• Occupational socialisation and the subjective warrant of physical education teachers

      Flemons, Michelle (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2017-12)
      Based on ideology rather than a philosophy, physical education (PE) is dominated by a traditional curriculum and custodial teaching orientations that are recycled inter-generationally. The subjective warrant has a direct relationship with the conception of beliefs related to perceptions of how PE should be delivered. Using occupational socialisation as a framework and Bourdieu’s concept of habitus, field and practice as a thinking tool, the purpose of the study was to determine the subjective warrant’s adequacy in 21st century PE, identify changes to the subjective warrant, and its impact on teaching behaviours over time. Using a mixed methods approach informed by the interpretive paradigm, life story semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis with 29 teachers at different career points. In-service teachers’ lessons were analysed using the System for Observing Needs-Supportive Interactions in Physical Education (SONIPE). Independent samples t-test was used to compare teacher behaviours between Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) and Experienced Teachers (ETs). PE teachers being recruited within the profession, academicisation of PE and perceived high competition for entry give the subjective warrant stringency. Attitudes and beliefs towards pedagogy do not define one’s role. Changing situational factors influence the perceptions of affirmation and accountability in teaching. Significant differences in teacher behaviours for relatedness (t = 0.172, p = 0.084) and structure (t = 0.119, p = 0.102) occurred more in ET’s group indicating more custodial practices. The subjective warrant still has currency and its stringency identifies why PE is slow to evolve due to the recycling of the group habitus within the field. Innovative pedagogical practices are not defined by role but by attitudes and perceptions towards teaching. Physical education recruitment needs to attract individuals who are not ‘typical’ recruits. Ways to keep innovative teachers in the field need to be considered.
    • Oman from exploration to tourism: the images of the country in early travellers’ tales, travelogues and travel brochures (1838-2001)

      Al Habsi, Mohammed A. A. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2004-03)
      This thesis uses early travel accounts (1838-1959), travelogues (1996-2001) and travel brochures (2001) to investigate the image of Oman and its people in British travel texts. Although there have been a number of imagery studies within the field of tourism over the last two decades, they have been recently criticised by Gallarza et al. (2002) for their lack of theoretical orientation. This thesis is intended to be a modest step in addressing this criticism by re-appraising Said's well known work on Orientalism (1978) and works that foreshadowed it, by testing their political, theoretical and polemical propositions against detailed evidence to be found in case study evidence derived from close analysis of English texts on one country; Oman. The thesis investigates the extent to which these texts confirm/disconfirm Said's predominantly critical evaluation of Western (particularly British and French) representations of the east through the construct he calls 'Orientalism'. Through exploration of the imagery attached to Oman, this analysis is intended to contribute to the wider "Othering" debate in suggesting how people of a developing country are defined and gendered by people from developed ones. The thesis, which is based on three genres of travel texts, suggests a much more complex picture of the mechanisms of representations than Said (1978) suggests, showing, for example, that each textual category (travel book, travelogue, and brochure) had its own distinguishing variations in terms of ideological perspective, mode of address and substantive content. For example, political and imperial discourses were widely present in early travel accounts, while, by contrast, travelogue and travel brochure data were more constituted by discourses of consumerism and commerce, with residual I'olitical and imperial traces either silenced, muted or reconstituted as forms of nostalgia, or a depoliticised, sometimes, aestheticised, historic heritage. Moreover, although some early accounts contain negative denotations and connotations relating to Oman and its people that would support Said's broadly critical deconstruction of "Orientalism" as an ideological mechanism of control and appropriation, all three media representations, historical travel texts included, were far from presenting a uniform, or even predominant construction of Oman and its people that would support Said's critique. In two contextual chapters, this thesis appraIses historical encounters between Omanis and Westerns with focus on the British and Omani relationship, and offers an overview ofthe development of tourism in Oman. On the methodological front, the study is unusual as an investigation that combines inductive with deductive approaches, quantitative content analysis with qualitative semiotic analysis. Content analysis was used to examine the images of Oman reproduced in the three media. The quantitative findings were analysed qualitatively by using semiotic analysis to explore and interpret the meanings behind the quantitative results.
    • On statistical characterization of EESM effective SNR over frequency selective channels

      Song, Hui (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2010-04-13)
      With frequency selective fading, the SNRs of each sub-carrier would vary over the time and frequency. It would then cause fluctuations of the effective SNR. As the decision of MeS in LA is based on the effective SNR, the study of the statistical characterization of effective SNR over frequency selective fading channels would be very important, This problem forms the basis of investigation in this thesis. The methodology used in this thesis is generally divided into two parts. The first part is to investigate the method in obtaining the distribution of EESM over frequency selective fading channels. Such approach will be very helpful for the second part of the work which is to obtain the exact distribution of the EESM effective SNR for a specified fading model. In this case, Nakagami-m fading model is used. The choice of this model is based due to its simplicity and experimental consistency. One of the important features of the distribution is that the SNR of a signal under Nakagami fading is gamma distributed. Thus, in performance evaluation involving Nakagami fading, one can often rely on established results (in the statistics literature) of the gamma distribution. An important special case of the Nakagami distribution is the Rayleigh distribution, which arises in the situation of where the line-of-sight (LOS) component between the transmitter and the receiver is absent, i.e., when all of the received power stems from scattered components. The corresponding distribution for the SNR is the exponential distribution. The research in this thesis represents an effort to provide a statistical characterization of EESM effective SNR which has not appeared in any existing literatures. The goals of this thesis is to Characterize the statistics of EESM effective SNR over frequency selective channels. Obtain the distribution of EESM effective SNR over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels. Theoretically analyze the performance (Le. average SNR, outage probability and Symbol Error Rate (SER) etc.) of EESM over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels. Provide simple approximations to the proposed analytical results. Try to find extension and application of the results.
    • On the occurrence, ecology and behaviour of Onchidella celtica (Gastropoda, Onchidiacea) in the littoral of Cornwall

      Tween, Trevor Charles (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1987-01)
      Onchidella celtica is the only onchidiacean to occur in Britain; it is a littoral pulmonate gastropod of controversial taxonomic placement and an historica1 review of the group is therefore presented. The habitat, spatial dispersion, local distribution and geographical range of O.celtica are each described, with particular reference to Cornish shores. The nature of the substratum, exposure and the adverse affects of low temperatures are suggested as the principal parameters controlling the observed distributions, which are considered in detail. O.celtica lays capsular spawn and examination of these has enabled development times and hatching rates to be assessed. Juvenile growth rates have also been investigated to aid the interpretation of population age-structure in shore-line samples, and the dynamics and longevity of the population are discussed. Reproduction is shown to be inhibited by low temperatures. The various reproductive strategies of the onchidiaceans are discussed. Likely causes of mortality are considered, the likelihood of predation by intertidal carnivores is assessed and defensive strategies, including glandular secretions, rhythms of activity and cryptic habits, are shown to be important in evading predation. Various aspects of the behaviour of O.celtica are investigated quantitatively, including aggregation, crevice selection and foraging, and their importance as strategies in successfully exploiting the exposed littoral environment is discussed. A detailed investigation of homing behaviour shows this to be accomplished without obvious trail-following. and remote olfaction is suggested as the principal mechanism of homing. Ambient temperature has a marked effect on the frequency of individuals foraging, and the role of other environmental variables is considered. The feeding behaviour and diet of O.celtica are described, and the possibility of food selection is considered. A preliminary histochemical examination has elucidated the distribution of certain classes of enzymes in the gut of O.celtica.
    • Operationalising physical literacy within physical education teaching practice through professional development

      Durden-Myers, Elizabeth Jayne (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-09)
      Introduction - Physical literacy has been described as a longed-for concept and has gained widespread global interest. This interest has also given rise to calls for physical literacy to be operationalised, providing clarity and guidance on developing physical literacy informed teaching practice. Operationalising physical literacy is crucial in moving the concept forwards by providing substance to the claims made by physical literacy advocates. The purpose of this research was to explore how physical literacy could be operationalised within physical education teaching practice. In particular, this thesis investigates how professional development can support physical literacy informed physical education practice. Methodology - This research utilised professional development sessions alongside participatory action research to develop the practice of fourteen teachers of physical education in both primary and secondary school contexts. Semi-structured interviews were used to capture the professional development journey of each teacher. This information was supplemented by extensive supporting data including field diaries, emails, video recordings, lesson observations, lesson plans and lesson reflections. Thematic analysis and narrative representation were used to analyse and present the findings of the semi-structured interviews. Findings - This research proposes that physical literacy professional development can be effective in operationalising physical literacy within physical education teaching practice. It argues that the factors that mediate the effectiveness of professional development include the professional development process, the use of a credible expert, and participant and context engagement. This research also argues that as a result of professional development teachers are better able to describe the why, what and how of physical literacy and are able to better articulate how it informs their teaching practice. Finally, a number of barriers to operationalising physical literacy within physical education teaching practice were identified and categorised as either leadership and governance, management and institutional or individual barriers. Solutions to support the operationalisation of physical literacy in physical education teaching practice centred around two key themes. Firstly, raising the status and value of physical education and secondly, by improving professional development opportunities for teachers. Conclusion - This research contributes to knowledge firstly, by extending the theoretical and conceptual rationale and understanding around unpacking physical literacy for use within educational professional development and physical education teaching practice. And secondly, in the development of a physical literacy professional development framework and intervention. This research provides an effective process (action research and professional development sessions) alongside a range of supporting tools (lesson planning, observation and reflection tools) and resources (website, folder, handouts) that can assist the operationalisation of physical literacy. This research recommends that more opportunities for meaningful physical literacy professional development, including the development of whole school approaches are required. It also argues that more needs to be done in order to elevate and align the value, role and purpose of physical education across the education profession as a whole. Finally, this research argues that in order to scale and create sustainable impact the creation of in-situ physical literacy experts or champions are required to sustain and advocate the value of and develop physical literacy informed practice more widely and sustainably.
    • Organisational reward strategies and performance of front line managers: analysis of Pakistani textile industry

      Tufail, Muhammad Shahid (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-11)
      The current study seeks to contribute specifically to the literature on reward management and managerial performance. In doing so, it aims to address certain gaps in the existing literature; particularly a noticeable lack of research in rewards and individual performance relationships in a developing country, Pakistan. This study has sought to examine the relationship of extrinsic rewards comprising of pay, bonuses, opportunities for promotion and intrinsic rewards such as sense of recognition, job characteristics with individual performance measured as task and contextual performance including citizenship behaviour. Furthermore, the study has sought to examine the mediation role of organisational justice elements such as procedural and distributive justice in reward performance relationships. The study aims at identifying different rewards being offered in textile organisations and their relationships with performance of front line managers in textile sector organisations. The study focuses primarily on key research questions: 1. What is the relationship between extrinsic rewards such as pay and bonus based incentives with the performance of front line managers? 2. How do opportunities for promotion relate with performance of front line managers in textile industry? 3. What is the relationship of intrinsic rewards such as sense of recognition and job characteristics with the performance of front line managers? 4. How does procedural and distributive justice influence the reward performance relationships for front line managers in textile industry? Being deductive in nature, the current study revolves around the premises of positivist philosophy. Being cross section in nature, a survey based design is selected and a quantitative strategy is used in this study for data collection and analysis. The study is facilitated by random stratified sampling for data collection and structural equation modelling technique to draw results of direct and mediation effects of study constructs. The results portray significant relationships of rewards and individual performance with relatively strong emphasis on task performance in comparison to contextual performance. The results further highlight the mediation of procedural and distributive justice particularly in extrinsic rewards and task performance relationships for front line managers. The study seeks to contribute to existing theoretical knowledge and practices in developing economies and is pioneering in its examination of rewards-individual performance relationships in Pakistan. In examining organisational rewards with task and contextual performance for front line managers in private manufacturing sector, the study tends to address the gap in existing literature on reward and performance management. Moreover, the current study further seeks to examine the mediation effects of procedural and distributive justice in reward performance relationships discovering this field of theoretical knowledge as existing literature does not reflect upon this gap. The study intends to offer help and support to concerned stakeholders in better understanding, developing and modifying rewards-performance relationships particularly for textile industry in Pakistan.
    • Orphan volunteer tourism in Thailand: understanding motivations, experiences and interactions

      Proyrungroj, Raweewan (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-05)
      This research investigates volunteer tourists’ motivations and on-site experiences, alongside hosts’ attitudes towards volunteer tourists at the Home and Life orphanage in Phang Nga province, Thailand. An interpretive paradigm utilising qualitative data collection methods (semi-structured interviews, a focus group, participant observation and diaries) was adopted. The informants included twenty-four volunteer tourists, on a working vacation at the Home and Life orphanage between 1stJuly and 30th September 2011, and twenty hosts from Thai Muang subdistrict. The findings of the research suggest that the volunteer tourists’ motivations and on-site experiences are multidimensional. Five main themes of motivations have been identified: (i) to help the children who were affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami; (ii) to gain personal development and growth; (iii) to gain new experiences; (iv) to learn about/be immersed in local culture; and (v) to meet and make friends. Amongst these, a desire to help the children was the most dominant motivational factor, which was strongly influenced the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. In terms of the volunteer tourists’ on-site experiences, four experiential dimensions were found: (i) personal development and growth; (ii) social; (iii) cultural; and (iv) feeling. The study suggests that the children had played a significant role in making the volunteer tourists’ experience a beneficial one because they were an important source for cultural learning and their lives had taught a number of things to the volunteer tourists. This research also investigates hosts’ attitudes towards the volunteer tourists. It was found that they had very positive attitudes towards the volunteer tourists, based upon two main factors: the volunteer tourists’ conduct and performance; and the perceived benefits they gained from the work of these tourists. The opportunity for the children to study English with English native speakers was cited as the most significant benefit. However, the hosts also had concerns about some aspects of the volunteer tourists’ behaviour and perceived underperformance, which were found to be mainly the result of cultural differences. Additionally, interactions and relationships between volunteer tourists and hosts were also examined by using social exchange theory. The study suggests that the interactions were reciprocal, and that both the volunteer tourists and the hosts enjoyed satisfactory benefits from one another: the volunteer tourist had a desired experience, and the hosts gained benefits from the work of the volunteer tourists.
    • Osteopathic clinical reasoning: an ethnographic study of perceptual diagnostic judgments, metacognition, and reflective practice

      McIntyre, Cindy L. (University of Bedfordshire, 2016-01)
      This thesis explores the use of reflective practice in osteopathic medicine and uses the method to narrate my work as an osteopathic practitioner. It explores the development of perceptual diagnostic judgments, and the role of metacognition, intuition and palpation in osteopathic clinical reasoning. A qualitative interpretive approach was used with a novel narrative method as an organising structure. This was broadly based around reflective practice models of Gibbs, (1988), Kolb, (1984) and Carper (1978) and the ideas of Schön (1983). Descriptive texts were constructed from notes taken of my thoughts whilst in the presence of patients. This allowed access, as closely as possible, to my decision making process. Finally, the descriptive texts were expanded into narratives through dialogue with the existing literature and peer review. The narratives were then analysed using thematic analysis to derive an understanding of concepts arising from the data. This thesis argues that osteopathic clinical reasoning involves multisensory perceptual diagnostic judgments that begin as soon as the patient enters the clinic, and arise as a result of the use of mental and visual imagery and embodied senses. The multisensory information that is detected by a practitioner activates pattern recognition, analytic reasoning and provides explicit feedback used in decision making. Diagnosis occurs as a result of piecing together and interpreting the multisensory information whilst maintaining awareness of other diagnostic possibilities. The findings also suggest that osteopathic clinical reasoning involves the supervision of cognition by the metacognitive processes of meta-knowledge (MK), meta-experiences (ME), and meta-skills (MS). The latter are used to plan, monitor, analyse, predict, evaluate and revise the consultation and patient management as suggested by Pesut and Herman (1992). ME is demonstrated by the presence of judgments of learning used to ensure sufficient information has been gathered, and feelings of rightness that are used to perceive the correctness of information arriving and decisions made. The use of reflective practice in this research has developed the understanding of osteopathic clinical reasoning, and demonstrated that it provides a powerful conduit for change in practice. As a result, it enables the provision of better patient-centred osteopathic healthcare incorporating the biopsychosocial model of healthcare. Although rooted in my own osteopathic practice style and strategies, it should have resonance for those within the discipline of osteopathy and has implications for osteopathic education, training and research.
    • “Other spirit voices in the air” : community radio, mobile phones and the electromagnetic spectrum

      Gordon, Janey (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2010-06)
      This collection of published scholarly work concerns the growth and development of community radio and mobile telephony during the period 2000-2009, with reference to specific examples and case studies. The associated report examines the extent that the public are using these media to the benefit of individuals and communities and also suggests that the public have regained use of the electromagnetic spectrum through the use of community radio and mobile phones. The over arching hypothesis is that both community radio and mobile telephony are: • providing benefits to society, rangmg from improving daily life and avoiding inconveniences, to ameliorating critical or life-threatening situations and resisting oppression, • re-establishing rights of usage in the electromagnetic spectrum for ordinary members of the public which were surrendered to governmental authorities in the early years of spectrum experimentation, • using the electromagnetic spectrum as a tool for activism, political discussion, social engagement and exchange of information about matters of common interest, • worthy of research and examination to investigate how these two forms of communications media are impacting on the lives of individuals and society as a whole.
    • Over-the-counter drugs and non-febrile thermoregulation: is there cause for concern?

      Foster, Josh; University of Bedfordshire (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2017-04)
      Core temperature (Tc) regulation is fundamental to mammalian survival, since hypothermia (Tc ≤ 35°C) and hyperthermia (Tc ≥ 40°C) are major risk factors for health and wellbeing. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if acetaminophen, an analgesic and antipyretic drug, increased the onset of hypothermia or hyperthermia during passive cold and heat stress, respectively. It was later investigated if acetaminophen induced inhibition of cyclooxygenase mediated these side-effects. In Study 1a, the plasma acetaminophen response to a dose of 20 mg·kg-1 of lean body mass was determined through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In Study 1b, the effect of acetaminophen administration on internal temperature (rectal; Tre) during a passive 2-hour mild cold (20°C, 40% relative humidity) exposure was examined. Study 1a showed that the plasma response was homogenous between subjects, reaching peak concentrations between 80-100 minutes (14 ± 4 μg·ml-1). In Study 1b, acetaminophen reduced Tre in all participants compared with baseline, and the average peak reduction was 0.19 ± 0.09°C. In contrast, Tre remained stable when participants ingested a sugar placebo. Study 1 is the first experiment which confirms a hypothermic side-effect of acetaminophen in healthy humans. Study 2 investigated whether acetaminophen augmented the rate of Tre rise during exposure to passive dry (45°C, 30% r.h.) and humid (45°C, 70% r.h.) heat stress for 2-hours and 45-minutes, respectively. This study showed that the rate of Tre rise in the dry (0.005 vs 0.006°C∙min-1) and humid (0.023 vs 0.021 °C∙min-1) conditions were similar between the acetaminophen and placebo trials (p > 0.05). Study 2 is the first experiment which confirms acetaminophen has no meaningful effect on thermoregulation during passive dry or humid heat exposure. Study 3 determined how the hypothermic effect of acetaminophen changes during exposure to a thermoneutral (25°C, 40% r.h.) and cold (10°C, 40% r.h.) environment for 2-hours. In summary, there was no hypothermic effect of acetaminophen in a thermoneutral environment (p > 0.05), whereas Tre fell by 0.40 ± 0.15°C compared with baseline during cold stress (p < 0.05). Compared with the placebo, Tre was ~0.35°C lower at 120 minutes, but was significantly lower from 70-minutes. Study 3 confirmed that there is a relationship between the level of cold stress and magnitude of the hypothermic effect of acetaminophen. Study 4 determined whether ibuprofen (400 mg), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, reduced Tre during 2-hour passive cold stress (10°C, 40% r.h.) to a level comparable with acetaminophen. Ibuprofen administration did not influence Tre, vastus medialis shivering, or energy expenditure compared with a placebo throughout the cold exposure (p > 0.05). Taken together, this renders it unlikely that cyclooxygenase activity is required for thermogenesis induced by skin cooling. Study 4 provides evidence that acetaminophen induced hypothermia is not exclusively mediated by cyclooxygenase inhibition. In Summary, this series of experiments has shown that acetaminophen has a hypothermic side effect in healthy humans, which is amplified during acute cold stress. Ibuprofen had no such effect on thermoregulation during cold exposure, so it is unlikely that cyclooxygenase inhibition mediates the hypothermic side-effect of acetaminophen.
    • Paracolonialism: a case of post-1988 Anglophone Pakistani fiction

      Saleem, Ali Usman (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-06)
      Embedded in the socio-political milieu of the country Anglophone Pakistani fiction provides a critical perspective on some of the important contemporary issues facing the country like feminism, class struggle, misuse of religious discourse, sectarianism, terrorism and the fragmentation of the Pakistani society. By contextualizing the works of four Pakistani fiction writers, Sara Suleri, Kamila Shamsie, Mohsin Hamid and Mohammed Hanif, in the theoretical paradigms of modernism, postmodernism and postcolonialism, this research identifies salient facets and characteristics of Pakistani Anglophone fiction produced during the last three decades. This thesis argues that Pakistani Anglophone fiction is Janus-faced in nature. On the one hand it specifically deconstructs various indigenous issues which are destabilizing Pakistani society and politics, while on the other hand it challenges the discursive construction of Pakistan as a terrorist country through international discourse. By doing so, these writers not only adopt the role of political commentators and interveners but also create a counter-narrative to Western hegemonic discourse and represent a case for a liberal and democratic Pakistan. Moreover the textual analysis of this fiction indicates a shift from traditional postcolonial literature. Instead of contextualizing their work in the colonial experience of the British Raj or its aftermath, these writers dissociate themselves from it and use this dissociation as a narrative strategy to hold the political and military leadership accountable for the socio-political chaos in Pakistan. The thesis argues that this characteristic of Anglophone Pakistani fiction indicates the emergence of a new phase, ‘Paracolonialism’ or ‘Paracolonial fiction’ which rejects the influence of colonialism on the socio-economic and political crisis of Third World countries and deconstructs various factors which led to their post-independence unstable economy and social fragmentation.
    • Parental involvement behaviours and attainment: student perceptions in FE

      Darnell, Judith Alexandra (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-12)
      Research into parental involvement and links with attainment have been well documented for young children. However, parental influences for FE college-aged (16+) students have rarely been investigated in the UK. The project was based on investigating student perceptions of parental involvement within one FE college in South East England, and as such represented a case study. It involved 240 level three learners. The FE college at the focus of this project is clear through its “Parental Involvement Strategy Document” that parental engagement directly influences student attainment. However, this research project challenged this assumption and investigated student perceptions of parental involvement in respect to attainment. The project used mixed-methods to accomplish four aims. These were: 1. To investigate students’ perceptions of Parental Involvement Behaviours (PIB) regarding its influence on attainment and to identify similarities and differences between students’ perceptions and college policy/practice and inspectorate views. 2. To examine associations between student outcomes (UCAS points) and both a) reported PIB and b) the factors of student age, gender, ethnicity, cultural capital and course. 3. To identify if students of different ages, ethnic group, gender and course respond differently to questions about their PIB and, if so, whether the difference in response to Likert scale items is statistically significant or not. 4. To establish whether the quantitative and qualitative data gathered from the investigation of student perceptions of PIB discovers distinct models of student experiences and, if so, whether these reflect the hypothesised categories of DAPSS (Directive, Authoritarian, Parenting Support Style), PAPSS (Passive, Affable Parenting Support Style), NEAV (Negative Expectations, Aspirations and Values) and PEAV (Positive Expectations, Aspirations and Values) (or not) and also whether these models have an association with attainment (or not). Students voiced appreciation for independence and autonomy in relation to ownership for learning in FE and the project found that intrinsic motivation was more likely to associate with grades than external factors (such as parental involvement). Although there were individual PIB that appeared to associate with student attainment (respect, trust, high expectations and aspirations) this relationship is likely to be more complex since when these behaviours were grouped together as a model of experience (called ‘Clarified Independence’) the association with attainment was less apparent. Additionally, the idea of ‘causation’ and the ‘reactive hypothesis’ are deemed important when referring to high expectations and aspirations, since parental behaviours are likely to reflect prior student performance and so the link between high expectations and high attainment is more complex than it first appears. The project concludes that many parental behaviours are displayed as a result of previous student performance and so challenges the assumption that these parental behaviours can influence attainment directly, as has been reported in previous projects. Instead of devising parenting ‘styles’ as has been observed in previous research, the project presents a theory relating to ‘layers of influence’ in relation to different parental behaviours where six ‘models of student experience’ (MoSE) are highlighted for FE college students. This theory has been devised from a culmination of quantitative data and qualitative findings, which have been triangulated to demonstrate a holistic view of the complex patterns in relation to students and their perceptions of PIB. Overall, parental experiences in early childhood are more likely to have a bearing on and pave the way for influential factors in relation to high attainment, (which centres on students’ intrinsic motivation) rather than individual parental behaviours at college-stage. Additionally, the college provides mixed-messages in relation to parental involvement through its strategy document and its prospectus. There is also a mis-match between college policy and student perceptions surrounding expectations for parental involvement and its influences. A minority of students experience neglectful parental behaviours and voice their appreciation for positive connections with college tutors, who often offer emotional support in place of the parents/carers.
    • A partial validation of the contextual validity of the Centre listening test in Japan

      Yanagawa, Kozo (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2012-07)
      The purpose of this study was to validate the listening comprehension component of the Centre Test in Japan (henceforth, JNCTL) in relation to contextual parameters and cognitive processing. For the purpose of this study, a comprehensive framework of contextual parameters and a L2 listening processing model was established. This provided a solid theoretical framework for this study, whereby empirical evidence was elicited in relation to contextual parameters and cognitive processing. The elicitation was made through document analysis, focus group interviews, and a large-scale questionnaire administered to stakeholders including 110 high school English teachers and 391 third year students of high schools. The elicited data was subjected to descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis. The results of Preliminary studies identified ten possible key parameters to help the JNCTL achieve greater validity. They included the number of opportunities to listen to the input, a lack of hesitations, a lack of overlapping turns, a lack of multi-participant discussions, a lack of variety in the English accents used, a lack of L2 speakers, a lack of inference questions, a lack of non-linear texts, a lack of sandhi-variations, and a lack of natural speech rate. The results of the questionnaire revealed that sandhi-variation was the key parameter to help the current JNCTL achieve greater validity in a direction that would be accepted by the stakeholders, and it was further explored in Main Study in attempt to investigate the effect of sandhi-variation on listening comprehension test performance and the level of cognitive load imposed on the test takers. A series of experiments was conducted involving the manipulation of sandhi-variation. The results revealed that although no statistical difference was found in item difficulty estimates between the sandhi-variation and non-sandhi-variation versions, sandhi-variation may involve double effects on listening comprehension for the test takers. The positive effects could involve providing more prominent phonological difference between accented and unaccented words in connected speech which are produced by sandhi-variation, and this difference may reduce the cognitive load imposed on the test takers. The negative effects may involve increasing the cognitive load imposed on the test takers by obscuring sounds through elision or unclear pronunciation, and disturbing speech perception or word recognition. Recommendations are provided for improving the validity of the current JNCTL and for the development of listening comprehension tests more generally. Implications are also suggested for the teaching of listening at secondary schools in Japan. Lastly, the limitations of the study are outlined and suggestions for further research are proposed.
    • Participation and exclusion: a qualitative study of processes of power and inequality in area-based initiatives in an English town

      O'Reilly, Dermot Gerald; University of Bedfodshire (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2004)
      The processes of three area-based initiatives relating to health provision, urban and neighbourhood renewal in Luton are used to examine whether political participation affects social exclusion. Government policies presume that increased participation reduces exclusion, while critical literature questions the type of participation produced in state initiatives, and also whether the discourse of exclusion adequately articulates social inequality. Participation is analysed in its relations to power, the political and to a social typology. Exclusion is analysed by delineating its contested meaning, and developing a dialectical model of inclusion and exclusion, that enables exclusion to be prefigured both as an analytical concept and as a critical component for exploring inequality. This thesis explores the processes of participation and exclusion via voluntary and community groups by presenting a predominantly qualitative analysis of the frameworks and processes of participation and the circumstances and experiences of exclusion. The study finds that: • The participation of the voluntary and community groups in the initiatives was on an unequal basis with the statutory sector, it was constrained by bureaucratic procedures, and led to a combative relationship between the sectors in two of the initiatives. • The voluntary and community sectors -elements of which are here characterised as "remedial movements" -had some effects on micro-and mesolevel processes, but no direct effect on macro-policy that controls the initiatives. Participation in the groups and initiatives faced a number of structural dilemmas. • Social exclusion in the areas was heterogeneous, but associated with the lack of interactional processes that enable inclusion. The range of experiences of exclusion demonstrated what I shall define as an "inequality of capabilities for inclusion". The research concludes that participation via initiatives does not necessarily result in the total incorporation of the voluntary and community sector, and claims for rights to be recognised had both achieved gains and reflected an antagonistic, if complementary, approach by some groups to the state. If the aim is to increase participation, however, the evidence implies that it needs to be consistently driven; that while the initiatives have affected exclusion, their effects have been limited and are fragile, and that reducing inequality is necessary to enable inclusive participation.
    • Participatory action research: challenging the dominant practice architectures of physical education

      Goodyear, Victoria A. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-05)
      Research shows that the dominant pedagogical practices of physical education are irrelevant to young people in the 21st century, and that physical education currently exists in a time of innovation without change. Subsequently, physical education as a curriculum subject is at risk of becoming extinct unless the 'talked' about pedagogical innovations that provide authentic, relevant and transferable learning experiences can become sustainable 'actioned' futures. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to explore how a pedagogical innovation, the Cooperative Learning model, could be used over an enduring period of time. Participatory action research (PAR) was used as the methodology to scaffold the inquiry and to support eight secondary school physical education teachers' learning and use of Cooperative Learning during an academic year. This thesis considers how PAR enabled teachers to break the dominant practice architectures of physical education and how PAR supported teachers‘ use of an emergent pedagogical approach within and beyond the honeymoon period of implementation. In other words, how PAR facilitated teachers' ability to work beyond the dominant pedagogical practices of physical education and the practices endorsed by the school as an institution. Furthermore, how PAR sustained teachers' engagement with, and use of, the Cooperative Learning model. Indeed, Cooperative Learning was firstly immersed within the milieu of the practice architectures. Yet through the use of PAR the teachers were motivated to move beyond the honeymoon period and began to use the model within, with and then against the mess of the practice architectures. Subsequently, Cooperative Learning was emerging as the dominant pedagogical approach. However, this only occurred for some teachers where social connectivity and an emerging community of practice were significant variables in sustaining and adapting the use of Cooperative Learning. The contribution to knowledge is therefore the methodological processes of how to move beyond dominant pedagogical practices and facilitate innovation with change. In order for a pedagogical innovation to become a sustainable 'actioned' future its use is context dependent and PAR facilitates its sustainability. Furthermore, teacher learning should be advanced and teachers should be encouraged to create communicative spaces with colleagues and researcher facilitators.
    • The partnership experiment: changing employee relations in the National Health Service : examining the viability of partnership between management, trade unions and the workforce

      Kinge, Josie (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2008-01)
      Partnership has enjoyed fresh attention since the 1990s and consequently is a growing yet increasingly fragmented area of research. With the incoming Labour Government in 1997, policy has aimed to replace conflict with co-operation in employee relations. Partnership is an approach to managing the employment relationship based on the search for common ground between management, employees and their representatives and involves the development of long-term relationships built on high levels of trust and respect. Approaches to, and models of, partnership are still at a formative stage with no consensus on how partnership develops effectively. Despite the recognition that to understand partnership fully the study of the processes involved is necessary, little is known about these processes involved. Furthermore, the current body of literature on partnership in a UK context is limited in terms of its theoretical basis. The research set out to identify through which theoretical mechanisms partnership works. Informed by social exchange theory, the study examines the viability of partnership within the NHS and attempts to understand the conditions for its successful development. Two stages of empirical research using a mainly qualitative design were conducted. The first stage of fieldwork involved a preliminary investigation of the introduction of partnership in the National Health Service. The aim of this stage was to trace the introduction of partnership and to understand its antecedents and what had set out to achieve using data from eleven in depth interviews with key players at national, regional and local levels throughout the service. Stage two followed a case study approach and investigated the development of partnership in four NHS Acute Trusts. This stage involved a range of techniques (i.e. semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and documentation) examining the views of fifty five respondents from management and trade union representatives across the four Trusts and used data from 543 questionnaires to investigate employee's experiences of partnership. The study contributes to the partnership literature on the developmental processes of partnerships by utilising social exchange theory to better understand the viability of partnership. In particular, examining partnership from a social exchange perspective enabled a deeper understanding of the decision processes involved when deciding whether to co-operate. The study demonstrates that the theory (and its related concepts) can be helpful in examining the viability of partnership in understanding the mechanisms that lead to its successful development and the maintenance of the relationship over time. In assessing the viability of partnership, the thesis identifies the conditions under which partnership produces its effects and demonstrates how these differed in terms of changes in both the climate and the behaviour and attitudes of participants. In sum, the idea of social exchange would seem to provide an underpinning rationale for partnership. Some support for a new and expanding role for the trade union involving jOint work in developing policies was found. Trade unions appear to have a legitimate role in the relationship which is on the whole accepted by key management and trade union players. However, the union role has a low profile amongst managers and employees and trade unions lacked the organisation needed for partnership to be effective. Moreover, if trade unions are going to reap the potential rewards of partnership there should be a continuing effort to address the problems of capacity and capability (by increasing the numbers and capability of union representatives) in order to raise the profile and acceptance of the union among management and employees. In addition, there is a requirement for adequate training and support to ensure that these representatives have the attitude, skills and confidence to become effective representatives of the workforce.
    • Patchworks of practice: helping student counsellors develop coherence in personal and theoretical integration

      Meakin, Beverley Joan (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-07)
      This thesis explores an area of my teaching practice with students on an integrative counselling course. Students work towards integrating differing counselling approaches with their personal values and beliefs. I devised a reflexive tool I refer to as Patchwork of Practice to facilitate this process. Patchwork aims to aid reflexivity around and within the interface between personal and professional experiences, thoughts and emotions. This raises awareness of values and beliefs and informs a counselling approach that is coherent with their way of being as a person (Anderson, 2001). The metaphor of Patchwork carries an idea of stitching together Patches of learning and experience to create an integrative approach that fits each student. Students create a Patch every few weeks, individually, then share this in small groups where other perspectives co-construct meaning and widen learning. A Patch can be in any media (writing, poetry, drawing, image) and represents an aspect of training or personal experience (past or present). To evaluate Patchwork of Practice, I explored student counsellors’ experience of using it over two years, through individual interviews and group discussions. In addition, interviews with qualified counsellors explored ongoing effects. To create congruence with the idea of stitching Patches together, I brought different research paradigms together in what I refer to as a Patchwork Methodology. Systemic Inquiry brought relational reflexivity, respect and curiosity in exploring participants’ stories, and attention to relational ethics of practitioner research. Themes were analysed using narrative portraiture (Lawrence-Lightfoot and Hoffman Davis, 1997) and informed teaching through ongoing Action Research reflexive cycles. The different stages of Heuristic research (Moustakas, 1990) provided a framework for these research activities. Additionally, Patchwork of Practice was adapted as autoethnography. I explored my integrating process, illustrated with examples of Patches. Here, Patchwork joined with ecology in a landscape metaphor — a rural landscape depicting how I see my life and practice. The structure of this thesis also evolved from the landscape metaphor. I found participants valued the freedom to use any media to create a Patch. This creative process, the Patch itself and sharing in a group, brought extended awareness of the influences that shaped their development as a person and as a counsellor. So, Patchwork of Practice was useful as a tool for reflexivity around personal and professional development. Other findings included benefits for self-care, for the participants as counsellors and for me as researcher. Patchwork of Practice was also used as self-supervision and adapted by participants to use with clients. One conclusion of this inquiry is to note the importance of connecting individual and group reflections focussed around a Patch. This combination opens a learning pathway that integrates individual and relational reflexivity. There is potential to use Patchwork of Practice as a reflexive tool in other professions and learning environments where awareness of personal influences on professional practice is important.
    • The pedagogical praxis of creativity: an investigation into the incipience of creative writing in USJP

      Ansari, Komal (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015-01)
      Creative Writing as a teachable artistic practice, and reinforcing its identity with an appropriate pedagogical approach, has been a vibrant research area for some years now. Yet, despite a strong increase in writing courses all over the globe, there has been little research into how creative practitioners can actually contribute to facilitate the process of skill development in higher education learners, especially in the public sector universities across Sindh, Pakistan. In an effort to introduce Creative Writing as an academic discipline to government universities in Sindh, the present research sought to observe the impact of a training programme on English fiction on a sample of native learners. A total of thirteen students volunteered for this project. The research sample was selected from a population of second year undergraduates, enrolled in literature courses at the Institute of English Language and Literature (IELL) in the University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan (USJP); wherein Creative Writing had hitherto been a non-existent area of studies. Students were offered a twenty-nine session modular-workshop, aimed at exploring and expediting their artistic abilities in the short time span of a single semester. To ensure the trustworthiness of findings, the entire procedure was documented under the guidance of the researcher’s supervisory team. A post-workshop evaluation survey was also used for attaining student feedback. The setup of assessment items and analysis constructs of students’ narrative portfolios were adapted from validated sources and aligned with the context of this study.However, neither the feedback nor the assessment of students’ work was counted as the findings of this research. Unlike non-artistic inquiries, the post-training creative output gathered from project participants was interpreted as the final research outcome. Methodologically, this process was conducted following a matrix of three practice-oriented research paradigms; whereas “performative research” was selected as the principle data creation and presentation strategy. The resulting research insight has exhibited an in-depth understanding of approaches that could facilitate fiction composition abilities of learners from different language backgrounds, while writing in English. It also allows practitioners to consider non-typical methods of research to contribute holistically to the existing body of knowledge in the field.
    • A pedagogically-informed model of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) for Mauritian higher education

      Ramkissoon, Sharvaani Devi (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2017-10)
      The purpose of this research was to determine how MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) can be introduced and implemented in Higher Education institutions in Mauritius. The study explored the perspectives of students, teachers and educational leaders using an exploratory case study approach, and involved the implementation of short MOOC-based courses in three areas of higher education in Mauritius. While much of the existing literature on MOOCs has used quantitative data to explore patterns of enrolment and retention, this study explicitly focused on student experience, and used Garrison, Anderson and Archer’s (2000) Community of Inquiry (COI) model to explore patterns of ‘presence’ and pedagogical preferences and needs of learners. In order to explore how these preferences, together with other contextual factors might affect the adoption of MOOCs in Mauritius, Venkatesh and Davis’s (2000) Technology Acceptance Model2 (TAM2) was used. The COI and TAM2 models were used both as analytical frameworks, but also to develop a new composite model that also can function as a boundary object (Bowker and Star, 1999; Fox, 2011) enabling different stakeholders to understand each other’s needs and expectations and communicate better with each other. For Mauritian learners, teaching presence in online environments is of critical importance: this is reflected in different scenarios of MOOC implementation identified, and in a proposed staged model for MOOC adoption across the HE sector in Mauritius. This involves further pilots and preliminary research (stage 1), integration of MOOCs into practice (stage 2), customisation and development of MOOCs (stage 3) and a MOOC for Mauritius (stage 4), with each stage informing the implementation of subsequent stages as part of a broad action research framework. The original contributions made by the research to the knowledge base of its possible audiences include: providing models of practice for teachers and educational leaders; informing the educational leaders and policy makers about how MOOCs can be successfully implemented in Mauritius; providing detailed case studies on MOOCs to the academic audience interested in MOOCs specifically; and proposing a new composite, pedagogically-informed, technology acceptance model to those academics who are interested in online pedagogy and technology acceptance. The results of this PhD research can also inform the introduction and effective implementation of MOOCs in other less-economically developed countries.
    • Peer on peer abuse: safeguarding implications of contextualising abuse between young people within social fields

      Firmin, Carlene Emma (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015-05)
      An existing body of research indicates that peer-on-peer abuse, involving the physical, sexual and/or emotional abuse of young people by their peers, is an issue of serious concern within the UK. Whilst a range of studies have explored the individual and familial vulnerabilities associated with this phenomenon, there is an increasing recognition of the need to also consider the relationship between young people‟s peer groups, and other pertinent social fields, to their experiences of such abuse. This thesis offers an original contribution to the field by explicitly seeking to develop this contextual approach. It applies an age-specific and gendered interpretation of Bourdieu‟s constructivist structuralism (and specifically the concepts of field, habitus and symbolic violence) to the analysis of nine cases where young people raped or murdered their peers. In doing so, it offers a unique, in-depth, exploration of the interaction between individuals and the social fields that they navigate, in the context of nine abusive incidents. This methodological approach demonstrates how harmful norms underpinning these incidents are informed by a multi-way interplay between various social fields and young people‟s reflexive engagement with this process. It is through this interplay that motives and power hierarchies are established, and gender, age, consent, culpability, vulnerability and ultimately safety, are socially constructed and experienced.