• Nano handling and measurement of biological cells in culture

      Hou, Yu (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015)
      This thesis systematically investigates the nano handling and measurement techniques for biological cells in culture and studies the techniques to realize innovative and multi-functional applications in biomedicine. Among them, the technique based on AFM is able to visualize and quantify the dynamics of organic cells in culture on the nano scale. Especially, the cellular shear adhesion force on the various locations of biological cells was firstly accurately measured in the research of the cell-substrate interaction in terms of biophysical perspective. The innovative findings are conductive to study the cell-cell adhesion, the cell-matrix adhesion which is related to the cell morphology structure, function, deformation ability and adhesion of cells and better understand the cellular dynamic behaviors. Herein, a new liquid-AFM probe unit and an increment PID control algorithm were implemented suitable for scanning the cell samples under the air conditions and the liquid environments. The influence between the surface of sample and the probe, and the damage of probe during the sample scanning were reduced. The proposed system is useful for the nano handling and measurement of living cells. Besides, Besides, to overcome the limitations of liquid-AFMs, the multiple optical tweezers were developed to integrate with the liquid-AFM. The technique based on laser interference is able to characterize the optical trap stiffness and the escape velocity, especially to realize the capture and sorting of multiple cells by a polarization-controlled periodic laser interference. It can trap and move hundreds of cells without physical contact, and has broad application prospects in cytology. Herein, a new experimental method integrated with the positioning analysis in the Z direction was used to improve the fluid force method for the calibration and characterize the mechanical forces exerted on optical traps and living cells. Moreover, a sensitive and highly efficient polarization-controlled three-beam interference set-up was developed for the capture and sorting of multiple cells. By controlling the polarization angles of the beams, various intensity distributions and different sizes of dots were obtained. Subsequently, we have experimentally observed multiple optical tweezers and the sorting of cells with different polarization angles, which are in accordance with the theoretical analysis.
    • Narrative self-inquiry to capture transformation in mental health nursing practice

      Foster, Lei; University of Bedfordshire (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-06)
      The aim of the study is to identify and map the process of transformation of the practice of a mental health nurse from everyday practice to desirable practice (that is, the realisation of mental health Recovery) through self-inquiry into a series of narratives derived from that practice. Recovery is desirable in terms of clinical governance and is also desirable practice for mental health nurses as a standard to which they should practice. A series of reflexive narratives signposted the transformative journey and also captured the lived experience of transformation. Experiences from practice were captured as spontaneous stories. Guided reflection obtained insights from these stories, and the insights derived from the stories were subsequently reflexively deepened by inquiring into them. In time the cues in the model of guided reflection became internalized to the extent that practitioner narratives arose that already embedded insights. Self-inquiry into these practitioner narratives indicated the nature and the felt affect of constraints met within practice. The affect of these constraints upon the individual practitioner and upon the ability of the individual practitioner to achieve desirable practice is indicated by self-inquiry into them. The result of the study was the realisation that transformation is unable to take place without the individual practitioner being fully aware of who one is, in order that s/he may effect transformation and change. Whilst self-inquiry into the narratives indicated the constraints upon the individual practitioner, the psychological unpreparedness also indicated by that self-inquiry indicated why that the tension between the reality of practice and desirable practice could not be adequately explored. The thesis takes the form of a narrative about writing narratives. The narratives illustrate the norms and values that affect individual practice both vertically (that is, from the organisation and the government), and horizontally (that is, from colleagues and managers), and how an individual practitioner experiences these as obstructive to delivering the service they desire. There have been no narratives written by practitioners about the journey to realise Recovery in their practice; and the structure of the narratives as performances is unique to this subject of thesis by a mental health nurse.
    • New techniques and framework for sentiment analysis and tuning of CRM structure in the context of Arabic language

      AL-Rubaiee, Hamed Saad (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-01)
      Knowing customers’ opinions regarding services received has always been important for businesses. It has been acknowledged that both Customer Experience Management (CEM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) can help companies take informed decisions to improve their performance in the decision-making process. However, real-word applications are not so straightforward. A company may face hard decisions over the differences between the opinions predicted by CRM and actual opinions collected in CEM via social media platforms. Until recently, how to integrate the unstructured feedback from CEM directly into CRM, especially for the Arabic language, was still an open question. Furthermore, an accurate labelling of unstructured feedback is essential for the quality of CEM. Finally, CRM needs to be tuned and revised based on the feedback from social media to realise its full potential. However, the tuning mechanism for CEM of different levels has not yet been clarified. Facing these challenges, in this thesis, key techniques and a framework are presented to integrate Arabic sentiment analysis into CRM. First, as text pre-processing and classification are considered crucial to sentiment classification, an investigation is carried out to find the optimal techniques for the pre-processing and classification of Arabic sentiment analysis. Recommendations for using sentiment analysis classification in MSA as well as Saudi dialects are proposed. Second, to deal with the complexities of the Arabic language and to help operators identify possible conflicts in their original labelling, this study proposes techniques to improve the labelling process of Arabic sentiment analysis with the introduction of neural classes and relabelling. Finally, a framework for adjusting CRM via CEM for both the structure of the CRM system (on the sentence level) and the inaccuracy of the criteria or weights employed in the CRM system (on the aspect level) are proposed. To ensure the robustness and the repeatability of the proposed techniques and framework, the results of the study are further validated with real-word applications from different domains.
    • Nigerian modernism(s) 1900-1960 and the cultural ramifications of the found object in art

      Akpang, Clement Emeka (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2016-07)
      This thesis explored the phenomenon of Modernism in Twentieth Century Nigerian art and the cultural ramifications of the Found Object in European and African art. Adopting the analytical tools of postcolonial theory and Modernism, modern Nigerian art was subjected to stylistic, conceptual and contextual analysis. The avant-gardist context of the form was explored for two reasons; first in an attempt to distinguish the approaches of named artists and secondly, to address the Eurocentric exclusion of the ‘Other’ in Modernist discourse. The works of Nigerian modernists - Aina Onabolu, Ben Enwonwu and Uche Okeke whose practices flourished from 1900 - 1960, were interrogated and findings from detailed artists case studies proved that during the period of European Modernism, a parallel bifurcated Modernism (1900-1930 / 1930 -1960) occurred in Nigeria characterised by the interlacing of modern art with nationalist political advocacies to subvert colonialism, imperialism and European cultural imposition. This radical formulation of modern Nigerian art, constituted a unique parallel but distinct avant-gardism to Euro-American Modernism, thus proving that Modernism is a pluralistic phenomenon. To valorise the argument that Modernism had multiple avant-garde centres, this thesis analysed the variations in philosophies, ideologies and formalism of the works of Nigerian Modernists and contrasted them from Euro-American avant-gardes. The resultant cultural and contextual differences proved the plurality of Modernism not accounted for in Western art history. Furthermore, by adopting comparative analysis of the Found Object in European and African art, this thesis proved that, the appropriation of mundane objects in art differ from culture to culture, in context, philosophies and ramifications. This finding contributes to knowledge by addressing the ambiguity in Found Object art discourse and problematic attempts to subsume this genre into a mainstream framework. The uncovering/theorisation of this parallel bifurcated Nigerian Modernism, contributes to expanding understanding of Modernism as a pluralistic phenomenon thus, contributing to debates for the recognition of the different Modernisms which cultures outside Europe gave rise to. The recognition and situation of Nigerian avant-gardism and modernism and interpretation of the Found Object as being culturally specific will subsequently contribute to the reconstruction of modernist discourse and Nigerian/African art histories.
    • Normalising computer assisted language learning in the context of primary education in England

      Pazio, Monika (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015-07)
      The thesis examines the concept of normalisation of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), i.e. complete, effective integration of technology, in the context of primary Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) in England. While normalisation research is conducted predominantly in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context, understanding normalisation in the primary mainstream education in England is important due to the contrast between teachers’ lack of readiness to deliver languages as part of the National Curriculum, and technology penetration in the classrooms. This thesis therefore, taking a sociocultural perspective of Activity Theory, attempts to redefine normalisation to include context specific characteristics, identify what factors contribute to and impede normalisation, and assess where primary CALL is on route to normalisation. An ethnographic approach was deemed to be most suitable to gain deep understanding of normalisation. Prolonged immersion in a primary school and the thematic analysis of observations, interviews, field notes and audio recordings revealed that factors impeding normalisation of primary CALL revolve around the following areas: attitudes, logistics, training and support and pedagogy. The issues related to the subject itself, e.g. negative attitudes toward the subject, lack of skills, impact on the achievement of normalisation to larger extent than issues related to technology. Hence in the primary context, normalisation needs to be considered from the point of view of normalisation of MFL and then the technology that is embedded into MFL. The analysis of the data allowed the researcher to create a model which serves as a form of audit of factors that need to be considered when thinking of successful technology integration into languages. Such guidance is needed for the primary MFL context having reoccurring issues, but is also relevant to primary EFL contexts in Europe where similar problems related to teaching of the subject are reported.
    • A novel approach to providing secure data storage using multi cloud computing

      Alqahtani, Hassan Saad (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019)
      The cloud computing is a new technology that has been presented in the market un recent years. However, it suffered several security breaches, and has some open issues, in terms of security. Due to that, the literature was investigated to highlight the cloud computing security issues, it was found that about 50% of cloud computing security issues are associated with data storage, applied cryptography, and applied authentication. On the other hand, multiple-cloud paradigms have been developed as efficient solutions in order to overcome some single cloud paradigm obstacles and limitations, and enhance the efficiency of ICT cloud-based solutions. Developing an approach that is stable and capable of delivering a very high level security and availability cannot be achieved by relying on a high layer of the delivered system (the software), the lower layer (the infrastructure) must be involved in order to achieve that level of service. This study aims to improve the security of the delivered cloud storage service via multiple-cloud computing and to develop an approach for providing a secure data storage system that could be installed, configured, and easily consumed through the appropriate multiple-cloud model. The developed approached is supposed to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of the protected data; besides that, it will support disaster recovery and auditing for the system. This study aims to reduce the complexity and required knowledge levels associated with consuming a multiple-cloud computing paradigm and enhance the flexibility. In order to validate and verify the developed approach, a prototype was developed and tested, the testing phase consists of three core experiments, the outcomes of these three experiments were analysed, presented, and discussed. From the collected feedback, we could conclude that the developed prototype performance is as expected and developed prototype has been validated and verified.
    • Novel approaches to container loading: from heuristics to hybrid tabu search

      Liu, Jiamin (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2008-04)
      This work investigates new approaches to the container loading problem which address the issue of how to load three-dimensional, rectangular items (e.g. boxes) into the container in such a way that maximum utilisation is made of the container space. This problem occurs in several industry sectors where the loading approach places cargo effectively into aeroplanes, ships, trailers or trucks in order to save considerable cost. In carrying out this work, the investigation starts by developing a new heuristic approach to the two-dimensional bin packing problem, which has lower complexity than container loading in the aspects of constraints and geometry. A novel approach, including the heuristic strategies and handling method for remaining areas, is developed that can produce good results when testing with benchmark and real world data. Based on the research for two-dimensional bin packing, a novel heuristic approach is developed to deal with the container loading problem with some practical constraints. The heuristic approach to container loading also includes heuristic strategies and the handling of remaining spaces. The heuristic strategies construct effective loading arrangements where combinations of identical or different box types are loaded in blocks. The handling method for remaining spaces further improves the loading arrangements through the representation, partitioning and merging of remaining spaces. The heuristic approach obtains better volume utilisation and the highest stability compared with other published heuristic approaches. However, it does not achieve as high a volume utilisation as metaheuristic approaches, e.g. genetic algorithms and tabu search.To improve volume utilisation, a new hybrid heuristic approach to the container loading problem is further developed based on the tabu search technique which covers the encoding, evaluation criterion and configuration of neighbourhood and candidate solutions. The heuristic strategies as well as the handling method for remaining spaces developed in the heuristic approach are used in this new hybrid tabu search approach. It is shown that the hybrid approach has better volume utilisation than the published approaches under the condition that all loaded boxes with one hundred per cent support from below. In addition, the experimental results show that both the heuristic and hybrid tabu search approaches can also be applied to the multiple container loading problem.
    • Novel intervention to confer cellular tolerance: applications & mechanisms

      Tuttle, James A. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-11)
      Exercise in hot environments decreases the temperature gradient for heat loss to the external environment increasing internal heat storage. Work completed decreases and exertional heat illness risk increases. Heat acclimation (HA) programmes which last between 7 -10 d improve heat tolerance by reducing rectal temperature (Tre) during exercise. Thermotolerance is also improved. These adaptations enable work to be maintained for longer periods of time. Exertional heat illness risk is also decreased. However, HA is not logistically feasible during rapid redeployment of military, athletic, occupational and emergency worker populations to hot environments. Therefore, developing an acute preconditioning trial to enhance heat tolerance and thermotolerance could be advantageous. This thesis first determined the effect of treadmill gradient (flat or downhill running) and environmental conditions (temperate~ 20oe, 50 % relative humidity (RH) or hot conditions; 30°C, 50 % RH) on heat shock protein 72 mRNA (Hsp72 mRNA), heat shock protein 90 alpha mRNA (Hsp90a mRNA), glucose regulated protein 78 mRNA, glucose regulate protein 94 mRNA, exercising Tre and HR, Study 2 investigated whether an acute trial combining downhill running and hot environmental conditions (Hot downhill) elevated basal HSP72 concentrations, attenuated exercising Tre• HR, vastus lateralis (VL) and leukocyte Hsp72 mRNA and Hsp90a mRNA responses during an identical trial 7 d later. Downhill running and hot environmental conditions increased leukocyte Hsp72 mRNA, leukocyte Hsp90a mRNA, exercising Trc and DOMS further than flat running and temperate environmental conditions. Increased Hsp72 mRNA and Hsp90a mRNA were mainly exercising Tre and metabolic strain dependent. Exercising Tn; (at 30 min) and DOMS were reduced during or following the second hot downhill trial. Attenuated Hsp72 mRNA and Hsp90a mRNA responses within the VL and leukocytes also occurred. Basal VL HSP72 increased after the second hot downhill trial In conclusion, an acute hot downhill trial decreases exercising Tn: and DOMS during an identical trial 7 d later but basal HSP72 concentrations are not affected. Leukocyte Hsp72 mRNA and Hsp90a mRNA are valid surrogates of the VL response.
    • A novel MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks

      Shah, Munam Ali (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-04)
      The scarcity of bandwidth in the radio spectrum has become more vital since the demand for wireless applications has increased. Most of the spectrum bands have been allocated although many studies have shown that these bands are significantly underutilized most of the time. The problem of unavailability of spectrum bands and the inefficiency in their utilization have been smartly addressed by the cognitive radio (CR) technology which is an opportunistic network that senses the environment, observes the network changes, and then uses knowledge gained from the prior interaction with the network to make intelligent decisions by dynamically adapting transmission characteristics. In this thesis, recent research and survey about the advances in theory and applications of cognitive radio technology has been reviewed. The thesis starts with the essential background on cognitive radio techniques and systems and discusses those characteristics of CR technology, such as standards, applications and challenges that all can help make software radio more personal. It then presents advanced level material by extensively reviewing the work done so far in the area of cognitive radio networks and more specifically in medium access control (MAC) protocol of CR. The list of references will be useful to both researchers and practitioners in this area. Also, it can be adopted as a graduate-level textbook for an advanced course on wireless communication networks. The development of new technologies such as Wi-Fi, cellular phones, Bluetooth, TV broadcasts and satellite has created immense demand for radio spectrum which is a limited natural resource ranging from 30KHz to 300GHz. For every wireless application, some portion of the radio spectrum needs to be purchased, and the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) allocates the spectrum for some fee for such services. This static allocation of the radio spectrum has led to various problems such as saturation in some bands, scarcity, and lack of radio resources to new wireless applications. Most of the frequencies in the radio spectrum have been allocated although many studies have shown that the allocated bands are not being used efficiently. The CR technology is one of the effective solutions to the shortage of spectrum and the inefficiency of its utilization. In this thesis, a detailed investigation on issues related to the protocol design for cognitive radio networks with particular emphasis on the MAC layer is presented. A novel Dynamic and Decentralized and Hybrid MAC (DDH-MAC) protocol that lies between the CR MAC protocol families of globally available common control channel (GCCC) and local control channel (non-GCCC). First, a multi-access channel MAC protocol, which integrates the best features of both GCCC and non-GCCC, is proposed. Second, an enhancement to the protocol is proposed by enabling it to access more than one control channel at the same time. The cognitive users/secondary users (SUs) always have access to one control channel and they can identify and exploit the vacant channels by dynamically switching across the different control channels. Third, rapid and efficient exchange of CR control information has been proposed to reduce delays due to the opportunistic nature of CR. We have calculated the pre-transmission time for CR and investigate how this time can have a significant effect on nodes holding a delay sensitive data. Fourth, an analytical model, including a Markov chain model, has been proposed. This analytical model will rigorously analyse the performance of our proposed DDH-MAC protocol in terms of aggregate throughput, access delay, and spectrum opportunities in both the saturated and non-saturated networks. Fifth, we develop a simulation model for the DDH-MAC protocol using OPNET Modeler and investigate its performance for queuing delays, bit error rates, backoff slots and throughput. It could be observed from both the numerical and simulation results that when compared with existing CR MAC protocols our proposed MAC protocol can significantly improve the spectrum utilization efficiency of wireless networks. Finally, we optimize the performance of our proposed MAC protocol by incorporating multi-level security and making it energy efficient.
    • Novel optimization schemes for service composition in the cloud using learning automata-based matrix factorization

      Shehu, Umar Galadima (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015-10)
      Service Oriented Computing (SOC) provides a framework for the realization of loosely couple service oriented applications (SOA). Web services are central to the concept of SOC. They possess several benefits which are useful to SOA e.g. encapsulation, loose coupling and reusability. Using web services, an application can embed its functionalities within the business process of other applications. This is made possible through web service composition. Web services are composed to provide more complex functions for a service consumer in the form of a value added composite service. Currently, research into how web services can be composed to yield QoS (Quality of Service) optimal composite service has gathered significant attention. However, the number and services has risen thereby increasing the number of possible service combinations and also amplifying the impact of network on composite service performance. QoS-based service composition in the cloud addresses two important sub-problems; Prediction of network performance between web service nodes in the cloud, and QoS-based web service composition. We model the former problem as a prediction problem while the later problem is modelled as an NP-Hard optimization problem due to its complex, constrained and multi-objective nature. This thesis contributed to the prediction problem by presenting a novel learning automata-based non-negative matrix factorization algorithm (LANMF) for estimating end-to-end network latency of a composition in the cloud. LANMF encodes each web service node as an automaton which allows v it to estimate its network coordinate in such a way that prediction error is minimized. Experiments indicate that LANMF is more accurate than current approaches. The thesis also contributed to the QoS-based service composition problem by proposing four evolutionary algorithms; a network-aware genetic algorithm (INSGA), a K-mean based genetic algorithm (KNSGA), a multi-population particle swarm optimization algorithm (NMPSO), and a non-dominated sort fruit fly algorithm (NFOA). The algorithms adopt different evolutionary strategies coupled with LANMF method to search for low latency and QoSoptimal solutions. They also employ a unique constraint handling method used to penalize solutions that violate user specified QoS constraints. Experiments demonstrate the efficiency and scalability of the algorithms in a large scale environment. Also the algorithms outperform other evolutionary algorithms in terms of optimality and calability. In addition, the thesis contributed to QoS-based web service composition in a dynamic environment. This is motivated by the ineffectiveness of the four proposed algorithms in a dynamically hanging QoS environment such as a real world scenario. Hence, we propose a new cellular automata-based genetic algorithm (CellGA) to address the issue. Experimental results show the effectiveness of CellGA in solving QoS-based service composition in dynamic QoS environment.
    • A novel parallel algorithm for surface editing and its FPGA implementation

      Liu, Yukun (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-09)
      Surface modelling and editing is one of important subjects in computer graphics. Decades of research in computer graphics has been carried out on both low-level, hardware-related algorithms and high-level, abstract software. Success of computer graphics has been seen in many application areas, such as multimedia, visualisation, virtual reality and the Internet. However, the hardware realisation of OpenGL architecture based on FPGA (field programmable gate array) is beyond the scope of most of computer graphics researches. It is an uncultivated research area where the OpenGL pipeline, from hardware through the whole embedded system (ES) up to applications, is implemented in an FPGA chip. This research proposes a hybrid approach to investigating both software and hardware methods. It aims at bridging the gap between methods of software and hardware, and enhancing the overall performance for computer graphics. It consists of four parts, the construction of an FPGA-based ES, Mesa-OpenGL implementation for FPGA-based ESs, parallel processing, and a novel algorithm for surface modelling and editing. The FPGA-based ES is built up. In addition to the Nios II soft processor and DDR SDRAM memory, it consists of the LCD display device, frame buffers, video pipeline, and algorithm-specified module to support the graphics processing. Since there is no implementation of OpenGL ES available for FPGA-based ESs, a specific OpenGL implementation based on Mesa is carried out. Because of the limited FPGA resources, the implementation adopts the fixed-point arithmetic, which can offer faster computing and lower storage than the floating point arithmetic, and the accuracy satisfying the needs of 3D rendering. Moreover, the implementation includes Bézier-spline curve and surface algorithms to support surface modelling and editing. The pipelined parallelism and co-processors are used to accelerate graphics processing in this research. These two parallelism methods extend the traditional computation parallelism in fine-grained parallel tasks in the FPGA-base ESs. The novel algorithm for surface modelling and editing, called Progressive and Mixing Algorithm (PAMA), is proposed and implemented on FPGA-based ES’s. Compared with two main surface editing methods, subdivision and deformation, the PAMA can eliminate the large storage requirement and computing cost of intermediated processes. With four independent shape parameters, the PAMA can be used to model and edit freely the shape of an open or closed surface that keeps globally the zero-order geometric continuity. The PAMA can be applied independently not only FPGA-based ESs but also other platforms. With the parallel processing, small size, and low costs of computing, storage and power, the FPGA-based ES provides an effective hybrid solution to surface modelling and editing.
    • Novel, robust and cost-effective authentication techniques for online services

      Norrington, Peter (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2009-01)
      This thesis contributes to the study of the usability and security of visuo-cognitive authentication techniques, particularly those relying on recognition of abstract images, an area little researched. Many usability and security problems with linguistic passwords (including traditional text-based passwords) have been known for decades. Research into visually-based techniques intends to overcome these by using the extensive human capacity for recognising images, and add to the range of commercially viable authentication solutions. The research employs a mixed methodology to develop several contributions to the field. A novel taxonomy of visuo-cognitive authentication techniques is presented. This is based on analysis and synthesis of existing partial taxonomies, combined with new and extensive analysis of features of existing visuo-cognitive and other techniques. The taxonomy advances consistent terminology, and coherent and productive classification (cognometric, locimetric, graphimetric and manipulometric, based respectively on recognition of, location in, drawing of and manipulation of images) and discussion of the domain. The taxonomy is extensible to other classes of cognitive authentication technique (audio-cognitive, spatio-cognitive, biometric and token-based, etc.). A revised assessment process of the usability and security of visuo-cognitive techniques is proposed (employing three major assessment categories – usability, memorability and security), based on analysis, synthesis and refinement of existing models. The revised process is then applied to the features identified in the novel taxonomy to prove the process‘s utility as a tool to clarify both the what and the why of usability and security issues. The process is also extensible to other classes of authentication technique. iii Cognitive psychology experimental methods are employed, producing new results which show with statistical significance that abstract images are harder to learn and recall than face or object images. Additionally, new experiments and a new application of the chi-squared statistic show that users‘ choices of abstract images are not necessarily random over a group, and thus, like other cognitive authentication techniques, can be attacked by probabilistic dictionaries. A new authentication prototype is designed and implemented, embodying the usability and security insights gained. Testing of this prototype shows good usability and user acceptance, although speed of use remains an issue. A new experiment shows that abstract image authentication techniques are vulnerable to phishing attacks. Further, the testing shows two new results: that abstract image visuo-cognitive techniques are usable on mobile phones; and that such phones are not, currently, necessarily a threat as part of observation attacks on visual passwords.
    • Nymphon (Pycnogonida) in the Eastern Arctic

      Cranmer, Gary John (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1982-07)
      Nymphon is the largest genus of Pycnogonida reaching its greatest diversity in the Polar regions. A revision of the genus within the Eastern Arctic has proved necessary due to the numerous nomenclatural complexities which have accumulated in the literature since its last major revision by Sars in 1891. This has been achieved using multivariate analyses involving the measurement of over 1500 specimens. Fifteen species are now recognized from the area and each has been redrawn and redescribed. It has not proved necessary to propose any new species. Two distinct sub-groups are found within the genus in this area, differing in leg morphology and reproductive strategy. The first group, exemplified by Nymphon stromi, has a leg morphology suited to walking or striding. A large number of lightly yolked eggs are typically produced and the larvae spend only a short period of their development on the male ovigers before they disperse. The other group, exemplified by Nymphon hirtipes, has a leg morphology more suited to clinging. Fewer eggs are produced but these are richer in yolk and the male overwinters with the larvae which are lost only when metamorphosis is nearly complete. These interspecific differences have been discussed and it is thought that they may enable direct competition to be avoided by the exploitation of different facets of the same environment. In addition, differences in the musculature have been discussed for species within Nymphon and for the Pycnogonida generally. The male ovigers of all species examined show various adaptations which increase the surface area compared with that of the female. These modifications have been discussed and are shown to afford a greater area for attachrnent of the maturing egg masses. A histological examination of the internal structure of the femoral cement glands of Nymphon hirtipes has revealed that the adult males have a broad band of glandular tissue lying under the epidermis whereas specimens in the final larval stage have little or none. The life-cycle of Nymphon hirtipes is postulated, showing the species to take between two and a half and three years to attain maturity. It breeds only once, during its final summer. This is compared with existing knowledge of the life cycles of shallow and tropical water species.
    • Occupational socialisation and the subjective warrant of physical education teachers

      Flemons, Michelle (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2017-12)
      Based on ideology rather than a philosophy, physical education (PE) is dominated by a traditional curriculum and custodial teaching orientations that are recycled inter-generationally. The subjective warrant has a direct relationship with the conception of beliefs related to perceptions of how PE should be delivered. Using occupational socialisation as a framework and Bourdieu’s concept of habitus, field and practice as a thinking tool, the purpose of the study was to determine the subjective warrant’s adequacy in 21st century PE, identify changes to the subjective warrant, and its impact on teaching behaviours over time. Using a mixed methods approach informed by the interpretive paradigm, life story semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis with 29 teachers at different career points. In-service teachers’ lessons were analysed using the System for Observing Needs-Supportive Interactions in Physical Education (SONIPE). Independent samples t-test was used to compare teacher behaviours between Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) and Experienced Teachers (ETs). PE teachers being recruited within the profession, academicisation of PE and perceived high competition for entry give the subjective warrant stringency. Attitudes and beliefs towards pedagogy do not define one’s role. Changing situational factors influence the perceptions of affirmation and accountability in teaching. Significant differences in teacher behaviours for relatedness (t = 0.172, p = 0.084) and structure (t = 0.119, p = 0.102) occurred more in ET’s group indicating more custodial practices. The subjective warrant still has currency and its stringency identifies why PE is slow to evolve due to the recycling of the group habitus within the field. Innovative pedagogical practices are not defined by role but by attitudes and perceptions towards teaching. Physical education recruitment needs to attract individuals who are not ‘typical’ recruits. Ways to keep innovative teachers in the field need to be considered.
    • Oman from exploration to tourism: the images of the country in early travellers’ tales, travelogues and travel brochures (1838-2001)

      Al Habsi, Mohammed A. A. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2004-03)
      This thesis uses early travel accounts (1838-1959), travelogues (1996-2001) and travel brochures (2001) to investigate the image of Oman and its people in British travel texts. Although there have been a number of imagery studies within the field of tourism over the last two decades, they have been recently criticised by Gallarza et al. (2002) for their lack of theoretical orientation. This thesis is intended to be a modest step in addressing this criticism by re-appraising Said's well known work on Orientalism (1978) and works that foreshadowed it, by testing their political, theoretical and polemical propositions against detailed evidence to be found in case study evidence derived from close analysis of English texts on one country; Oman. The thesis investigates the extent to which these texts confirm/disconfirm Said's predominantly critical evaluation of Western (particularly British and French) representations of the east through the construct he calls 'Orientalism'. Through exploration of the imagery attached to Oman, this analysis is intended to contribute to the wider "Othering" debate in suggesting how people of a developing country are defined and gendered by people from developed ones. The thesis, which is based on three genres of travel texts, suggests a much more complex picture of the mechanisms of representations than Said (1978) suggests, showing, for example, that each textual category (travel book, travelogue, and brochure) had its own distinguishing variations in terms of ideological perspective, mode of address and substantive content. For example, political and imperial discourses were widely present in early travel accounts, while, by contrast, travelogue and travel brochure data were more constituted by discourses of consumerism and commerce, with residual I'olitical and imperial traces either silenced, muted or reconstituted as forms of nostalgia, or a depoliticised, sometimes, aestheticised, historic heritage. Moreover, although some early accounts contain negative denotations and connotations relating to Oman and its people that would support Said's broadly critical deconstruction of "Orientalism" as an ideological mechanism of control and appropriation, all three media representations, historical travel texts included, were far from presenting a uniform, or even predominant construction of Oman and its people that would support Said's critique. In two contextual chapters, this thesis appraIses historical encounters between Omanis and Westerns with focus on the British and Omani relationship, and offers an overview ofthe development of tourism in Oman. On the methodological front, the study is unusual as an investigation that combines inductive with deductive approaches, quantitative content analysis with qualitative semiotic analysis. Content analysis was used to examine the images of Oman reproduced in the three media. The quantitative findings were analysed qualitatively by using semiotic analysis to explore and interpret the meanings behind the quantitative results.
    • On statistical characterization of EESM effective SNR over frequency selective channels

      Song, Hui (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2010-04-13)
      With frequency selective fading, the SNRs of each sub-carrier would vary over the time and frequency. It would then cause fluctuations of the effective SNR. As the decision of MeS in LA is based on the effective SNR, the study of the statistical characterization of effective SNR over frequency selective fading channels would be very important, This problem forms the basis of investigation in this thesis. The methodology used in this thesis is generally divided into two parts. The first part is to investigate the method in obtaining the distribution of EESM over frequency selective fading channels. Such approach will be very helpful for the second part of the work which is to obtain the exact distribution of the EESM effective SNR for a specified fading model. In this case, Nakagami-m fading model is used. The choice of this model is based due to its simplicity and experimental consistency. One of the important features of the distribution is that the SNR of a signal under Nakagami fading is gamma distributed. Thus, in performance evaluation involving Nakagami fading, one can often rely on established results (in the statistics literature) of the gamma distribution. An important special case of the Nakagami distribution is the Rayleigh distribution, which arises in the situation of where the line-of-sight (LOS) component between the transmitter and the receiver is absent, i.e., when all of the received power stems from scattered components. The corresponding distribution for the SNR is the exponential distribution. The research in this thesis represents an effort to provide a statistical characterization of EESM effective SNR which has not appeared in any existing literatures. The goals of this thesis is to Characterize the statistics of EESM effective SNR over frequency selective channels. Obtain the distribution of EESM effective SNR over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels. Theoretically analyze the performance (Le. average SNR, outage probability and Symbol Error Rate (SER) etc.) of EESM over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels. Provide simple approximations to the proposed analytical results. Try to find extension and application of the results.
    • On the occurrence, ecology and behaviour of Onchidella celtica (Gastropoda, Onchidiacea) in the littoral of Cornwall

      Tween, Trevor Charles (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1987-01)
      Onchidella celtica is the only onchidiacean to occur in Britain; it is a littoral pulmonate gastropod of controversial taxonomic placement and an historica1 review of the group is therefore presented. The habitat, spatial dispersion, local distribution and geographical range of O.celtica are each described, with particular reference to Cornish shores. The nature of the substratum, exposure and the adverse affects of low temperatures are suggested as the principal parameters controlling the observed distributions, which are considered in detail. O.celtica lays capsular spawn and examination of these has enabled development times and hatching rates to be assessed. Juvenile growth rates have also been investigated to aid the interpretation of population age-structure in shore-line samples, and the dynamics and longevity of the population are discussed. Reproduction is shown to be inhibited by low temperatures. The various reproductive strategies of the onchidiaceans are discussed. Likely causes of mortality are considered, the likelihood of predation by intertidal carnivores is assessed and defensive strategies, including glandular secretions, rhythms of activity and cryptic habits, are shown to be important in evading predation. Various aspects of the behaviour of O.celtica are investigated quantitatively, including aggregation, crevice selection and foraging, and their importance as strategies in successfully exploiting the exposed littoral environment is discussed. A detailed investigation of homing behaviour shows this to be accomplished without obvious trail-following. and remote olfaction is suggested as the principal mechanism of homing. Ambient temperature has a marked effect on the frequency of individuals foraging, and the role of other environmental variables is considered. The feeding behaviour and diet of O.celtica are described, and the possibility of food selection is considered. A preliminary histochemical examination has elucidated the distribution of certain classes of enzymes in the gut of O.celtica.
    • Operationalising physical literacy within physical education teaching practice through professional development

      Durden-Myers, Elizabeth Jayne (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-09)
      Introduction - Physical literacy has been described as a longed-for concept and has gained widespread global interest. This interest has also given rise to calls for physical literacy to be operationalised, providing clarity and guidance on developing physical literacy informed teaching practice. Operationalising physical literacy is crucial in moving the concept forwards by providing substance to the claims made by physical literacy advocates. The purpose of this research was to explore how physical literacy could be operationalised within physical education teaching practice. In particular, this thesis investigates how professional development can support physical literacy informed physical education practice. Methodology - This research utilised professional development sessions alongside participatory action research to develop the practice of fourteen teachers of physical education in both primary and secondary school contexts. Semi-structured interviews were used to capture the professional development journey of each teacher. This information was supplemented by extensive supporting data including field diaries, emails, video recordings, lesson observations, lesson plans and lesson reflections. Thematic analysis and narrative representation were used to analyse and present the findings of the semi-structured interviews. Findings - This research proposes that physical literacy professional development can be effective in operationalising physical literacy within physical education teaching practice. It argues that the factors that mediate the effectiveness of professional development include the professional development process, the use of a credible expert, and participant and context engagement. This research also argues that as a result of professional development teachers are better able to describe the why, what and how of physical literacy and are able to better articulate how it informs their teaching practice. Finally, a number of barriers to operationalising physical literacy within physical education teaching practice were identified and categorised as either leadership and governance, management and institutional or individual barriers. Solutions to support the operationalisation of physical literacy in physical education teaching practice centred around two key themes. Firstly, raising the status and value of physical education and secondly, by improving professional development opportunities for teachers. Conclusion - This research contributes to knowledge firstly, by extending the theoretical and conceptual rationale and understanding around unpacking physical literacy for use within educational professional development and physical education teaching practice. And secondly, in the development of a physical literacy professional development framework and intervention. This research provides an effective process (action research and professional development sessions) alongside a range of supporting tools (lesson planning, observation and reflection tools) and resources (website, folder, handouts) that can assist the operationalisation of physical literacy. This research recommends that more opportunities for meaningful physical literacy professional development, including the development of whole school approaches are required. It also argues that more needs to be done in order to elevate and align the value, role and purpose of physical education across the education profession as a whole. Finally, this research argues that in order to scale and create sustainable impact the creation of in-situ physical literacy experts or champions are required to sustain and advocate the value of and develop physical literacy informed practice more widely and sustainably.
    • Organisational reward strategies and performance of front line managers: analysis of Pakistani textile industry

      Tufail, Muhammad Shahid (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-11)
      The current study seeks to contribute specifically to the literature on reward management and managerial performance. In doing so, it aims to address certain gaps in the existing literature; particularly a noticeable lack of research in rewards and individual performance relationships in a developing country, Pakistan. This study has sought to examine the relationship of extrinsic rewards comprising of pay, bonuses, opportunities for promotion and intrinsic rewards such as sense of recognition, job characteristics with individual performance measured as task and contextual performance including citizenship behaviour. Furthermore, the study has sought to examine the mediation role of organisational justice elements such as procedural and distributive justice in reward performance relationships. The study aims at identifying different rewards being offered in textile organisations and their relationships with performance of front line managers in textile sector organisations. The study focuses primarily on key research questions: 1. What is the relationship between extrinsic rewards such as pay and bonus based incentives with the performance of front line managers? 2. How do opportunities for promotion relate with performance of front line managers in textile industry? 3. What is the relationship of intrinsic rewards such as sense of recognition and job characteristics with the performance of front line managers? 4. How does procedural and distributive justice influence the reward performance relationships for front line managers in textile industry? Being deductive in nature, the current study revolves around the premises of positivist philosophy. Being cross section in nature, a survey based design is selected and a quantitative strategy is used in this study for data collection and analysis. The study is facilitated by random stratified sampling for data collection and structural equation modelling technique to draw results of direct and mediation effects of study constructs. The results portray significant relationships of rewards and individual performance with relatively strong emphasis on task performance in comparison to contextual performance. The results further highlight the mediation of procedural and distributive justice particularly in extrinsic rewards and task performance relationships for front line managers. The study seeks to contribute to existing theoretical knowledge and practices in developing economies and is pioneering in its examination of rewards-individual performance relationships in Pakistan. In examining organisational rewards with task and contextual performance for front line managers in private manufacturing sector, the study tends to address the gap in existing literature on reward and performance management. Moreover, the current study further seeks to examine the mediation effects of procedural and distributive justice in reward performance relationships discovering this field of theoretical knowledge as existing literature does not reflect upon this gap. The study intends to offer help and support to concerned stakeholders in better understanding, developing and modifying rewards-performance relationships particularly for textile industry in Pakistan.
    • Orphan volunteer tourism in Thailand: understanding motivations, experiences and interactions

      Proyrungroj, Raweewan (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-05)
      This research investigates volunteer tourists’ motivations and on-site experiences, alongside hosts’ attitudes towards volunteer tourists at the Home and Life orphanage in Phang Nga province, Thailand. An interpretive paradigm utilising qualitative data collection methods (semi-structured interviews, a focus group, participant observation and diaries) was adopted. The informants included twenty-four volunteer tourists, on a working vacation at the Home and Life orphanage between 1stJuly and 30th September 2011, and twenty hosts from Thai Muang subdistrict. The findings of the research suggest that the volunteer tourists’ motivations and on-site experiences are multidimensional. Five main themes of motivations have been identified: (i) to help the children who were affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami; (ii) to gain personal development and growth; (iii) to gain new experiences; (iv) to learn about/be immersed in local culture; and (v) to meet and make friends. Amongst these, a desire to help the children was the most dominant motivational factor, which was strongly influenced the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. In terms of the volunteer tourists’ on-site experiences, four experiential dimensions were found: (i) personal development and growth; (ii) social; (iii) cultural; and (iv) feeling. The study suggests that the children had played a significant role in making the volunteer tourists’ experience a beneficial one because they were an important source for cultural learning and their lives had taught a number of things to the volunteer tourists. This research also investigates hosts’ attitudes towards the volunteer tourists. It was found that they had very positive attitudes towards the volunteer tourists, based upon two main factors: the volunteer tourists’ conduct and performance; and the perceived benefits they gained from the work of these tourists. The opportunity for the children to study English with English native speakers was cited as the most significant benefit. However, the hosts also had concerns about some aspects of the volunteer tourists’ behaviour and perceived underperformance, which were found to be mainly the result of cultural differences. Additionally, interactions and relationships between volunteer tourists and hosts were also examined by using social exchange theory. The study suggests that the interactions were reciprocal, and that both the volunteer tourists and the hosts enjoyed satisfactory benefits from one another: the volunteer tourist had a desired experience, and the hosts gained benefits from the work of the volunteer tourists.