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  • Electrochemical detection of non-esterified fatty acid by layer-by-layer assembled enzyme electrodes

    Kang, Jing; Hussain, Anisah T.; Catt, Michael; Trenell, Michael I.; Haggett, Barry G.D.; Yu, Eileen Hao; Newcastle University; University of Bedfordshire (Elsevier, 2013-09-12)
    In this study, detection and measurement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration has been achieved by electrochemical method in one operation step. Multilayer films of poly(dimethyldiallyammonium chloride) (PDA) wrapped multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two enzymes acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOD) were assembled on a carbon screen printed electrode by the layer-by-layer (LbL) immobilization. The fine polymer-enzyme layers produced by the LbL method, allowed mass transport from the reactant cascading down the layers to accomplish the two-step enzyme reactions. The polymer-CNTs and enzyme modified electrode exhibited good electrocatalytical property retaining enzyme activity. Linear increase of anodic current from H2O2 produced from NEFA oxidation was observed with the increasing concentrations of oleic acid. These results indicate a promising technique for a simple, rapid one-step determination of NEFA for diabetes management.
  • Associated targets of the antioxidant cardioprotection of Ganoderma lucidum in diabetic cardiomyopathy by using open targets platform: a systematic review

    Shaher, Fahmi; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Wang, Shuqiu; Hu, Yu; Wang, Weiqun; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yao; AL-ward, Hisham; Abdulghani, Mahfoudh A. M.; Alenezi, Sattam Khulaif; et al. (Hindawi, 2020-07-25)
    Even with substantial advances in cardiovascular therapy, the morbidity and mortality rates of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) continually increase. Hence, a feasible therapeutic approach is urgently needed. Objectives. This work is aimed at systemically reviewing literature and addressing cell targets in DCM through the possible cardioprotection of G. lucidum through its antioxidant effects by using the Open Targets Platform (OTP) website. Methods. The OTP website version of 19.11 was accessed in December 2019 to identify the studies in DCM involving G. lucidum. Results. Among the 157 cell targets associated with DCM, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was shared by all evidence, drug, and text mining data with 0.08 score association. mTOR also had the highest score association 0.1 with autophagy in DCM. Among the 1731 studies of indexed PubMed articles on G. lucidum published between 1985 and 2019, 33 addressed the antioxidant effects of G. lucidum and its molecular signal pathways involving oxidative stress and therefore were included in the current work. Conclusion. mTOR is one of the targets by DCM and can be inhibited by the antioxidative properties of G. lucidum directly via scavenging radicals and indirectly via modulating mTOR signal pathways such as Wnt signaling pathway, Erk1/2 signaling, and NF-κB pathways.
  • The effect of different environmental conditions on the decision-making performance of soccer goal line officials

    Watkins, Samuel L.; Castle, Paul C.; Mauger, Alexis R.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Fitch, Natalie; Aldous, Jeffrey William Frederick; Brewer, John; Midgley, Adrian W.; Taylor, Lee (Taylor and Francis Inc., 2014-10-08)
    Goal line officials (GLO) are exposed to extreme environmental conditions when employed to officiate in professional European soccer cup competitions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of such environments on GLO decision-making ability. Thirteen male participants were exposed to three conditions: cold (-5°C, 50% relative humidity (RH)); temperate (18°C, 50% RH); and hot (30°C, 50% RH) for 90 min per condition, with a 15 min half-time break after 45 min. Decision-making ability was assessed throughout the 90 min exposure. Core and skin temperatures were recorded throughout. Decision making was improved during exposure to the temperate condition when compared with the cold (mean difference = 12.5%; 95% CI = 1.1%, 23.9%; P = 0.031). Regression analysis indicated that as skin temperature increases so does decision-making ability. Exposure to cold conditions diminished the decision-making ability of GLO.
  • Self-IQ-demodulation based compensation scheme of frequency-dependent IQ imbalance for wideband direct-conversion transmitters

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Li-Ke; Cosmas, John; Maple, Carsten; Xiong, Jian; Cobham Wireless; University of Bedfordshire; Brunel University; University of Warwick; et al. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015-09-25)
    A low cost frequency-dependent (FD) I/Q imbalance self-compensation scheme is investigated in this paper. The direct conversion transmitters are widely used in wireless systems. However, the unwanted image-frequencies and distortions are inevitably introduced into the direct conversion system. This problem is even severer in wideband systems. Therefore, the accurate estimation and compensation of I/Q imbalance is crucial. The current compensation method is based on external instruments or internal feedback path which introduces additional impairments and is expensive. This paper proposes a low cost FD I/Q imbalance self-IQ-demodulation based compensation scheme without using external calibration instruments. First, the impairments of baseband and RF components are investigated. Further, I/Q imbalance model is developed. Then, the proposed two-step self-IQ-demodulation based compensation scheme is investigated. In the first step of the scheme, the local oscillator (LO) related I/Q impairments parameters are estimated. Then in the second step, the overall FD I/Q imbalance parameters are estimated by utilizing the transmitter LO. To realize this self-IQ-demodulation algorithm, this paper introduces minor modifications to the current power detector circuit. Afterwards, the estimated parameters are applied to the baseband equivalent compensator. This sophisticated algorithm guarantees low computation complexity and low cost. The compensation performance is evaluated in laboratory measurement.
  • Moderating roles of customer characteristics on the link between service factors and satisfaction in a buffet restaurant

    Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan; Di, Yun; Ramanathan, Usha (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2016-01-07)
    Purpose – In service sector, measuring quality of services is generally acknowledged to be difficult as it involves many psychological features. Hence, identifying the determinants of service quality and linkages with customer satisfaction is a challenging research topic. In this study, the authors take up a research study to address this challenge. The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of factors influencing customer satisfaction in the context of a Chinese buffet restaurant in the UK. Design/methodology/approach – The authors use a questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL instrument for the purpose. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the authors have found that service quality could be grouped into four main factors – service, food, ambience and price. Findings – Using multiple-regression analysis, the authors have found that food is the most significant factor influencing customer satisfaction, followed by price, ambience and service, respectively. Using a multi-group analysis, the authors have found interesting moderating roles of age, gender and annual income on the influence of the four factors on satisfaction: ambience is considered significant by male customers while it is not significant for female customers; the influence of price on satisfaction is much higher for female customers than for male customers; food and service factors are important for younger customers while price is important for older customers; price is important for customers with lower levels of income but not important for high-income customers. Practical implications – These results are useful to restaurant managers in allocating appropriate levels of resources to different factors based on their contributions to customer satisfaction in order to maximize customer satisfaction efficiently and effectively. Originality/value – Analysis and findings of this research are based on the customers’ survey data of a Chinese buffet restaurant in the UK. The authors have found an interesting ranking of the importance of service factors: food followed by price, ambience and service. The results on the moderating role of customer characteristics provide newer insights in the literature on service quality. The research findings can help the hotel management to improve their service levels to attain maximum customer satisfaction.

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