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  • Effects of concurrent activation potentiation on countermovement jump performance

    Mullane, Michael; Maloney, Sean J.; Chavda, Shyam; Williams, Steven; Turner, Anthony; ; Middlesex University; University of Bedfordshire (NSCA National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2015-12-31)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of concurrent activation potentiation (CAP) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Twenty-four resistance-trained males (mean ± SD; age: 25 ± 4 years, body mass: 78.7 ± 10.3 kg) performed a CMJ on a force plate under 4 different conditions: (a) a control condition where the CMJ was performed with hands on hips and lips pursed, thus preventing jaw or fist contraction from occurring, (b) a jaw condition where the CMJ was performed with maximal contraction of the jaw, (c) a fist condition where the CMJ was performed with maximal contraction of the fists, and (d) a combined condition where the CMJ was performed with maximal contraction of both jaw and fists. Jump height (JH), peak force (PF), rate of force development (RFD), and time to peak force (TTPF) were calculated from the vertical force trace. There was no significant difference in PF (p 0.88), TTPF (p 0.96), JH (p 0.45), or RFD (p 0.06) between the 4 conditions. Effect size (ES) comparisons suggest a potential for CMJ with fist and jaw contraction (BOTH condition) to augment both PF (2.4%; ES: 0.62) and RFD (9.9%; ES: 0.94) over a normal CMJ (NORM condition). It is concluded that CAP by singular and combined contractions has no significant impact on CMJ performance; however, substantial interindividual variation in response to CAP was observed, and such techniques may therefore warrant consideration on an individual basis.
  • Review of the badminton lunge and specific training considerations

    Maloney, Sean J. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2018-08-31)
    Lunge performance is integral to performance in the sport of badminton. For the strength and conditioning coach to appropriately condition the lunge pattern, it is important that the unique demands of the badminton lunge are well understood. This article will consider the kinetics, kinematics, and different variations of the badminton lunge, identify the potential determinants of lunge performance, and highlight some of the key training considerations. It is proposed that programs designed to develop the lunge should ultimately consider 4 components: stability, strength, power, and specific endurance.
  • Train the engine or the brakes? influence of momentum on the change of direction deficit

    Fernandes, Rebecca; Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Chavda, Shyam; Maloney, Sean J.; Middlesex University (Human Kinetics, 2020-10-28)
    PURPOSE: Currently, it is unclear which physical characteristics may underpin the change of direction deficit (COD-D). This investigation sought to determine if momentum, speed-, and jump-based measures may explain variance in COD-D. METHODS: Seventeen males from a professional soccer academy (age, 16.76 [0.75] y; height, 1.80 [0.06] m; body mass, 72.38 [9.57] kg) performed 505 tests on both legs, a 40-m sprint, and single-leg countermovement and drop jumps. RESULTS: The regression analyses did not reveal any significant predictors for COD-D on either leg. "Large" relationships were reported between the COD-D and 505 time on both limbs (r = .65 to .69; P < .01), but COD-D was not associated with linear momentum, speed-, or jump-based performances. When the cohort was median split by COD-D, the effect sizes suggested that the subgroup with the smaller COD-D was 5% faster in the 505 test (d = -1.24; P < .001) but 4% slower over 0-10 m (d = 0.79; P = .33) and carried 11% less momentum (d = -0.81; P = .17). CONCLUSION: Individual variance in COD-D may not be explained by speed- and jump-based performance measures within academy soccer players. However, when grouping athletes by COD-D, faster athletes with greater momentum are likely to display a larger COD-D. It may, therefore, be prudent to recommend more eccentric-biased or technically focused COD training in such athletes and for coaches to view the COD action as a specific skill that may not be represented by performance time in a COD test.
  • “Small steps, or giant leaps?” Comparing game demands of U23, U18, and U16 English academy soccer and their associations with speed and endurance

    Smalley, Ben; Bishop, Chris; Maloney, Sean J.; Middlesex University; Queens Park Rangers Football Club (SAGE Publications Inc., 2021-05-26)
    The current study aimed to compare locomotive outputs across English U16, U18 and U23 academy soccer and investigate possible relationships with neuromuscular and aerobic capacities. Participants included 46 outfield players from an English Category Two soccer academy. Global positioning system (18 Hz) data were utilised to analyse locomotive outputs across twenty eleven-a-side matches in each age group. Maximal sprinting speed (MSS) and aerobic speed (MAS) were assessed at the beginning of the season. Absolute total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR), acceleration and deceleration workloads were higher in U18’s and U23’s vs. U16’s (g = 1.09–2.58; p < 0.05), and absolute sprinting distances were higher in U23’s vs. U16’s (g = 0.96; p < 0.05). In addition, relative HSR outputs were higher in U23’s vs. U18’s (g = 1.84–2.07; p < 0.05). Across the whole cohort, players’ MSS was positively associated with absolute HSR and sprinting distances (ρ = 0.53–0.79; p < 0.05) but not with relative parameters. MAS was positively associated with total distance, decelerations, and both absolute and relative HSR outputs (ρ = 0.33–0.56; p < 0.05). Overall, absolute locomotive outputs were significantly higher in U23’s and U18’s vs. U16’s. Locomotive outputs were also associated with maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds. Thus, training programmes should be tailored to competition demands to optimally prepare each age group for competition and reflect the increasing demands of each level of competition. Further, improving physical fitness (speed and endurance) is likely to drive greater outputs in competition.
  • Does a loaded warm-up influence jump asymmetry and badminton-specific change of direction performance?

    Yeung, Wing-Chun V.; Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Maloney, Sean J.; ; Middlesex University (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2021-01-31)
    Purpose: Previously, it has been shown that loaded warm-up (LWU) can improve change-of-direction speed (CODS) in professional badminton players. However, the effect of asymmetry on CODS in badminton players and the influence of LWU on asymmetry has not been examined. Methods: A total of 21 amateur badminton players (age 29.5 [8.4] y, playing experience 8.4 [4.2] y) completed 2 trials. In the first, they performed a control warm-up. In the second, they performed the same warm-up but with 3 exercises loaded with a weight vest (LWU). Following both warm-ups, players completed single-leg countermovement jump and badminton-specific CODS tests. Results: No significant differences between control warm-up and LWU were observed for CODS, single-leg countermovement jump, or single-leg countermovement jump asymmetry. However, small effect sizes suggested faster CODS (mean difference: −5%; d = −0.32) and lower asymmetries (mean difference: −3%; d = −0.39) following LWU. Five players (24%) experienced CODS improvements greater than the minimum detectable change while 2 (10%) responded negatively. Asymmetry was not correlated with CODS following control warm-up (ρ = .079; P = .733) but was negatively associated with CODS after LWU (ρ = −.491; P = .035). Conclusion: LWU may prove a strategy to trial on an individual basis, but generic recommendations should not be applied.

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