contempt by the War Office, the VTC, later the Volunteer Force, was used by the political authorities as a means by which the civilian population could, without excessive government expenditure, be encouraged to take an active part in the defence of its country. The Volunteer Force developed into a recognized body of part-time auxiliary soldiers which became, in time, intimately involved with the workings of the tribunal system and with the concepts of total war and universal sacrifice. In contrast to the military authorities' distrust of the Volunteers, the Government decided that political expediency demanded it partially support and eventually fund the movement. Although awarded a post-war certificate of appreciation, the Volunteers were denied any real official recognition of their patriotism and commitment. Research into Britain's auxiliary forces of the early twentieth century has largely ignored the contribution of the National Reserve, Corps of Guides, Royal Defence Corps and the Volunteer Force: their existence has occasionally been acknowledged but there has been no adequate study of the role of these bodies in the context of what some historians regard as a nation-in-arms. An examination of government documents, the papers of individuals closely involved in home defence and, in particular, the minute books of the County Territorial Associations, has revealed a sometimes bizarre and occasionally bewildering picture of Government and War Office contradictions. By unravelling the nature and complications of the political and military difficulties involved in raising and maintaining Britain's auxiliary forces, this thesis attempts to develop recent research on the character, controversies and contribution of Britain's part-time amateur soldiers.