• An evaluation of the implementation and practice of social prescribing

      Pescheny, Julia Vera (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-07)
      It is a current policy priority in the UK to break down the traditional divide between primary care and community services, in order to deliver continuous, integrated, and need-driven care and to provide opportunities for health professionals to respond to the wider determinants of health more effectively. Social prescribing is an example of an approach in primary care that promotes partnership working between the health and community and voluntary sector. It provides health professionals with a non-medical referral option to address the non-medical needs of patients, determining their health and wellbeing. Given that social prescribing is increasingly implemented across the UK, it is a key priority for commissioners and service providers to understand the implementation, uptake and adherence, and potential outcomes of social prescribing, as well as the existing evidence base. This study uses a mixed-methods design, reviewing previous evaluations on social prescribing to provide an overview of the evidence base. In addition, face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with health professionals, navigators, service providers, managers, and decision-makers to explore the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of the social prescribing programme in Luton. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were also held with service users of the Luton programme, to explore the factors affecting uptake and adherence to social prescribing, as well as the patient outcomes from a service user perspective. Lastly, secondary data from the Luton programme was reviewed, to analyse the change in energy expenditure and mental wellbeing for service users after the programme. The systematic literature review identified a range of service user outcomes and specific facilitators and barriers to the implementation of social prescribing, enabling increased and efficient access to available evidence. In addition, this study found that the implementation of the Luton programme was affected by operational processes, the evaluation process, communication, relationships, shared knowledge, and understanding among stakeholders, human resources, organisational readiness, and contextual factors. The uptake of social prescribing was affected by the trust in general practitioners, programme design, patient expectations, perceived need, and benefits, and fear of stigma of psychosocial problems. The support of navigators, the availability and accessibility of services, perceived benefits, and health and wellbeing of service users affected the adherence to the Luton programme. In addition, the study found that service users experienced improvements in their health related behaviours, mental wellbeing, and pain relief due to social prescribing. Lastly, the quantitative analysis showed that the Luton social prescribing programme has the potential to increase energy expenditure of participants and to activate sedentary patient groups. The iv analysis also found a statistically significant improvement in mental wellbeing postintervention. Findings of this study contribute to the development of an evidence base for social prescribing and can support policy-makers, decision-makers, and providers to improve the implementation, uptake, and adherence for social prescribing in the future. In addition, the identified gaps in the evidence base and the limitations of this study can inform future research in this field.
    • Writer-reader interaction: writer’s stance in English L1 and L2

      Darwish, Hosam (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-07)
      Stance refers to the ways academics annotate their texts to comment on the possible accuracy or creditability of a claim, the extent they want to commit themselves to it, or the attitude they want to convey to an entity, a proposition or the reader. Stance concerns writer-oriented features of interaction which can be presented by four interpersonal categories. These categories are boosters, e.g. ‘clearly’, hedges, e.g. ‘may’, self-mentions, e.g. ‘I’ and attitude markers, e.g. ‘interesting’. A big number of corpus-based studies have been conducted to analyse stance markers in both L1 and L2 writer’s transcripts from the view that texts are independent of specific contexts and outside the personal experiences of authors and audience. This view does not go along with the idea that texts are instances of interaction between the writer and their audience. Therefore, the current study sought to fill this gap in research by adopting a more subjective view through stressing the actions and perceptions of the text writers to better understand them. The aim of this study is to have a more complete picture of the writer-reader interaction by investigating the three elements of interaction: The text, the text writers and the audience. Adopting Hyland’s (2005b) Model of Interaction, a corpus of 80 discussion chapters written by both MA postgraduate Egyptian students (English L2) at Egyptian universities and their British student peers (English L1) at UK universities, were searched both electronically using the Text Inspector tool and manually by two raters to identify more than 200 stance markers in students’ academic scripts. Moreover, the study explored the perceptions of twenty of the text writers’ (both Egyptian and British) about the functions of certain stance markers and the factors that could affect their understanding and use of these linguistic features. Characteristics of successful stance-taking were suggested after interviewing four expert writers. The quantitative results found no statistically significant differences in the total number of stance markers, boosters and self-mentions used by students in the two writer groups, but the L1 corpus contained statistically significant more hedges and attitude markers than the L2 one. Furthermore, the L1 texts included noticeably more types of stance markers than the L2 scripts. vi The discourse-based interviews conducted indicated that both L1 and L2 writers were aware of the functions of stance markers. However, some of the interviewees (both L1 and L2) had narrow or even faulty conceptions of certain stance markers, e.g. possibility versus probability devices and other attitude markers, e.g. ‘important’ and ‘significant’. These features of academic discourse had not been made more conspicuous to them, and this could have affected their employment of these linguistic features. The findings revealed that in addition to the lingua-cultural aspect, writer’s personal linguistic preferences, supervisor’s and other lecturers’ feedback, previous education and instruction, and the writer’s self-confidence were key factors that have played a considerable role in students’ lexical decision-making. For instance, L2 students might have used fewer types of stance markers than L1 students due to their lack of confidence and their reluctance to use certain types of devices that they did not master or practised enough. The study, also, suggested that the higher density of stance markers is not absolutely an indication of a better ability in writing or a feature of a well-written academic text. The epistemological stance of the study and the contextual factors do play a significant role in the quantity and type of the stance markers used.
    • A multidimensional inquiry into Chinese outbound tourism to Western Europe: the visitation of Chinese millennial students to the Netherlands.

      De Vrieze-McBean, Ethel Rose (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-06-26)
      This research focuses on the multidimensionality of Chinese outbound tourism to Western Europe and particularly highlights the visitation of Chinese millennial students to the Netherlands. The contributions made to knowledge construction are first of all, to establish a propaedeutic research agenda for which this current research serves as a framework. Simultaneously, seven discernable dimensions have been identified as archetypal to the Chinese tourist, especially regarding their key interests and behaviour when visiting Western European destinations. These being competitive, demographic, economic, technological, cultural, natural and political. Within this construct, the researcher drew from Urry’s ‘The Tourist’s Gaze’, and Pearce et al., reconstruction of this, in their article in Tourism Recreation Research on “Puzzles in Understanding Chinese Tourist Behaviour: Towards a Triple-C Gaze”, to create the Quadruple-C Gaze in depicting the Chinese millennial tourist’s behaviour. (Quadruple-C is in reference to Confucianism, Capitalism, Communism, and Consumerism). The latter is a proposition for the establishment of a propaedeutic research agenda, which is derived from this study. In exercising an interpretative research methodology, the researcher attempted to gain a comprehensive understanding of the key interests of Chinese millennial tourists to the Netherlands and juxtapose them to Chinese millennial students as tourists to the Netherlands. At the same time, an investigation was carried out into the implications of these visits for the Dutch tourism industry as well as the Dutch higher education board. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among experts from the Dutch tourism industry as well as from the Dutch higher education board and experts from Dutch universities. Likewise, focus groups meetings were held among five different groups of Chinese millennial students from universities in the Netherlands as well as students from a university in China. Data was also generated from discourse analysis. The outcome of the thematic analysis performed resulted in seven pronounced themes, which are: the cultural values of Chinese millennial travellers; their motivations for visiting the Netherlands; the Netherlands and its higher educational institutes; Chinese millennial students in the Netherlands; the travel interests and behaviours of Chinese millennial students in/through Europe; the Chinese millennial students and their surroundings; and the implications of Chinese millennial students on their exhibited behaviour and on the Netherlands. A future propaedeutic research agenda is therefore proposed that examines “The Quadruple-C Gaze of Chinese outbound tourism and its relevance in defining the key interests and behaviour of the Chinese millennial tourists from second-and-third-tier VIII A Multidimensional Inquiry into Chinese Outbound Tourism to Western Europe: The Visitation of Chinese Millennial Students to The Netherlands cities in China”. In carrying out such a study, three relatively innovative methodologies are suggested: Complexity Theory, which is a set of concepts that attempts to explain a complex phenomenon not explainable by traditional or mechanic theories. The second is via Visual Analysis, which applies graphic prompts to assess the motivational considerations that guide visitors from different cultural backgrounds to select their travel destination(s). And thirdly, by way of Netnography - a current research method that uses online conversations as data. By applying one or more of the above-mentioned methodologies, a fresh insight will be gained into the quadruple-C gaze of Chinese millennial tourists from second and third-tier cities from Mainland China. Finally, when approaching China as a prospective source market for Chinese millennial tourists/students, both Dutch tourism providers and the Dutch higher education need to adopt a holistic approach to understanding the multi-dimensions postulated in this inquiry.
    • ‘How would a child see it?’ exploring the impact when a parent downloads IIOC

      Thornhill, Lisa Marie (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-05)
      This thesis explored the impact on children when their father is arrested for downloading indecent images of children (IIOC). There is existing research which identifies the risk posed by people who download IIOC, however there is no research which explores the risk fathers present to their biological children. There is limited guidance for practitioners responsible for risk management in a family setting. As such, there is a danger that families will receive inconsistent responses from intervening agencies. This is the first piece of research which specifically explored how children who have a parent who downloads IIOC are affected. An inductive thematic analysis was undertaken. Data collection involved qualitative interviews with nine fathers who had been arrested for downloading IIOC, three mothers who had children with a man arrested for downloading IIOC, one step mother in a relationship with a man who had downloaded IIOC and one 17-year-old girl whose father had been convicted of downloading IIOC. The adults in this study are connected (as a parent or step parent) with a combined total of 27 children, 19 of whom were under the age of 18. The research was underpinned by the following theoretical frameworks: resilience, risk, the social construction of childhood and symbolic interactionism. The research provides a unique insight into the journey of the child, starting from when their father is arrested, followed by exploration of what they are told (if anything) about their father’s offending and how the entire experience impacts on them. The data revealed a wide variety of risks to the child in this context, for example: the risk the child has been exposed to the images, the risk that they will be told about the offence in a way that is emotionally harmful to them, the risk either parent would attempt or commit suicide, the risk that the child has been sexually abused or will be in the future, the risk that the offence will feature in the media and the child will become isolated and bullied, the risk of harm caused by separation from their parent and the risk that the non-offending parent will not be able to cope. The families shared valuable insights about their experience of intervening agencies. The thesis concludes with recommendations for practice, policy, and the development of materials for children, as well as raising further questions which may be addressed in future research. ix policy, and the development of materials for children, as well as raising further questions which may be addressed in future research.
    • An investigation into assessing ESL learners pragmatic competence at B2-C2 levels

      Ficzere, Edit (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-04-30)
      As the number of overseas students and employees in English-speaking countries has increased exponentially over the last decade, the importance of pragmatic competence in the successful social integration of L2 speakers has been highlighted and the need for assessing it has become more pressing. Most currently available pragmatic tests are based on Speech Act Theory as a theoretical framework and use discourse completion tasks as test instruments. However, both of these have been criticized lately for overlooking the importance of the discursive side of pragmatics, which requires the use of on-line processing skills (see e.g. Roever, 2011). The aim of this research was, therefore, to contribute towards the assessment of B2-C2 level learners’ pragmatic competence in extended oral discourse by identifying some criterial features defining the level of B2-C2 ESL learners’ pragmatic competence and by examining the extent to which a monologic and a dialogic task format allows these learners to display aspects of their pragmatic competence. Data were collected from thirty international university students at B2-C2 levels with a range of L1 backgrounds, who performed four monologic and two dialogic test tasks. This was then followed by a semistructured interview to gain the participants’ perspectives on the given contexts. Performance of the tasks was video recorded, transcribed and analysed quantitatively, using selected coding categories from Blum-Kulka et al. (1989) and Barron (2003), as well as qualitatively using a Conversation Analytic framework. The results indicate that with increasing language competence ESL learners used a wider range of pragmalinguistic devices and used them more frequently. The data from the semi-structured interviews also highlighted that with increasing proficiency there was a greater depth of analysis of the different contexts. However, the comparison of participants’ evaluation of the contexts and their actual language use indicated that only C2 level participants had the capacity to adjust their language to reflect their pragmatic intentions.
    • Performance and practice in higher education: an ethnomethodological study of everyday academic work.

      Bolam, Caroline (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-03)
      It is widely accepted that Higher Education (HE) has gone through significant changes within the last sixty years. The effects of such phenomena as managerialism, marketization and performativity are well documented in the literature (Deem et al 2007, Molesworth et al 2011, Hussey and Smith 2010, Bell et al 2009). Often, such terms are introduced and accepted as truth without fully exploring what such phenomena really mean to the members of that community. However, policy and purpose (impact) may differ from practice, as illustrated by Weider (1974). This research uses ethnomethodology (EM) as its focus, to explore this issue further. EM is a method of inquiry which concentrates on the members’ methods to understand how they make meaning of their work environment through their daily practices. This research applies a documentary approach to lecturing, to see it as a document of accomplishment. It also draws on the method of conversation analysis (CA) and examines discussions with academic members of two post 1992 universities, which are seen to be the most affected by the neoliberal phenomena mentioned. This is to understand how they accomplish their performance of being an academic. The use of EM allows a greater appreciation of the shared understanding of the use of the social space of the university and how the organisational daily objectives are achieved by its members. Evidence from this research shows that performativity (Lyotard 1984) causes misunderstandings of purpose, and marketized approaches have increased assymetries in student-academic interactions.
    • Independent dancers and the choreographic process: a study into the working conditions of the 21st century dancer

      Farrer, Rachel (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-03)
      The UK independent dance sector is generating increasing interest from within the academic community, with a discourse emerging that is concerned with the work of those working in self-employed capacities as dancers. This role often involves varied responsibilities spanning performance, choreographic, teaching and project management work, and generally means dancers working on a project basis, as opposed to being employed by a single organisation or company. The aim of this research is to better understand the working conditions of the independent sector and how dancers operate to navigate themselves within it. It focuses on how dancers use their roles as performers within different choreographic projects to support this activity, in order to feed and sustain their careers. To examine this area, I draw upon existing research and literature about the independent dance communities, in addition to writing in the fields of sociology, economics, philosophy and dance science to anchor the study, and contextualise the conditions of independent dancers’ work. An in-depth autoethnographic study was undertaken, in which I worked with three professional dancers on two choreographic projects to experience and observe their practice. The findings were furthered during interviews with a separate group of independent dancers who were questioned about their careers in the sector. Together, they provide first-hand accounts of the work that independent dancers do, interpreted through my constructivist perspective as a dancer and academic. 4 The findings provide new evidence of working conditions in the contemporary dance sector, from the dancers’ perspective. From this, a model is distilled that articulates how the dancers in this study engaged with five key areas of practice to support their roles within different chorographic projects and navigate their world of work: Adaptation, Relationships, Continued learning, Identity and Exchange. In providing new insights into independent dancers’ work, this study forges a new direction for how their roles can be understood and valued within the wider contemporary sector.
    • British Pakistani students’ experiences in multi-ethnic secondary schools in England

      Chaudhry, Javeria (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-02-08)
      Multicultural educational policies in school advocate respect for all cultures. These policies are considered important in facilitating the inclusion of students from ethnically diverse backgrounds (Banks, 2008, 2019). Multicultural policies aim to increase equality and social acceptance of minority ethnic communities by decreasing negative racial attitudes and racial inequality (Bourne, 2007; Howarth and Andreouli, 2012). Therefore, multiculturalism is a key to the development of positive attitudes amongst ethnically diverse communities and it aims to challenge and prevent racism or prejudice (Bourne, 2007). The aim of this study was to analyse experiences of British Pakistani students in schools; to investigating how the concept of multiculturalism with multicultural policies is promoted in schools, to ensure their inclusion. The situation of British Pakistanis is complicated by issues relating to how the Muslim faith is perceived, and in particular the Prevent Agenda. Both of these topics are covered within this study. This study investigated the experiences of British Pakistani students in multi-ethnic secondary schools in England in order to understand how BPS as a minority ethnic group are culturally supported and included in schools. This study focused on multiculturalism by using Banks’ (2008, 2019) theory of multiculturalism with his model of multicultural education as a conceptual framework. Hence, year 9 BPS’ experiences in relation to multiculturalism, multicultural education policies including the Prevent Agenda and FBV in three different multi-ethnic secondary schools in the East of England were explored. All three schools were multi-ethnic in nature and more than enough to provide sufficient data to do a good cross-section from schools with differing level of BPS, through student and teacher interviews, in addition to document analysis of school policies. The major findings of the research revealed that the case study schools have a positive inclusive cultural environment and the more general inclusive policies schools employ seem to meet a number of elements and dimensions that Banks (1989b, 2008, 2019) has identified in relation to multiculturalism. Findings also indicated that no single model espoused by Banks (2008, 2019) could fully capture the range of themes emerging when focusing on issues related to multiculturalism when applied to this group of students in the current context. BPS identify themselves as British Pakistani and prefer dualism/integration to carry two different cultures together. There are no concerns that Prevent is impacting on teachers in terms of the way BPS behave, and teacher training in relation to this was perceived as insignificant. BPS generally experience positive attitudes from their peers and teachers. British Values caused a variety of responses indicating lack of clarity about what British Values are, and that they are not required for the integration of BPS in schools. Overall, the findings concluded that although British Pakistani students’ needs are being met by current practices in schools, some aspects of Banks’ (2008, 2019) model could be beneficial in reducing potential issues faced by this group of students.
    • Understanding extra-judicial responses to young people’s offending; out of court disposals and ‘diversion’ in social context

      O'Brien, Katy Diana (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-02)
      This thesis explores the use out of court disposals as responses to offending by 10–17 year olds, through analysing a case study of a diversionary practice in one local authority between 2012 and 2014. The case study is made up from mixed methods data from fourteen service user interviews and a focus group of six staff who had been involved in the delivery model, which included some visual methods. There is also some data from local authority systems that provides insight into the service contact patterns of the interviewees. The data is thematically analysed using a framework based on ecological systems from Bronfenbrenner (1979) and Bourdieu’s ‘thinking tools’ (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992). The work of France et al (2012), which proposed the notion of ‘political ecology’ as useful for understanding young people’s relationship with crime, is extended to provide a framework for understanding practice that diverts young people from prosecution. The thesis contributes to knowledge by showing how ‘diversion’ includes a range of practices whose operation can be understood in terms of Bourdieu’s social fields. This data challenges a traditional construct of ‘the system’ and suggests that the notion of system entry is unhelpful for understanding the experiences of young people. Some young people emerge as having contact with a wide range of services including social care and early help and thus they can be considered to already be system involved when this broader picture is considered. Thus a notion of ‘keeping them out’ of the system, as suggested at the focus group as a rationale for offering minimal service responses, was mismatched with their experiences and their needs. There is also critical discussion of how the practice of community resolution by police without involvement from young peoples’ services can be considered as a separate field of practice and is usually understood as being outside ‘the system’. Insight is gained into the ecological worlds of service users and this offers a sense of how diversionary processes are contextualised by a range of influences, which are analysed by applying the notion of political ecology. Many of these young people faced considerable social adversity and very minimalist responses in the name of diversion which produced a mismatch in terms of service offers and need. Bourdieu’s thinking tools are applied to promote critical reflexivity. The mismatch is relevant to understanding ideas of labelling and how this may be understood in terms of social interaction. Insight from the reflexive analysis shows how young people attribute varying levels of significance to receiving out of court disposals and related services which is affected by social context. It is suggested that to promote desistance clarity about disposals and relatability of responses need to be promoted. Also a sense of connectedness to others stood out as important to preventive processes. There are implications for policy and practice which include a need for joined up decision-making between police and young people’s services and relationship-based practice approaches for those young people with more complexity of need.
    • Making sense of cranial osteopathy: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Banton, Amanda Louise (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-02)
      Purpose: This study arose from a praxial problem: how best to communicate with patients about the mechanism of cranial osteopathy. The problem was explored in a way that presented cranial osteopathy as a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon in the domain of healthcare practice. The resulting research question was phenomenologically inflected and was articulated as ‘What sense do osteopaths and their patients make of the phenomenon of cranial osteopathy?’ The concept of ‘sense-making’ was applied to both the manner in which osteopaths and their patients experience and understand cranial osteopathy and also the meaning that emerges in the course of giving or receiving cranial osteopathic treatment. Method: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to explore cranial osteopaths’ understanding and lived experience of their practice and to simultaneously explore patients’ understanding and lived experience of cranial osteopathy. Four cranial osteopaths who were Fellows of the Sutherland Cranial College of Osteopathy participated, as did a patient each of theirs. The cranial osteopath participants were experienced practitioners and the patient participants were people who had had positive experiences of cranial osteopathy. The participants were interviewed about their lived experience and understanding of the phenomenon of cranial osteopathy. The semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed by the researcher. The researcher kept a reflexive diary and an account of her theoretical fore-structure, in order to understand and audit the influences on her hermeneutic analysis of the data. From the data analysis, ongoing reflexion on praxis and a reading of the theoretical literature emerged three Super-Ordinate Themes and a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy. Findings: The IPA revealed that both patients and practitioners establish epistemological grounds for their sense-making about their embodied experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 1: Making sense of sense-making), that they use embodied metaphor and linguistic meta-metaphor to understand their lived experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 2: Metaphors for mechanisms), and that the mechanism of cranial osteopathy is considered by both patients and practitioners to arise from the therapeutic relationship (Super-Ordinate Theme 3: The meaningful osteopathic relationship). Conclusions: The main outcome of the study is a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy, which posits that the shared, embodied therapeutic relationship facilitates a collaborative rapport which enables the osteopath and the patient to come to an understanding of the source of the patient’s malady, and that furthermore this understanding supports the mobilisation of the physiological mechanisms of healing to ‘unconceal’ health. iv ongoing reflexion on praxis and a reading of the theoretical literature emerged three Super- Ordinate Themes and a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy. Findings: The IPA revealed that both patients and practitioners establish epistemological grounds for their sense-making about their embodied experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 1: Making sense of sense-making), that they use embodied metaphor and linguistic meta-metaphor to understand their lived experience of cranial osteopathy (Super-Ordinate Theme 2: Metaphors for mechanisms), and that the mechanism of cranial osteopathy is considered by both patients and practitioners to arise from the therapeutic relationship (Super-Ordinate Theme 3: The meaningful osteopathic relationship). Conclusions: The main outcome of the study is a hermeneutic model of cranial osteopathy, which posits that the shared, embodied therapeutic relationship facilitates a collaborative rapport which enables the osteopath and the patient to come to an understanding of the source of the patient’s malady, and that furthermore this understanding supports the mobilisation of the physiological mechanisms of healing to ‘unconceal’ health.
    • Exploration of the characteristics of German osteopaths and osteopathic physicians: survey development and implementation

      Dornieden, Ralf (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-01-30)
      i. Background Osteopathy and its practice in Germany is unregulated without nationally agreed competencies, frameworks or practice standards. The heterogeneity of practice makes it likely that there is a great variety in the nature and scope of practice. Educational programs vary greatly in length and content and no nationally agreed curriculum exists. The high number of osteopathic associations with varying political goals and perspectives suggests a fragmentation of the osteopathic community. Little formal research has been reported on standards and practice of osteopathic care in Germany. The lack of data contributes to uncertainty and makes it difficult to build a case for a more united regulated profession. ii. Purpose A series of connected studies aimed to develop an instrument to survey the osteopathic profession in Germany. The purpose was to obtain data about the characteristics of the osteopaths and osteopathic physicians and their practice in order to provide a coherent picture of the profession in Germany. iii. Methods A scoping review and appraisal of cross-sectional studies was conducted to create an overview of the literature from cross-sectional studies in the field and to identify possible survey tools usable in the German context. This phase led to the decision to develop a survey instrument specifically for the German environment which was informed by the results of the scoping review. Previous questionnaires informed the first draft of the questionnaire. Mixed methods enhanced the design of the questionnaire utilising a consensus group, cognitive interviews with stakeholders, expert rating and feedback methodologies with participants nominated by national associations. After a final online pilot test the survey was implemented in a national cross-sectional survey with the participants recruited from eight national associations. Invitations were disseminated by the associations with 2 follow-up reminders. Data were collected using the SmartSurvey® online questionnaire system. iv. Results The validated questionnaire consisted of 55 items subdivided into 8 sections and was used in a cross-sectional study with a sample group of 8,331 osteopaths and osteopathic physicians from November 2017 to February 2018. The response rate was 18.9% (n=1578), from which 1,175 were active practicing respondents who had complete data sets. Osteopaths and osteopathic physicians in Germany provide osteopathic care for a wide range of patient age groups presenting with various complaints and conditions using a variety on methods and techniques. Some differences were observed between German practice nationally and practice internationally. v. Conclusions Cross-sectional studies of osteopathic practice are commonly poorly reported and many are weak methodologically. A newly validated questionnaire has provided data on the nature of practice in Germany. There is some variability in practice between and within stakeholder osteopathic groups in Germany. There is a need for unification of the osteopathic groups and regulation to improve professional identity and to support the implementation of nationally agreed standards of practice, education and safety.
    • The beam and shadow of the spotlight: visibility and invisibility in women’s experiences of domestic violence and abuse

      Neale, Jo; University of Bedfordshire (University of Bedfordshire, 2019-01-29)
      Although it has received greater policy attention in recent years, domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a global problem that, at a national level, remains under-reported, under-prosecuted and under-convicted. The apparent ineffectiveness of policy approaches in reducing the incidence of DVA, or mitigating its social and economic costs, not least upon those directly experiencing DVA, forms the backcloth of this enquiry. The aim of the study presented in this thesis was to explore, from a feminist poststructuralist perspective, the processes by which heterosexual women enter, endure and leave abusive relationships. Using semi-structured narrative style interviews, I worked with fourteen women with a wide range of characteristics in terms of age, ethnicity, physicality, socio-economic status and the length of time elapsed since their experiences of abuse. Using Nicola Gavey’s (2005) concept of cultural scaffolding (the discourses and [hetero]normative practices that make it so difficult to identify a relationship as abusive), I examined the space between normalised heterosexual relationships and abuse and, in the process, provided a better understanding of women’s routes into DVA. I have shone a spotlight on the full range of perpetrators’ behaviours that entrap and oppress their female partners and have identified four key domains in which the tactics of the abuser work to: ensnare his victim; dismantle her previous identities; prevent her from leaving the relationship; and punish her for leaving. These include behaviours used to manipulate women’s social and support networks in order to prolong or sabotage their attempts to escape the abuse. From a feminist poststructuralist perspective, participants’ experiences of entering, enduring and leaving abusive relationships can be read as part of the wider cultural scaffolding of heteropatriarchy, which left them exposed to ensnarement and exploitation. Using Dark Triad (Paulhus 2002) as a model for conceptualising perpetrators’ manipulation of their ex-partners, their children, and professionals, I offer an alternative way of understanding men’s abuse of their female partners.
    • Random responses? understanding sexually exploited young women’s relationships with secondary school education

      Rawden, Helen Doreen (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-01-18)
      This thesis aims to explore the relationships that young women who have experienced, or have been at risk of child sexual exploitation (CSE), have had with secondary school education. Previous studies of CSE have not dealt with the effects on young women’s education during and following CSE. Therefore, the educational outcomes for this cohort of young women are poorly understood. To respond to this gap in knowledge, this thesis asks questions about the educational and labour market experiences of young women who have experienced CSE during their secondary school years. In the light of those experiences, what are the policy and practice implications, and what effect does experiencing CSE have on young women’s perceptions of their aspirations for their future. Interviews have taken place with nine young women who have experienced CSE, 16 specialist CSE voluntary sector key workers and three professionals variously working in safeguarding children and in Pupil Referral Units (PRU’s). As a result of these interviews, this study has discovered concerning levels of school exclusion and referral to PRUs among young women who experience, or who are at risk of CSE during their secondary school years. This thesis argues that the experiences of sexually exploited young women are not being taken into account when decisions are made about their education and that their right to an adequate education is not being met. A search of historical literature established that the identification of behaviour among female pupils, which can be recognised as CSE was documented in the Newsom Report (1963). A review has been undertaken to establish how far CSE policy and procedure has advanced to meet the needs of sexually exploited young women since the recommendations made by Melrose, Barrett and Brodie (1999). Conclusions have been drawn from the literature of the previous decade that there has been a lack of attention to the educational outcomes of young women experiencing CSE. Two theoretical foundations underpin this research: firstly, a Feminist Constructivist Grounded theory approach to women who have experienced sexual violence, contributing to recommendations for policy change that will benefit young women. Secondly, the thesis employs Social Pedagogy, in terms of the relationships which can be built with young women who have experienced CSE, to support their engagement with education. This is supported by consideration of the discourse on the rights of a child to an education appropriate to their needs and aspirations. This thesis concludes that young women’s education is liable to be damaged by experiencing CSE and that there is not enough knowledge to resolve this problem. Further research is required to understand what is involved in ensuring that sexually exploited young women’s rights to education are being met.
    • Assessing the feasibility of using system dynamics in the evaluation of shared service centres

      Asante, Gregory Nathaniel Sekyi (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2019-01)
      In order to make businesses more effective and efficient, various approaches have been proposed to improve business structures and processes so as to better support corporate objectives. From the 1990’s onwards, enabled by advances in computer technology, one popular approach has been to develop a Shared Service Centre (SSC), whereby various (mostly back office) activities previously organised and attached to separate business units (often) on a national / regional basis, have been consolidated into a single SSC. In common with other business process improvement / re-engineering projects, the success of these transformations have been varied with both successes and failures reported. From the available literature, it was determined that the SSC transformation process especially with regards to the use of a decision support system such as System Dynamics (SD), that will allow for experimentation by SSC implementers has not been rigorously researched or published and thus this is the gap in knowledge that this research seeks to address. This research uses a multiple paradigm / mixed method (exploratory sequential) research approach (Case Study and System Dynamics). This research contends that, given the patchy outcomes, significant cost implications and the adverse impact on organisations when the SSC Transition / Transformation process fails, the current SSC Transition approaches (methodology) have not been effective. Given that the objective of the SSC Transition approach is to ensure a smooth implementation of the proposed Shared Service Centre, this research argues that a simulation approach, grounded in systems thinking, is a credible way of examining the transformation process and evaluating both the transition methodology and the potential outcomes from that process. This research therefore proposes the use of a decision support system (System Dynamics / Simulation) perspective as a credible way of evaluating Shared Service Centres prior to designing and building them and to enhance the project management methodology for SSCs. Furthermore, the research depicts the cause / effect relationship among the SSC Critical Success Factors. Policy intervention tools can then be generated to mitigate against any adverse findings. The research findings showed that, the proposed Shared Service Centre is impacted by three main factors, the selection of a service delivery model, SSC Critical Success Factors and the SSC Phases; and that there is a cause / effect relationship among the SSC Critical Success Factors. In addition, the motives and critical success factors for organisational change were also found to be applicable to SSCs; and that during the SSC Transition phase, SSC Critical Success Factors, Staff Management and the Management of Transactional Activities were found to be important for a successful transition. A further contribution to knowledge is that the use of SD enables the testing of the SSC phenomenon in a new setting. For future research, the constructed SD model can be used as a basis for future organisational SSC Transitions and policy development.
    • HIV disclosure in the workplace among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

      Adeoye, Dorcas Ibukun (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-12)
      Background: HIV/AIDS is an infectious, chronic condition that may have several physical and psychosocial consequences for those affected (Peter, 2011). Advances in HIV treatment have improved the prognosis for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and their overall health. As a result, PLWHA can be employed for longer whilst they manage their condition. There is evidence that people with infectious diseases, and especially HIV/AIDS, are being stigmatised. Stigmatisation or the fear of being stigmatised can affect the ways or whether the affected person would disclose their disease to their social or professional networks. There is currently very little known about disclosure in the workplace and especially for PLWHA who are employed in Nigeria. Main aim: This research explores HIV disclosure in the workplace among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria. Methodology: This study is into two phases: the first phase used a systematic review whilst the second phase a qualitative method. The systematic review collected and synthesised research-based evidence on HIV/AIDS disclosure in Nigeria. The qualitative approach used face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 employed PLWHA who had been diagnosed with HIV for more than six months before the time of recruitment in the study. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Main findings: Fourteen studies (n=14) met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Twenty participants (n=20) were included in the qualitative study, both male (n=7) and female iv (n=13) patients accessing HIV treatment from one hospital in Nigeria. The findings of the systematic review showed that following disclosure, a large number of respondents received support from their partners, while others reported negative reactions from their partners after the disclosure of their HIV positive status. These negative reactions included violence/assault, accusation of infidelity and divorce. Meanwhile, the qualitative findings show that PLWHA did not disclose their HIV status in the workplace and they remained in the ‘default position of non-disclosure’ because of the fear of being stigmatised, or because of concerns about their privacy and issues related to confidentiality. Some participants did not have the choice to decide whether they want to disclose in the workplace or not, because of reasons such as workplace regulation and policy, or running out of excuses. Those who disclosed their HIV positive status did so because they received workplace support/work adjustment. The workplace support/work adjustments include flexible work arrangements and requests for time off work to receive treatment in the hospital. HIV-related stigma, loss of job, and offensive remarks/gossip were reported as post-disclosure consequences in the workplace. This study showed that the reactions after HIV disclosure are not predictable both with their social or their professional networks. Conclusion: Although, no generalisable conclusions can be made from this qualitative research, this study has provided an understanding of individual’s perceptions and experiences in relation to HIV disclosure in the Nigerian workplace. This research has implications for policy, organisations and practice.
    • Supplier collaboration for sustainability: a study of UK food supply chains

      Ali, Abdul (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-12)
      Achieving sustainability in the supply chain is not a choice but an inevitable necessity for the organisation to survive and thrive in the long run. Supplier collaboration to achieve sustainability is widely recognised but poorly studied phenomena. While there is a handful of studies that focused on collaboration for sustainability in food supply chains, only a few considered sustainable (i.e. environmental, cost and social) or Triple Bottom Line (TBL) performance, and in the context of UK food industry, there is hardly any study. Building on previous studies, this thesis addressed these concerns conceptually and empirically by: a) examining supplier collaboration for sustainable performance; b) assessing supplier collaboration for environment friendly and socially responsible practices; c) measuring environment friendly and socially responsible practices for sustainable performance; and d) validating environment friendly and socially responsible practices as the mediators for supplier collaboration and sustainable performance. To achieve these objectives, first, a structured literature review was performed and identified 61 studies that documented supplier collaboration for sustainability, and a comprehensive review was also conducted to expand the research domain. Second, underpinned by Relational View (RV) theory, a set of 17 testable hypotheses (including sub-hypotheses) were developed, and a survey method was used to collect 203 useable data from UK based food businesses who maintain collaborative relationships with their suppliers. Finally, for data analysis, Partial Least Squared- Structural Equations Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was used with SmartPLS3 software. The empirical findings validated that: a) supplier collaboration improves environmental, cost and social performance; b) supplier collaboration contributes to improved environment friendly and socially responsible practices; c) environment friendly practices enhance environmentally, cost and social performance; d) socially responsible practices have an impact on environmental and social performance, however socially responsible practices do not have an impact on cost performance; e) environment friendly and socially responsible practices mediate the relationship between supplier collaboration and sustainable performance. The results suggest that supplier collaboration enhances environment-friendly and socially responsible practices which will lead to enhanced environmental, cost and social performance. The contributions of this research to supply chain management literature are: a) to achieve sustainable performance in the food supply chain, collaboration with the suppliers is essential; b) collaborating with the suppliers, firms can improve their environment friendly and socially responsible practices; c) socially responsible practices in the supply chain enhance environmental and social performance but do not improve cost performance; c) this study extends the Relational View theory (RV) from the relation-specific assets for sustainable performance to the relation-specific assets for environmentally friendly and socially responsible practices which lead to sustainable performance. This study found that inter-organisational relationship facilitates environment-friendly and socially responsible practices which will lead to improved sustainable performance. For practitioners, this study offers the sustainability framework that suggests for greater collaboration with the suppliers to improve environment-friendly and socially responsible practices which should lead to a sustainable performance in the food industry. For the policymakers, this study offers a unique proposition to encourage a collaborative environment in the supply chain to achieve sustainable performance in the food industry.
    • Leveraging contextual-cognitive relationships into mobile commerce systems

      Hooper, Mark Alan (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-12)
      Mobile smart devices are becoming increasingly important within the on-line purchasing cycle. Thus the requirement for mobile commerce systems to become truly context-aware remains paramount if they are to be effective within the varied situations that mobile users encounter. Where traditionally a recommender system will focus upon the user – item relationship, i.e. what to recommend, in this thesis it is proposed that due to the complexity of mobile user situational profiles the how and when must also be considered for recommendations to be effective. Though non-trivial, it should be, through the understanding of a user’s ability to complete certain cognitive processes, possible to determine the likelihood of engagement and therefore the success of the recommendation. This research undertakes an investigation into physical and modal contexts and presents findings as to their relationships with cognitive processes. Through the introduction of the novel concept, disruptive contexts, situational contexts, including noise, distractions and user activity, are identified as having significant effects upon the relationship between user affective state and cognitive capability. Experimental results demonstrate that by understanding specific cognitive capabilities, e.g. a user’s perception of advert content and user levels of purchase-decision involvement, a system can determine potential user engagement and therefore improve the effectiveness of recommender systems’ performance. A quantitative approach is followed with a reliance upon statistical measures to inform the development, and subsequent validation, of a contextual-cognitive model that was implemented as part of a context-aware system. The development of SiDISense (Situational Decision Involvement Sensing system) demonstrated, through the use of smart-phone sensors and machine learning, that is was viable to classify subjectively rated contexts to then infer levels of cognitive capability and therefore likelihood of positive user engagement. Through this success in furthering the understanding of contextual-cognitive relationships there are novel and significant advances that are now viable within the area of m-commerce.
    • Parental involvement behaviours and attainment: student perceptions in FE

      Darnell, Judith Alexandra (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-12)
      Research into parental involvement and links with attainment have been well documented for young children. However, parental influences for FE college-aged (16+) students have rarely been investigated in the UK. The project was based on investigating student perceptions of parental involvement within one FE college in South East England, and as such represented a case study. It involved 240 level three learners. The FE college at the focus of this project is clear through its “Parental Involvement Strategy Document” that parental engagement directly influences student attainment. However, this research project challenged this assumption and investigated student perceptions of parental involvement in respect to attainment. The project used mixed-methods to accomplish four aims. These were: 1. To investigate students’ perceptions of Parental Involvement Behaviours (PIB) regarding its influence on attainment and to identify similarities and differences between students’ perceptions and college policy/practice and inspectorate views. 2. To examine associations between student outcomes (UCAS points) and both a) reported PIB and b) the factors of student age, gender, ethnicity, cultural capital and course. 3. To identify if students of different ages, ethnic group, gender and course respond differently to questions about their PIB and, if so, whether the difference in response to Likert scale items is statistically significant or not. 4. To establish whether the quantitative and qualitative data gathered from the investigation of student perceptions of PIB discovers distinct models of student experiences and, if so, whether these reflect the hypothesised categories of DAPSS (Directive, Authoritarian, Parenting Support Style), PAPSS (Passive, Affable Parenting Support Style), NEAV (Negative Expectations, Aspirations and Values) and PEAV (Positive Expectations, Aspirations and Values) (or not) and also whether these models have an association with attainment (or not). Students voiced appreciation for independence and autonomy in relation to ownership for learning in FE and the project found that intrinsic motivation was more likely to associate with grades than external factors (such as parental involvement). Although there were individual PIB that appeared to associate with student attainment (respect, trust, high expectations and aspirations) this relationship is likely to be more complex since when these behaviours were grouped together as a model of experience (called ‘Clarified Independence’) the association with attainment was less apparent. Additionally, the idea of ‘causation’ and the ‘reactive hypothesis’ are deemed important when referring to high expectations and aspirations, since parental behaviours are likely to reflect prior student performance and so the link between high expectations and high attainment is more complex than it first appears. The project concludes that many parental behaviours are displayed as a result of previous student performance and so challenges the assumption that these parental behaviours can influence attainment directly, as has been reported in previous projects. Instead of devising parenting ‘styles’ as has been observed in previous research, the project presents a theory relating to ‘layers of influence’ in relation to different parental behaviours where six ‘models of student experience’ (MoSE) are highlighted for FE college students. This theory has been devised from a culmination of quantitative data and qualitative findings, which have been triangulated to demonstrate a holistic view of the complex patterns in relation to students and their perceptions of PIB. Overall, parental experiences in early childhood are more likely to have a bearing on and pave the way for influential factors in relation to high attainment, (which centres on students’ intrinsic motivation) rather than individual parental behaviours at college-stage. Additionally, the college provides mixed-messages in relation to parental involvement through its strategy document and its prospectus. There is also a mis-match between college policy and student perceptions surrounding expectations for parental involvement and its influences. A minority of students experience neglectful parental behaviours and voice their appreciation for positive connections with college tutors, who often offer emotional support in place of the parents/carers.
    • The effectiveness of a multimedia exercise programme among postpartum women with lumbopelvic pain in Taiwan

      Tseng, Pei-Ching (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-12)
      Background: A substantial number of women are affected by Lumbo Pelvic Pain (LPP) follow-ing pregnancy and childbirth. Physical exercise is indicated as a beneficial method to relieve LPP, but individual studies appear to suggest mixed findings relating to its effectiveness and do not provide sufficient evidence on their own to warrant definite conclusions about effec-tiveness. Studies examining the effectiveness of different modes of exercise instruction for postpartum women for LPP are sparse. Aim: The aim of the study was to synthesise the evidence relating to the effectiveness of var-ious exercise programmes on LPP and to assess the effectiveness and acceptability (uptake, adherence and completion rate) of an exercise programme delivered using Digital Versatile Disc (DVD), the Internet or leaflet (usual care), on LPP among postnatal women in Taiwan. Methods: Phase 1: a systemic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published be-tween January 1990 and July 2014 was conducted by searching several databases, electronic libraries and grey literature. Phase 2: a primary study (pragmatic randomised controlled trial) design with two intervention groups and a control group with outcomes measured at dis-charge period (as baseline), six weeks and four months follow-ups. The outcomes of LPP, physical endurance, exercise uptake, adherence and completion rate across the three modes of delivery were assessed. Findings: Phase 1 of the systematic review established that four RCTs met the selection crite-ria, involving 251 postnatal women. The trials included physical exercise programmes with varying components, differing modes of delivery, follow up times and outcome measures. Intervention in one trial, involving physical therapy with specific stabilising exercises, proved to be effective in reducing LPP intensity. An improvement in gluteal pain on the right side was reported in one trial and a significant difference in pain frequency in another. Phase 2 PRCT study: Of 213 pregnant women with LPP recruited, 158 took part in the trial. The women reported significant reduction in LPP in the Internet-based group (pain in the past week, p< 0.005) at six weeks postpartum. Physical endurance of DRI outcome revealed a significant result in the DVD-based group at six weeks postpartum (standing bent over a sink (p<0.008)). Acceptability of exercise interms of completion rate, adherence and uptake was not significantly different between the three groups; even though the Internet-based group undertook exercise more frequently. Conclusion: The systematic review revealed that only a few RCTs evaluated the effectiveness of exercise on LPP, and there is variability in the components of the exercise programmes, modes of delivery, follow up times and outcome measures. The trial determined that the Internet-based postpartum exercise programme was effective in reducing pain and the DVD-based exercise programme in improving disability status, in women with LPP post-pregnancy. However, the Internet-based instruction increased adherence to exercise in postpartum women. The findings have implications for developing appropriate intervention programmes.
    • Investigating types of reading used by native and non-native English readers on academic reading: an eye tracking study

      Sheraz, Safia (University of BedfordshireUniversity of Bedfordshire, 2018-11-08)
      The purpose of this research was to investigate the types of reading used by native English readers on a sampled academic reading-into-writing task. Secondly, this study investigated the types of reading used by non-native English readers on the same academic reading-into-writing task. This study also compared the similarities and differences in the types of reading done by both native and non-native English readers. In particular, the research explored how the participants read the informative and non-informative paragraphs in the academic texts. The present study used Khalifa and Weir's model of reading (2009) as a framework to map the physical evidence from the eye tracking data to investigate the types of reading done by the students in relation to careful, selective and expeditious reading. A mixed method approach, which included eye-tracking technology, stimulated recalls, interviews and observations, was used in this study. Eye movements of the participants were tracked by Tobii X2 60 eye tracker while they read the three academic texts on a computer screen to prepare for a piece of academic writing. Immediately after they had completed reading each text, stimulated recalls and interviews were held and the purpose of these stimulated recalls was to triangulate the data obtained from eye tracking. A total of 32 participants were used in this study which included 16 native English readers and 16 non-native English readers. The eye tracking data was analysed quantitatively through the eye tracking measures that are the words read per minute, the number of fixations, the mean fixation duration and the proportion of regressive movements (same line regressions and regressions two lines or above). Qualitatively, eye tracking data was analysed through the heat maps and gaze plots. The results from the quantitative and qualitative eye tracking data suggested that the native readers read the informative paragraphs slower than the non-informative paragraphs, but different reasons were reported by them in the stimulated recalls for adopting a specific reading type. For the non-native readers, the results from the quantitative eye tracking data suggested that they read the informative paragraphs slower than the non-informative paragraphs. On the contrary, the qualitative eye tracking data suggested that they focused on both informative and non-informative paragraphs and there were similarities in the reasons reported by non-native readers for reading the informative and the non-informative paragraphs slowly. A comparison in the types reading used by L1 and L2 readers suggested that L2 readers read the informative and the non-informative paragraphs slower than L1 readers as suggested by the words read per minute and the mean fixation duration of the participants. Native readers made more same line regressions on informative and non-informative paragraphs than the non-native readers and the proportion of regressions two lines or above made by both groups was also negligible. The qualitative eye tracking data suggested that both groups read informative and non-informative paragraphs slowly, but native readers fixated more on both types of paragraphs than non-natives, as suggested by the heat maps and gaze plots. The data from the stimulated recalls and observations also suggested that both groups read the informative and the non-informative paragraphs with attention. To the best of the researcher's knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated the types of reading of L2 participants in an academic context. It contributes a methodology for investigating the types of reading used by the L2 students by employing different eye tracking measures and the stimulated recalls. According to the researcher's knowledge, this study contributes new knowledge about the reading speed (in terms of words read per minute) and other eye tracking measures of L2 readers on an academic reading-into-writing task. This study holds implications for the universities as the findings suggested that academic literacy skills training is required for both the native and non-native readers. The findings would also help to design preparatory tasks for the first-year undergraduates as a part of pre-sessional courses in the international universities or back in their home countries where they are trained for admission in international universities.