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  • The advantage of low and medium attractiveness for facial composite production from modern forensic systems

    Richardson, Beth H.; Brown, Charity; Heard, Priscilla; Pitchford, Melanie; Portch, Emma; Lander, Karen; Marsh, John E.; Bell, Raoul; Fodarella, Cristina; Taylor, Sarah Ashley; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2020-09-28)
    Recognition following long delays is superior for highly attractive and highly unattractive faces (cf. medium-attractive faces). In the current work, we investigated participants’ ability to recreate from memory faces of low, medium, and high physical attractiveness. In Experiment 1, participants constructed composites of familiar (celebrity) faces using the holistic EvoFIT system. When controlling for other variables that may influence face recognition (memorability, familiarity, likeability, and age), correct naming and ratings of likeness were superior for composites of low attractiveness targets. Experiment 2 replicated this design using the feature-based PRO-fit system, revealing superiority (by composite naming and ratings of likeness) for medium attractiveness. In Experiment 3, participants constructed composites of unfamiliar faces after a forensically relevant delay of 1 day. Using ratings of likeness as a measure of composite effectiveness, these same effects were observed for EvoFIT and PRO-fit. The work demonstrates the importance of attractiveness for method of composite face construction.
  • Design an asymmetrical three-beam laser interference lithography for fabricating micro- and nano-structures

    Dong, Litong; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; Liu, Mengnan; Changchun University of Science and Technology; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun Observatory (Japan Laser Processing Society, 2020-09-01)
    Multi-beam laser interference lithography (LIL) has become one of the most important techniques and shown significant advantages in the fabrication of micro- and nano-structures. Controlling inten-sity ratio of optical distributions is a key issue in LIL for fabricating micro- and nano-structures. This paper presents an asymmetrical three-beam LIL system which effectively improves the intensity ratio of optical distributions. Comparing with the symmetrical three-beam interference, the asymmetrical three-beam LIL achieved the high intensity ratio of optical distribution when producing the similar interference pattern. In addition, this system also avoids modulation patterns in multi-beam LIL sys-tems and reduces the difficulty of actual LIL processing. A fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis used to study the pattern distributions of the asymmetrical three-beam interference from frequency spectra which shows that the pattern with a high-intensity array can be obtained by adjusting the parameter settings of incident laser beams. The asymmetrical three-beam LIL system was verified through fab-ricating patterns. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analyses.
  • Application of atomic force microscope in diagnosis of single cancer cells

    Lu, Zhengcheng; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Dayou; ; University of Bedfordshire; Changchun University of Science and Technology (American Institute of Physics Inc., 2020-09-04)
    Changes in mechanical properties of cells are closely related to a variety of diseases. As an advanced technology on the micro/nano scale, atomic force microscopy is the most suitable tool for information acquisition of living cells in human body fluids. AFMs are able to measure and characterize the mechanical properties of cells which can be used as effective markers to distinguish between different cell types and cells in different states (benign or cancerous). Therefore, they can be employed to obtain additional information to that obtained via the traditional biochemistry methods for better identifying and diagnosing cancer cells for humans, proposing better treatment methods and prognosis, and unravelling the pathogenesis of the disease. In this report, we review the use of AFMs in cancerous tissues, organs, and cancer cells cultured in vitro to obtain cellular mechanical properties, demonstrate and summarize the results of AFMs in cancer biology, and look forward to possible future applications and the direction of development.
  • Impingement behaviour of single ethanol droplet on a liquid film of glycerol solution

    Lu, Lili; Pei, Yiqiang; Qin, Jing; Peng, Zhijun; Wang, Yuqian; Zhu, Qingyang; Tianjin University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier Ltd, 2020-05-16)
    Research on single drop impact, especially in the past two decades, has been motivated by a need for better predictive capability in many industries. However, there are few reports in the literature describing the case of single droplet impinging on liquid films with different physicochemical properties. In this study, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods were used to clarify the impingement behaviour of millimetre-sized single ethanol droplets onto films of different concentrations of glycerol solution. The impingement behaviour is found to differ depending on the Weber number of the incident droplet and the viscosity and the thickness of the liquid film. New results on coalescence/splash thresholds criteria are obtained taking into account the incident droplet Weber number and liquid film characteristics. In addition, the formation mechanism and composition of secondary droplets and crown structures after collision are analysed. For the crown structure parameters, we found that the evolution of the crown height over time is affected by the combination of droplet and liquid film characteristics. The maximum height and diameter of the crown are proportional to the Weber number of the incident droplet, and these parameters can be predicted by the combination of the incident droplet Weber number and the liquid film Ohnesorge number.
  • Barriers and facilitators to adherence to walking group exercise in older people living with dementia in the community: a systematic review

    Vseteckova, Jitka; Dadova, Klara; Gracia, R.; Ryan, G.; Borgstrom, Erica; Abington, J.; Gopinath, M.; Pappas, Yannis; (BioMed Central Ltd, 2020-09-21)
    Summary: Background & Aims: Evidence suggests that targeted exercise is important for people living with dementia. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesize evidence on the known barriers and facilitators to adherence to walking group exercise of older people living with dementia in the community. Methods: We have searched appropriate electronic databases between January 1990 until September 2019, in any language. Additionally, we searched trial registries (clinicaltrial.gov and WHO ICTRP) for ongoing studies. We included all study designs. Studies were excluded when participants were either healthy older people or people suffering from dementia but living in residential care. Narrative synthesis was used. Findings: 10 papers met the inclusion criteria. The narrative analysis focused on barriers, facilitators, and adherence. All studies reported on barriers and facilitators. Barriers included: bio-medical reasons (including mental wellbeing and physical ability); relationship dynamics; and socio-economic reasons and environmental issues. Facilitators included: bio-medical benefits & benefits related to physical ability; staff, group relationship dynamics and social aspect of walking group; environmental issues and individual tailoring; and participants perceptions about the walks & the program. Most studies did not provide data about adherence or attendance; where reported, adherence ranged from 47 to 89%. Conclusions: This systematic review of literature has highlighted known barriers and facilitators to adherence to walking groups type of exercise for people living with dementia in community. Carers' willingness to engage, their circumstances, perspectives and previous experiences of exercise seem to play a key role in facilitating adherence but there is little research that explores these. Also, the design, location and organisation of walking groups facilitate adherence. This reflects the need for such activities to be part of a wider 'program of care', tailored to the needs of the individual, flexible and convenient. Knowledgeable and well-trained instructors or healthcare professionals are recommended as group exercise leaders.

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