• Hard synchronous real-time communication with the time-token MAC protocol

      Wang, Jun (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2009-07)
      The timely delivery of inter-task real-time messages over a communication network is the key to successfully developing distributed real-time computer systems. These systems are rapidly developed and increasingly used in many areas such as automation industry. This work concentrates on the timed-token Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, which is one of the most suitable candidates to support real-time communication due to its inherent timing property of bounded medium access time. The support of real-time communication with the timed-token MAC protocol has been studied using a rigorous mathematical analysis. Specifically, to guarantee the deadlines of synchronous messages (real-time messages defined in the timed-token MAC protocol), a novel and practical approach is developed for allocating synchronous bandwidth to a general message set with the minimum deadline (Dmin) larger than the Target Token Rotation Time (TTRT). Synchronous bandwidth is defined as the maximum time for which a node can transmit its synchronous messages every time it receives the token. It is a sensitive paramater in the control of synchronous message transmission and must be properly allocated to individual nodes to guarantee deadlines of real-time messages. Other issues related to the schedulability test, including the required buffer size and the Worst Case Achievable Utilisation (WCAU) of the proposed approach, are then discussed. Simulations and numerical examples demonstrate that this novel approach performs better than any previously published local synchronous bandwidth allocation (SBA) schemes, in terms of its ability to guarantee the real-time traffic. A proper selection of the TTRT, which can maximise the WCAU of the proposed SBA scheme, is addressed. The work presented in this thesis is compatible with any network standard where timed-token MAC protocol is employed and therefore can be applied by engineers building real-time systems using these standards.
    • Health impacts of participation in the liberation struggle of Zimbabwe by Zanla women ex¬combatants in the Zanla operational areas

      Manyame-Tazarurwa, Kalister Christine (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2009-02)
      These are accounts of what happened during the liberation struggle of Zimbabwe, what life was really like for those who fought. How they suffered, their bravery, and their hardships. What happened to the women who fought beside the men lies behind the women’s stories in a universal theme showing that women everywhere recognize the fight for independence, and then the isolation and disregard and suppression all accumulating to the trauma that follows. Until women can talk about their war experiences and make a connection with their grief and anger, they will each still be unconsciously trying to get out of their own personal camps. The experiences are unique, but they are examples of the broader experience of cultural assumptions and attitudes towards women, how these permeate lives, and how each woman, attempts to survive them. Talking about war experiences is talking about trauma and suffering, it is about understanding the long-term health consequences but it is also about women’s resilience and strength.
    • ‘Helping me find my own way’: sexually exploited young people’s involvement in decision-making about their care

      Warrington, Camille (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2013-03-22)
      This thesis explores the role and relevance of the concepts of participation and service user involvement for work with sexually exploited children and young people. The central research questions are: how do young people at risk of, or affected by sexual exploitation, experience their rights to involvement in decision-making processes about their care? What is the meaning and value of the concept of participation from service users’ own perspectives? And what are the gains of involving these young people in decision-making processes about their care? The research involved in-depth qualitative interviews with twenty young service users and ten practitioners. Three theoretical frameworks underpin the study; a constructivist approach to childhood; sociological approaches to agency, and discourses of children’s participation rights. The analysis of data was informed by both narrative and grounded theory approaches. The thesis argues that young people’s perspectives on professional welfare, though rarely recorded or allowed to inform policy and best practice, shed new insight onto the efficacy and limitations of existing child protection practice with adolescents at risk of sexual exploitation. Consideration is given to how young people experience and respond to services, including their decisions about disengaging from or circumventing professional support. The thesis concludes that these demonstrations of agency and power, though often interpreted as deviant, are essentially rational and often protective. Through this lens young people’s agency is recognised as a resource rather than a problem. The thesis concludes by arguing that the ability of support services to protect young people affected by sexual exploitation is contingent on the degree to which they involve young people in decision-making about their care. Rather than standing in opposition to paternalistic approaches to protection, the narratives suggest that participation and empowerment are necessary conditions of a protective service, especially for those considered most marginalized or vulnerable.
    • A heuristic information retrieval study : an investigation of methods for enhanced searching of distributed data objects exploiting bidirectional relevance feedback

      Petratos, Panagiotis (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2004-02)
      The primary aim of this research is to investigate methods of improving the effectiveness of current information retrieval systems. This aim can be achieved by accomplishing numerous supporting objectives. A foundational objective is to introduce a novel bidirectional, symmetrical fuzzy logic theory which may prove valuable to information retrieval, including internet searches of distributed data objects. A further objective is to design, implement and apply the novel theory to an experimental information retrieval system called ANACALYPSE, which automatically computes the relevance of a large number of unseen documents from expert relevance feedback on a small number of documents read. A further objective is to define a methodology used in this work as an experimental information retrieval framework consisting of multiple tables including various formulae which anow a plethora of syntheses of similarity functions, ternl weights, relative term frequencies, document weights, bidirectional relevance feedback and history adjusted term weights. The evaluation of bidirectional relevance feedback reveals a better correspondence between system ranking of documents and users' preferences than feedback free system ranking. The assessment of similarity functions reveals that the Cosine and Jaccard functions perform significantly better than the DotProduct and Overlap functions. The evaluation of history tracking of the documents visited from a root page reveals better system ranking of documents than tracking free information retrieval. The assessment of stemming reveals that system information retrieval performance remains unaffected, while stop word removal does not appear to be beneficial and can sometimes be harmful. The overall evaluation of the experimental information retrieval system in comparison to a leading edge commercial information retrieval system and also in comparison to the expert's golden standard of judged relevance according to established statistical correlation methods reveal enhanced system information retrieval effectiveness.
    • High-resolution and large-area laser interference nanomanufacturing technology

      Wang, Dapeng (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-10)
      The thesis systematically investigates the laser interference nanomanufacturing technology taking into account its advantages and abilities to realise various potential applications. The latest progresses have addressed the major issues hampering the cross-scale developments of structural applications, such as cost-ineffective fabrication, limited area, low efficiency and challenging integration. The studies carried out on high-resolution and large-area laser interference nanomanufacturing technology will complement the exploration of modern optical devices and extraordinary functional applications. With respect to classical interference theory and relevant references, there is still a lack of studies providing insight into the effects of polarisation on the multi-beam interference while it is found that the polarisation vector plays a key role in the formation, period and contrast of interfering patterns. Herein, the theory of multi-beam interference is developed through the integration of the polarisation vector and electric field vector. It is worth pointing out that based on the detailed analysis of the four-beam interference with the special polarisation modes, it is demonstrated that the modulation phenomenon in four-beam laser interference is the result of the misalignment of incident angles or unequal incident angles only in the case of the TE-TE-TM-TM mode. In the experiments, a straightforward method of generating various well-defined structures on material surfaces is proposed using the nanosecond laser interference system. The experimental results of two-, three- and four-beam interference show a good correspondence to the theoretical analyses and simulations. Artificial bio-structures are fabricated using the four-beam interference method with the TE-TE-TE-TE polarisation mode and the fabricated microcone structures exhibit excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA=156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9-15.4%). In order to fabricate high-resolution structures, the 266nm nanosecond laser interference system is employed to treat the organic and metal-film materials. Nanograting structures with feature sizes of sub-100nm width and 2nm height are fabricated on the organic material surface. An attempt is successfully conduced to produce the nanoelectrode arrays by using laser interference lithography and chemical deposition. Finally, the advantages of the developed laser interference technology and contributions of the research are summarised, and recommendations of future work are given.
    • Histone acetylation and inflammatory mediators in inflammatory bowel disease

      Tsaprouni, Loukia G. (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2003)
      During cell activation the tightly compacted DNA is made available to DNA-binding proteins allowing the induction of gene transcription. In the resting cell, DNA is packaged into chromatin whose fundamental subunit is the nucleosome, composed of an octamer of four core histones (H) 3, 4, 2A and 2B. During the induction of gene transcription, modification of histones, by acetylation, methylation etc., results in unwinding of the DNA, permitting access of large DNAbinding proteins, such as RNA polymerase II, and subsequent induction of gene transcription. This investigation initially examined the effects of pro-inflammatory stimuli LPS and TNF-a on the production of IL-8 in a macrophage cell line (U937 cells) and in two T-cell lines (Jurkat and HUT-78 cells) as a marker of NF-KB-directed inflammatory gene expression. The ability of dexamethasone (Dex) and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) (synthetic glucocorticoid agonists) to suppress expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-8 and to regulate histone acetylation was also investigated in these cells. LPS and TNF-a caused an increase in IL-8 expression, which was further enhanced by the histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), suggesting a role for histone acetylation in IL-8 production in these cells. Dex and TA, repressed LPS- and TNF-a -induced IL-8 expression in all three cell lines. This effect of both Dex and TA was attenuated by TSA in all cell lines studied, where the effect of TSA was greater in TA stimulated cells. Stimulation of all cell lines with LPS and TNF-a induced acetylation of H4 lysine residues (K5, 8, 12 and 16), the highest elevation of which was for K8 and K12. Also demonstrate is a K5 and K16 specificity of acetylation by glucocorticoids, apparent in all cell lines studied. Dex and, to a greater extent, TA suppressed LPS- and TNFa-induced K8 and K12 acetylation. TSA attenuated the inhibitory effect of the glucocorticoids for all three cell lines. An inCrease in HDAC activity with GCs was observed and ChiP assay showed these events occur on the native IL-8 promoter via histone acetylation. Further studies investigated whether there were any links between histone acetylation and the regulation of apoptosis. It was showed that TSA induced apoptosis in cells previously stimulated with the inducer of oxidative stress hydrogen peroxide (H20 2). Studies into the activation of caspase 3 in LPS- and TNF-a stimulated cells revealed that the combinatory effect of Dex or TA with TSA Significantly enhanced expression of the marker in all three cell lines. In resting cells, Dex, and TA, in the presence of TSA downregulated caspase 3 expression. These findings support the notion that glucocorticoid actions on apoptosis is mediated, at least in part, through an action on histone acetylation. Finally, histone acetylation was investigated in vivo in two rat models of inflammation and in human subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The results showed an increase in histone H4 acetylation lysine specificity of acetylation on K8 and K12 in inflamed tissue and Peyer's patches in animal models and in IBD patients. Whereas H3 acetylation was not elevated to the same extent in tissue and was restricted to the mantle zone of Peyer's patches. In general, the present studies on histone acetylation and inflammation (in animal models and IBD patients) underlined the possibility of a general mechanism linking activation of the transcription factor NFKB with histone acetylation. The ultimate objective of this work is to aid in the understanding of the mechanisms of how deregulation of chromosome structure leads to progression of the disease state. This knowledge may aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches or improved glucocorticoids.
    • The history and development of nomography

      Evesham, Harold Ainsley (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1982)
      That body of knowledge which has the name Nomography consists of the theory and practice by which the results of Geometry are used to facilitate numerical calculation. The subject existed under various titles before 1891 when d'Ocagne coined its present name. Methods in use before 1840 are examined to determine the foundations on which the subsequent structure was erected. In particular, the development of analytical geometry and of the concept of level curves, or contours, are noted for the main period of development, up to 1900, the works of lalanne, Massau and d'Ocagne are examined with that of other less important contributors. Lalanne published his ideas in 1843 giving the first indication of a related theoretical problem, that of anamorphosis or the replacement of curves difficult to construct by others more regular, preferably straight lines. Massau published many important results in 1884 including the form of a determinant equation which must be satisfied by components of a function of three variables if that function is to be represented by three systems of straight lines. Also in 1884, d'Ocagne described a new type of nomogram depending on the alignment of points; previous nomograms had depended on the intersection of curves. The possibility of alignment in the case of three variables is seen to be related to Massau's determinant equation and thus to the problem of anamorphosi for the period from 1900 two main themes are followed. The major theme examines the attempts to solve the problem of anamorphosis for functions of three variables. Surprisingly, this requires the examination of comparatively recent material and it is found that there is no neat and tidy solution; at least not one that has yet been found. The second theme considers the propagation and USB of nomographic ideas with special reference to Britain, where they were not readily adopted. finally, some recent developments in the subject are examined.
    • History assisted energy efficient spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks

      Syed, Tazeen Shabana (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-11-28)
      The ever-increasing wireless applications and services has generated a huge demand for the RF spectrum. The strict and rigid policy of spectrum management by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has rendered spectrum a valuable resource. The disproportion in the usage of spectrum between the licensed primary users (PUs) and the enormous unlicensed secondary users (SUs) in the band has created spectrum scarcity. This imbalance can be alleviated by the Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) based on Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) paradigm by significantly improving the efficiency of spectrum utilisation of the wireless networking systems. DSA enables unlicensed secondary users (SUs) also known as cognitive radios (CRs) to sense the spectral environment and access the licensed spectrum opportunistically without causing any interference to the licensed primary users (PUs). Spectrum sensing is the most prominent capability of CRs to effectively detect the presence or absence of licensed primary users (PUs) in the band. Sensing provides protection to primary users (PUs) from interference and creates opportunities of spectrum access to secondary users (SUs). However, scanning the spectrum continuously is critical and power intensive. The high-power consumption in battery operated CR devices reduces device lifetime thereby affecting the network performance. Research is being carried out to improve energy efficiency and offer viable solutions for extending lifetime for wireless devices. In this thesis, the work focuses on the energy efficient spectrum sensing of CR networks. The main aim is to reduce the percentage of energy consumption in the CR system in possible ways. Primarily, the conventional energy detection (ED) and the cyclostationary feature detection (CFD) spectrum sensing mechanisms were employed to sense the spectrum. Aiming on energy efficiency, a novel history assisted spectrum sensing scheme has been proposed which utilises an analytical engine database (AED). It generates a rich data set of spectrum usage history that can be used by CRs to make efficient sensing decisions modelled using Markov chain model. The usage of sensing history in decision making, results in decreasing the frequency of spectrum scanning by the CRs thereby reducing the processing cost and the sensing related energy consumption. It shows 17% improvement in energy saving compared to the conventional sensing scheme. The key performance parameters such as probability of miss detection (PMD), probability of false alarm (PF) and probability of detection (PD) were investigated using ROC curves. Extensive performance analysis is carried out by implementing two traditional sensing schemes ED and CFD in terms of computational cost and energy consumption and shows 50% improvement in effective energy saved by using history assisted spectrum sensing mechanism. Further, to address the high energy consumption during communication between CRs / stations (STAs) and the base station (BS), a novel energy efficient Group Control Slot allocation (GCSA) mac protocol has been proposed. Publish/Subscribe (PUB-SUB) and point-to-point messaging models have been implemented for data communication between BS, STAs and AED. The proposed mac protocol increases the number of STAs to enter in to sleep mode thereby conserving the energy consumed during idle state. Furthermore, cluster based co-operative spectrum sensing (CSS) is considered for reducing the energy utilised for data communication between CRs and BS by electing a cluster head (CH) using fuzzy logic-based clustering algorithm. The cluster head (CH) collects, aggregates data from cluster members and it is only the CHs that communicate to the BS. Thus, there is no communication between individual non-CH CRs and BS, thereby significantly reducing the energy consumption and improving the network lifetime of the CR system. Extensive simulations were performed in MATLAB and results are presented for all the proposed schemes.
    • History assisted energy efficient spectrum sensing In cognitive radio networks

      Syed, Tazeen Shabana (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-11)
      The ever-increasing wireless applications and services has generated a huge demand for the RF spectrum. The strict and rigid policy of spectrum management by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has rendered spectrum a valuable resource. The disproportion in the usage of spectrum between the licensed primary users (PUs) and the enormous unlicensed secondary users (SUs) in the band has created spectrum scarcity. This imbalance can be alleviated by the Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) based on Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) paradigm by significantly improving the efficiency of spectrum utilisation of the wireless networking systems. DSA enables unlicensed secondary users (SUs) also known as cognitive radios (CRs) to sense the spectral environment and access the licensed spectrum opportunistically without causing any interference to the licensed primary users (PUs). Spectrum sensing is the most prominent capability of CRs to effectively detect the presence or absence of licensed primary users (PUs) in the band. Sensing provides protection to primary users (PUs) from interference and creates opportunities of spectrum access to secondary users (SUs). However, scanning the spectrum continuously is critical and power intensive. The high-power consumption in battery operated CR devices reduces device lifetime thereby affecting the network performance. Research is being carried out to improve energy efficiency and offer viable solutions for extending lifetime for wireless devices. In this thesis, the work focuses on the energy efficient spectrum sensing of CR networks. The main aim is to reduce the percentage of energy consumption in the CR system in possible ways. Primarily, the conventional energy detection (ED) and the cyclostationary feature detection (CFD) spectrum sensing mechanisms were employed to sense the spectrum. Aiming on energy efficiency, a novel history assisted spectrum sensing scheme has been proposed which utilises an analytical engine database (AED). It generates a rich data set of spectrum usage history that can be used by CRs to make efficient sensing decisions modelled using Markov chain model. The usage of sensing history in decision making, results in decreasing the frequency of spectrum scanning by the CRs thereby reducing the processing cost and the sensing related energy consumption. It shows 17% improvement in energy saving compared to the conventional sensing scheme. The key performance parameters such as probability of miss detection (PMD), probability of false alarm (PF) and probability of detection (PD) were investigated using ROC curves. Extensive performance analysis is carried out by implementing two traditional sensing schemes ED and CFD in terms of computational cost and energy consumption and shows 50% improvement in effective energy saved by using history assisted spectrum sensing mechanism. Further, to address the high energy consumption during communication between CRs / stations (STAs) and the base station (BS), a novel energy efficient Group Control Slot allocation (GCSA) mac protocol has been proposed. Publish/Subscribe (PUB-SUB) and point-to-point messaging models have been implemented for data communication between BS, STAs and AED. The proposed mac protocol increases the number of STAs to enter in to sleep mode thereby conserving the energy consumed during idle state. Furthermore, cluster based co-operative spectrum sensing (CSS) is considered for reducing the energy utilised for data communication between CRs and BS by electing a cluster head (CH) using fuzzy logic-based clustering algorithm. The cluster head (CH) collects, aggregates data from cluster members and it is only the CHs that communicate to the BS. Thus, there is no communication between individual non-CH CRs and BS, thereby significantly reducing the energy consumption and improving the network lifetime of the CR system. Extensive simulations were performed in MATLAB and results are presented for all the proposed schemes.
    • HIV disclosure in the workplace among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

      Adeoye, Dorcas Ibukun (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-12)
      Background: HIV/AIDS is an infectious, chronic condition that may have several physical and psychosocial consequences for those affected (Peter, 2011). Advances in HIV treatment have improved the prognosis for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and their overall health. As a result, PLWHA can be employed for longer whilst they manage their condition. There is evidence that people with infectious diseases, and especially HIV/AIDS, are being stigmatised. Stigmatisation or the fear of being stigmatised can affect the ways or whether the affected person would disclose their disease to their social or professional networks. There is currently very little known about disclosure in the workplace and especially for PLWHA who are employed in Nigeria. Main aim: This research explores HIV disclosure in the workplace among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria. Methodology: This study is into two phases: the first phase used a systematic review whilst the second phase a qualitative method. The systematic review collected and synthesised research-based evidence on HIV/AIDS disclosure in Nigeria. The qualitative approach used face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 employed PLWHA who had been diagnosed with HIV for more than six months before the time of recruitment in the study. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Main findings: Fourteen studies (n=14) met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Twenty participants (n=20) were included in the qualitative study, both male (n=7) and female iv (n=13) patients accessing HIV treatment from one hospital in Nigeria. The findings of the systematic review showed that following disclosure, a large number of respondents received support from their partners, while others reported negative reactions from their partners after the disclosure of their HIV positive status. These negative reactions included violence/assault, accusation of infidelity and divorce. Meanwhile, the qualitative findings show that PLWHA did not disclose their HIV status in the workplace and they remained in the ‘default position of non-disclosure’ because of the fear of being stigmatised, or because of concerns about their privacy and issues related to confidentiality. Some participants did not have the choice to decide whether they want to disclose in the workplace or not, because of reasons such as workplace regulation and policy, or running out of excuses. Those who disclosed their HIV positive status did so because they received workplace support/work adjustment. The workplace support/work adjustments include flexible work arrangements and requests for time off work to receive treatment in the hospital. HIV-related stigma, loss of job, and offensive remarks/gossip were reported as post-disclosure consequences in the workplace. This study showed that the reactions after HIV disclosure are not predictable both with their social or their professional networks. Conclusion: Although, no generalisable conclusions can be made from this qualitative research, this study has provided an understanding of individual’s perceptions and experiences in relation to HIV disclosure in the Nigerian workplace. This research has implications for policy, organisations and practice.
    • The Hockliffe Collection: representations of punishment in nineteenth-century stories for children

      Stenson, Sarah Elizabeth (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-07)
      This thesis records the findings of a large-scale enquiry into over four hundred individual stories for children that were published during the nineteenth century and held in the Hockliffe Collection at the University of Bedfordshire. It critically examines how punishments are deployed in early children’s literature, adopting a methodological approach that includes texts as they appear within the archive, regardless of authorship or perceptions of literary merit. Donated by the Hockliffe family, the texts generally complement the tradition that favoured didacticism and moral guidance. The primary corpus is dominated by instructional works from the pre-1850s, an area currently neglected in the existing critical field. The preference for fantasy, more imaginative and canonised works, and those produced in the Golden Age of Children’s literature at the Victorian fin de siècle, has resulted in tales with an explicit pedagogical agenda being side-lined, a shortcoming this thesis addresses. Where there are lessons, there are punishments, and their inclusion emphasises a range of tensions and fears. Interrogating these moments provides a valuable insight into the sort of issues that were prioritised in books for children during this period. The methodology combines close reading and literary analysis with qualitative data gathering, which produces a rich set of findings. The inclusion of a substantial body of texts allows a network of conflicting ideological views to emerge, that are nuanced and complex. The results of the primary stage have been examined within a theoretical framework that comprises intersectional theories of gender and class. Adopting a Foucauldian lens enriches the analysis of punishment and its relation to the distribution of power. The thesis begins with a critical examination of the Hockliffe archive itself and, through extensive research of the British Newspaper Archive, presents the rationale for its editing processes and positions the Collection as a unique resource for scholars. The second chapter explores changing attitudes towards punishment through a comprehensive study of the punishment of giants which transitioned from violent to non-violent across the century. From here, there is a detailed examination of tales that incorporate a critique of mothers who are held accountable for the failure of their sons. There follows a chapter that explores a female-specific punishment by which women and girls are stripped and ejected from the home, and the following chapter builds on the former by looking at the implications of social class on punishments that involve the demotion of middle-class characters. The final chapter explores how children, animals and punishment collide in these stories before ending with the analysis of stories that feature punitive metamorphosis. This thesis critically engages with authors, stories, issues and themes that have received minimal attention to date and enriches our understanding of children’s literature during this period. The punishments are located within their historical context, revealing some of the many ways in which children’s literature addressed socio-political concerns during this period. The literary landscape is a broad expanse and the study of these rare neglected texts fills some of the spaces in between.
    • A homecoming festival: the application of the dialogic concepts of addressivity and the awareness of participation to an aesthetics of computer-mediated textual art

      Stewart, Gavin Andrew (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2006)
      The recent history of computer-mediated textual art has witnessed a controversy surrounding the aesthetics of these texts. The practice-based research described by this thesis responds to this controversy by posing the question - Is there an aesthetic of computer-mediated textual art that can be used as the basis for a positive evaluation of contemporary practice? In exploring answers to this question, it poses three further questions that investigate the role played by materiality, participation and earlier claims for emancipation in the formation of an evaluation. This thesis develops its answer to these questions by turning first to the work of Bakhtin and the Bakhtin Circle to provide a generalised, architectonic model of meaning-making which serves as a conceptual framework for understanding computer-mediated textual art. This model describes meaning-making as a participative event between particularised individuals, which is defined, in part, by the addressivity oftheir shared utterance. This thesis then draws on the work of Ken Hirschkop to argue that the addressivity of print-mediated utterances contributed to the obscuring of participation of the reader-participant in the event of meaning-making during the period ofthe national culture of print. It also argues that this obscuring of participation had an effect on the development of democratic consciousness during this period. This thesis extends the concepts of the utterance and addressivity to describe computer-mediated textual art. It describes the historical context and the variety of aesthetic interests underpinning contemporary practice. It then argues that a sub-set of these texts exhibit a mode of addressivity that is different from the norms of the national culture of print. It draws on these differences to develop the original contribution ofthis thesis by describing an axiology (a theory of value) of computer-mediated textual art predicated on role played by their addressivity in raising awareness ofthe participation of the reader-participant in meaning-making. This thesis then illustrates the theoretical assessments derived from these questions through practice. It details the methodology employed in this research programme. It then describes the motivations for this research, the course of study, the preparatory practice and provides a social evaluation ofthe technology deployed. It argues for a 'contingent' model of practice in which the design process is framed as a reflective experiment. It then provides an analysis ofthe design process of the computer-mediated textual art work 'Homecoming' to illustrate the arguments made in thesis. This thesis concludes by placing the new axiology into the wider cultural context by arguing that it provides a valuable but non-exhaustive, nonexclusive evaluation ofthese works.
    • Household waste recycling in the UK and the Netherlands: a comparative study of Sheffield and Amsterdam

      Price, Jane Lesley (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 1996-05)
      Waste and its management is a dynamic subject that has far reaching implications. These extend beyond basic practical issues of producer responsibility and consumer behaviour, and encompass pollution and environmental problems in a global context. Economic concerns, such as scarcity of resources and the emergence of environmental issues such as sustainability, have influenced the need for a waste management strategy that will increase material re-use and recycling, and energy recovery. Increasing quantities of waste and changes in its composition have placed an ever increasing pressure on traditional disposal routes, namely landfill, giving impetus to the development of alternative management options. The emphasis on management through a waste hierarchy has resulted in a trend throughout Europe of striving towards numerical targets to induce movement away from landfill. In 1990 the UK government set a target of recycling 25% of household waste by the year 2000. The Dutch have set a general waste target to separate 65% of waste for recycling, by the year 2000. Currently, achievement of the UK target is unlikely. Explanations for this do not stem from the target being too high, as it has been illustrated in Europe and more specifically in the Netherlands, that more stringent targets are already being attained. Therefore this research is of importance in developing a greater understanding of the barriers and alternative policy incentives that exist in achieving materials reclamation and energy recovery, and aims to contribute to the development of suitable policies and strategic options. Previous research has focused on specific aspects or singular concepts within the field of waste management. Although this has proved useful in specific contexts, the results and applications have been limited. This research extends such experience further in developing a model that can link the barriers that exist with regard to the 'successful' implementation of waste management strategies. This model focuses on evaluating data gained from the case study, having identified causal relationships and underlying pressures. It introduces a way of relating national data with local data, and it is at this interface that the 'success' of a waste management strategy can be determined, or barriers to its application can be identified and policies developed to overcome such barriers. The research design has been developed within the framework of a comparative embedded case study. The methodology enables a fuller understanding of the current situation at national, regional and local level, incorporating a number of different data collection techniques. The selection of Sheffield and Amsterdam allows a greater focus on crosscultural issues with specific reference to environmental awareness, recycling behaviour and implementation strategies within each local political framework. These results can then be placed within the context of the model to identify the feasibility of policy targets, and propose modifications to the policy or strategic options available.
    • How do we raise attainment in literacy at Key Stage 3 in a supplementary school?

      Olugbaro, Margaret Iyabode Adenike (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2015-09)
      This research project is concerned with raising attainment by addressing the problems associated with literacy (reading, writing and spellings) at Key Stage 3 in the context of a supplementary school. It looks at different ways of addressing specifically identified problems associated with reading, writing and spellings by designing relevant forms of intervention and tracking progress within an emancipatory approach of the sort advocated by Freire (1970; 1972). Students’ low performance in literacy at Key Stage 3 as observed in a survey carried out by Clark, (2012, p.9-13) revealed that more than fifty per cent of Key Stage 3 students (11-13 years) do not enjoy reading or writing, and/or experience difficulties. Current legislation, the Children and Families’ Act, 2014, provides for additional funding in schools for those young people with the most serious difficulties in learning, for example those who are severely dyslexic. Around two percent of the student population receive additional support for their learning needs in this way (Wearmouth, 2012). It is obvious, therefore, that there are many students, in addition to this two percent, who require additional specialist support for their learning needs that is not available through individual resourcing in schools. The current study, albeit small-scale, indicates that students who experience difficulties in literacy can make rapid improvement in a supplementary school that is based on the principles underpinning supplementary schools in general, but, in the case of adolescents who are disengaged from literacy learning, also adopts an emancipatory approach that takes seriously their own views of their learning and the difficulties they have experienced, and supports their own agency in enhancing their literacy learning outcomes. Lessons learnt from this study can contribute to thinking around alternative approaches to re-engaging students with their literacy learning when provision is designed to engage their personal interests and the young people have a measure of control over their own learning. There may be a suggestion that high-achieving students may also benefit in this way.
    • How film education might best address the needs of UK film industry and film culture

      Fox, Neil James (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2014-02)
      This thesis reveals and explores contemporary relationships between film education, film industry and film culture within a UK context through a series of interviews, data analysis, historical research and international case studies. It highlights what appear to be binary oppositions within film such as divisions between theory and practice, industry and academia or art and entertainment and interrogates how they have permeated film education to the point where the relationship between film studies and film practice is polemical. Also, the thesis investigates how a relationship between two binary areas might be re-­engaged and it is within this context that this thesis addresses contemporary issues within UK higher education and national provision of film education. There is detailed analysis of UK film policy alongside the philosophies and practicalities of filmmaking to establish how connected the practice of filmmaking is to the film industry and national strategy. An international perspective is provided through the analysis of the film school systems in Denmark and the U.S. and this postulates potential future directions for UK film education, particularly within the university sector. A main focus of the thesis is to question film education by engaging with the voices of actual filmmakers and also via data analysis of the educational background of filmmakers as a way of developing film education. The thesis is undertaken at a time of major changes across film and higher education. Film production, distribution and consumption have undergone major technological evolution and the structures that were once in place to facilitate graduate movement into the workplace are changing and shifting. Simultaneously the identity of the university as a place of skills training or critical development is under consistent scrutiny. With this in mind this thesis seeks to engage with the potential future for film education.
    • How undergraduate students on a qualifying social work programme make sense of ethics: a phenomenological inquiry

      Cornish, Sally (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-02)
      Ethics and values have long been central to social work and to social work education, with principles of rights and social justice underpinning social work practice and accordingly, the social work ethics curriculum. In addition, and in more recent decades, ethics has undergone a period of heightened interest across the social professions. In social work, this is reflected in the burgeoning range of theoretical approaches brought to bear and the growing number and scope of professional ethical codes. However, empirical evidence suggests that despite this emphasis, ethical social work practice may be constrained in current welfare contexts, typically shaped by neoliberalism and austerity. The existing literature finds social workers responding to the challenges these characteristics present in different ways. Some appear to be compliant, or to circumvent stress by recourse to agency protocols rather than ethical reasoning. Others demonstrate resistance, while practitioners’ experiences also include stress or isolation. However, there is little research evidence about what ethics means to social work students, and less still based in the UK, meaning that the evidence-base for UK ethics education is limited. In response to this, this thesis presents a qualitative, pedagogical study that investigated how sixteen undergraduate students in England made sense of ethics. Its methodology, interpretative phenomenological analysis, is based on phenomenological, interpretative principles alongside an attention to the particular, and facilitates close attention to individual meaning and sense-making. First, second and final year students were amongst the participants and the analysis of data gleaned in individual, semi-structured interviews provided a rich picture of their ethical concerns and understandings. The results of the study indicate that for these participants, ethics can be conceptualised in three domains, each with a respective focus on identity, relationships with service users, and ways of responding to organisational demands. Emphases within and between the three domains vary across and within year group samples, with the third especially significant for participants who had undertaken practice learning in statutory settings. There, patterns of both compliance and resistance are identified, and in this regard the study’s results echo those more typical in the literature of those with qualified workers as their participants. The findings of the study contribute to the knowledge base underpinning qualifying social work education in the UK at a time when course delivery patterns are changing and social work practice and education subject to continuing external critique. They point to ways in which educators might engage meaningfully with students in order to facilitate their development into ethically aware and resilient practitioners, able to maintain value-based practice in challenging and constrained contexts. It is essential that that they do this if students, who will become the qualified practitioners of the future, are to take forward the values and ethical commitment that have long been the hallmark of the social work profession.
    • ‘How would a child see it?’ exploring the impact when a parent downloads IIOC

      Thornhill, Lisa Marie (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-05)
      This thesis explored the impact on children when their father is arrested for downloading indecent images of children (IIOC). There is existing research which identifies the risk posed by people who download IIOC, however there is no research which explores the risk fathers present to their biological children. There is limited guidance for practitioners responsible for risk management in a family setting. As such, there is a danger that families will receive inconsistent responses from intervening agencies. This is the first piece of research which specifically explored how children who have a parent who downloads IIOC are affected. An inductive thematic analysis was undertaken. Data collection involved qualitative interviews with nine fathers who had been arrested for downloading IIOC, three mothers who had children with a man arrested for downloading IIOC, one step mother in a relationship with a man who had downloaded IIOC and one 17-year-old girl whose father had been convicted of downloading IIOC. The adults in this study are connected (as a parent or step parent) with a combined total of 27 children, 19 of whom were under the age of 18. The research was underpinned by the following theoretical frameworks: resilience, risk, the social construction of childhood and symbolic interactionism. The research provides a unique insight into the journey of the child, starting from when their father is arrested, followed by exploration of what they are told (if anything) about their father’s offending and how the entire experience impacts on them. The data revealed a wide variety of risks to the child in this context, for example: the risk the child has been exposed to the images, the risk that they will be told about the offence in a way that is emotionally harmful to them, the risk either parent would attempt or commit suicide, the risk that the child has been sexually abused or will be in the future, the risk that the offence will feature in the media and the child will become isolated and bullied, the risk of harm caused by separation from their parent and the risk that the non-offending parent will not be able to cope. The families shared valuable insights about their experience of intervening agencies. The thesis concludes with recommendations for practice, policy, and the development of materials for children, as well as raising further questions which may be addressed in future research. ix policy, and the development of materials for children, as well as raising further questions which may be addressed in future research.
    • Human systems in motion: exploring the application of systemic ideas in teams navigating change

      Rød, Anne (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-10-17)
      This thesis explores how teams can constructively lead, be in and with, emergence and change, given the challenges they are faced with in today’s complex environment. By helping teams view change and changing as something that naturally occurs in their environments, combined with their own experience of change, the teams may approach, and be with change, in different ways. The title, ‘Human Systems in Motion’ speaks to the very essence of human existence; the transformational, relational and emerging nature of our beings. The target audience is leaders, teams and other practitioners in the organisational field offering an alternative approach to emergence and change processes. The research is situated in a social constructionist perspective foregrounding the meaningmaking and sense-making activities in the teams engaged with, and what awareness and possible responses and actions emerge from these. Social constructionism depicts the relational, also known as systemic processes, where the co- creation of reality is taking place inside the human interaction. Through a parallel autoethnographical account, I share my ‘come from place’ that has shaped the lens through which I – as a long-standing practitioner in the field of organisational change – view, approach and explore change in teams and organisations. It provides an overview of some of the main contributors to the theories of change to create an understanding of how change is often conducted in organisations today. Emergent approaches to the topic are explored through perspectives on systems and systemic thinking. It investigates the relevance of these ideas to teams in change, and also looks into some of the obstacles encountered in the face of emergence. The result is a model: The Wheel of Systemic Ideas. I follow three different teams, operating in different contexts but facing some kind of emerging change. Through Participatory Action Research sessions, the teams’ perception of, engagement with, and responses to, change are explored. The main and final part of the research engages the teams with the Wheel of Systemic Ideas. Each team explores its focus points in the change process, and to what extent the systemic ideas can facilitate the emerging change process. The research indicate that the model can be applied to different change topics and contexts, enabling conversations which break up binary thinking and the questions preferences for linear and normative approaches to change.
    • Hybrid energy-storage system for mobile RF energy harvesting wireless sensors

      Munir, Bilal (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2020-07)
      This thesis discusses the impact of the supercapacitor size on the performance of the mobile battery-less RF energy harvesting system. The choice of supercapacitor is crucial in mobile systems. The small supercapacitor can charge quickly and activate the sensor in a few seconds in the low-energy area but cannot provide a significant amount of energy to the sensor to do heavy energy tasks such as programming or communication with the base station. On the other hand, large supercapacitors have a sensor node for heavy energy tasks in a high-energy zone but may not be able to activate in a low energy zone. The proposed hybrid energy-storage system contains two supercapacitors of different sizes and a switching circuit. An adaptive-learning switching algorithm controls the switching circuit. This algorithm predicts the available source energy and the period that the sensor node will remain in the high-energy area. The algorithm dynamically switches between the supercapacitors according to available ambient RF energy. Extensive simulation and experiments evaluated the proposed method. The proposed system showed 40% and 80% efficiency over single supercapacitor system in terms of the amount of harvested energy and sensor coverage.
    • Hybrid light field image super-resolution and interpolation method using multi-array cameras

      Farag, Saber (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-11-02)
      Recent advances in camera technologies have led to the design of plenoptic cameras. This camera type can capture multiple images of the same scene using arrays of microlenses, where each microlens has a shifted location providing a separate view of the scene. Such a design results in a superior performance, as compared to traditional cameras, enabling multi-view or multi-focal imaging captured in a single shot. However, the main drawback of the currently available plenoptic imaging technology is limited spatial resolution, which makes it difficult to use in applications where sharpness or high-resolution is essential, such as in the film industry. Although some previous attempts have addressed this issue, they were affected by high computational complexity as well as limited interpolation factor. To resolve this, a novel light field field hybrid super-resolution method is proposed which combines two traditional methods of multi image super-resolution and hybrid single image super-resolution to create hybrid super-resolution image for efficient application to plenoptic images. Furthermore, after this combination, the output of the hybrid super-resolution image is segmented into the objects of interest. Then, super-resolution reconstruction by sparse representation is applied to super resolve the segmented image. This technique helps to increase the resolution of light field images and maintain sharpness after super-resolution. Additionally, block matching super-resolution is proposed to provide a means of enhancement for the resolution of plenoptic images by developing corresponding super-resolution methods which exploit the disparity information, estimated from the light field images, to reduce the matching area in the super-resolution process. The proposed method is denoted as block matching super-resolution super-resolution. Following on, the proposed novel super-resolution method is combined with directionally adaptive image interpolation to preserve sharpness of the high-resolution images. In addition, light field digital refocusing with the proposed super-resolution approaches can be used to record the light field and provide maximum achievable resolution. With this simplification it is easy to explain the method of refocusing and the characteristics of the performance. The complexity of the standard light field camera configuration is also taken into account. The implemented super-resolution approaches that have been proposed are used to super resolve the ‘all-in-focus’ images. This research has narrowed the knowledge gap by creating a working super-resolution and interpolation application in order to allow higher quality to all light field images captured by plenoptic cameras. The significant advantage of this application for computer vision is the super-resolved micro images or the various angles available in a single light field super resolution image which allow depth estimation. Moreover, this research demonstrates a steady gain in the peak signal to noise ratio and structural similarity index quality of the super-resolved images for the resolution enhancement factor 8x8, as compared to the most recent approaches.